Strategic Plan For The Development Of The Fish & Fish Processing Industry In Trinidad & Tobago. Final Draft

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1 Strategic Plan For The Development Of The Fish & Fish Processing Industry In Trinidad & Tobago Final Draft 20 th September, 2005

2 Acknowledgements The Fish and Fish Processing Industry Team acknowledges the assistance of the Fisheries Division, CFTDI and the Advisor on Fisheries (THA), as well as, the industry stakeholders whose ideas, comments and depth of experience guided the overall strategic planning process. i

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements... i Table Of Contents... ii Executive Summary... 1 SECTION ONE 1.1 Introduction Terms Of Reference Objective Of The Assignment Scope Of Work Report Structure SECTION TWO A Framework For The Development Of The Fisheries Sector 2.1 Introduction Key Elements In The Promotion Of A Sustainable Fishing Industry The Foundations Of A Sustainable Fishing Industry Sustainable Fisheries Resources An Economically Competitive Industry A Rural / Coastal Development Agenda An Integrated Approach To Coastal & Marine Areas Management An Inclusive Approach To Management Of The Fisheries Sector SECTION THREE Environmental Scan 3.1 Recent International Developments Global Trends In Production, Utilization & Trade Developments In Fisheries Management Developments In The Global Fishing Industry A Review Of The Regional Fisheries Industry Regional Trends In Production, Utilization And Trade Challenges Common To The Region ii

4 3.2.3 The Regional Approach To Fisheries Management International Best Practice Used In Development Of The Industry Case Study THE FISHERIES SECTOR OF NEW ZEALAND SECTION FOUR The Fisheries Sector of Trinidad and Tobago 4.1 The Current State Of The Industry Fish Production, Utilization & Trade Structure Of The Sector Harvesting Component Suppliers & Service Industries Processing Component Retail Component & International Trade Aquaculture Recent Developments In The Industry An Analysis Of Key Problem Outlook For The Future Of The Fisheries Sector SECTION FIVE A Strategic Plan For The Fishing Industry 5.1 The Vision A Modern Fisheries Sector A Profitable Fishing Industry Sustainability Of The Resources An Environmentally Mindful Industry The Values Swot Analysis Strategic Goals Strategic Initiatives SECTION SIX Implementation of the Plan 6.1 Project Implementation Matrix iii

5 SECTION SEVEN Implementation of the Plan 7.1 A structure for implementing the strategic plan APPENDIX ONE Status of the Resources APPENDIX TWO Strategic Actions Table APPENDIX THREE Results Of Stakeholder Meetings APPENDIX FOUR Process Undertaken in implementing the strategic plan APPENDIX FIVE Draft Terms of Reference for FIDC CHARTS Proposed structure for the implementation of the plan FIGURES Figure 1: World Capture Fisheries Production (FAO State of World Fisheries, 2002) Figure 2: Trends in World Aquaculture Production (SOFIA Report, 2002) Figure 3: FishServe s relationship with industry organisations and government agencies Figure 4: Map of fish landing sites in Trinidad Figure 5: Map of fish landing sites in Tobago Figure 6: Throughput of Fish Production (Mt) for 1999/2000 (from Kuruvilla et al, 2002) iv

6 TABLES Table 1: Growth of Fishing Industry in terms of employment and export earnings Table 2: Value of Domestic Fish Sales In New Zealand ($million) Table 3: Sales volume and employment for the Fisheries Sub-Sectors (from Kuruvilla et al, 2002) Table 4: Future Scenarios for the Fisheries Sector v

7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In April 2004, the Government of Trinidad & Tobago under the auspices of the Prime Minister s Standing Committee on Business Development created an Industry Team comprising stakeholders from both the private and public sectors, to draft a Strategic Plan for the development of the Fish & Fish Processing Industry. In conducting this exercise, the Team reviewed strategic plans from a range of countries with well-developed fishing industries, as well as reports and studies on the fishing industry of Trinidad and Tobago. In addition to commissioning its own review of the status of the fisheries resources under national jurisdiction, the Team also conducted interviews and consultations with industry stakeholders both in Trinidad and in Tobago, and employed the services of a strategic planning consultant and a fisheries consultant to assist with the exercise. This country s fishing industry has been in existence for almost one hundred years, yet today it is an industry where opportunities and future prospects appear to be declining. Several factors may be responsible, however, the situation has been compounded by the relative lack of interest in the sector by successive Governments, and the lack of planning and limited resources invested in tackling the problems plaguing the industry. The fisheries are multi-species in nature with the majority of harvesters being artisanal or smallscale operators. There is a small fleet of industrial and semi-industrial inshore shrimp trawlers, and an emerging fleet of semi-industrial vessels, which target pelagic species in the offshore areas. Support infrastructure is generally inadequate for the inshore fleet, and non-existent for the emerging offshore fleet. Economic data for 2000 suggest that the industry contributes 9 % of agricultural GDP and 0.2% of national GDP. Total direct employment in the sector averages 6,000 persons with total landings estimated at 14,000 metric tons, and exports averaging TT$62 m. Recent reports from stakeholders however, suggest that the industry is experiencing major shortfalls in 1

8 production that have affected supply to processing plants, many of which are operating at less than full capacity, while exporters are faced with increasing prices locally and progressively smaller export shipments. A well-established fish processing sector, a lucrative tourism linked and recreational or game fishing sector, with promising offshore resources suggest that there exists potential for focused development within the industry. In addition, the inshore resource that has been the mainstay of the industry in the past can still be a supplier to the local and regional market, however sustainable management of the resource is a necessary condition for this to occur. There are however, key challenges that constrain the further development of the industry. These include: The absence of a national policy to guide development of, and investment in the sector; An inshore resource in which most of the commercially important species are overexploited; Fisheries legislation, which is outdated. The Fisheries Act (1916) is clearly inadequate to manage the fisheries, which have evolved considerably over time; A regulatory framework, which is outmoded, with almost no capacity for monitoring, enforcement and surveillance, and with, limited capability for the necessary economic and performance analyses to support development planning; Landing site infrastructure inadequate to the needs of the inshore fleets and, the lack of suitable port facilities catering to the needs of offshore vessels; Market and related facilities which are sub-standard and in urgent need of overhaul and upgrade; A general inability to meet modern food safety standards in fish handling limiting or prohibiting access to foreign markets, particularly in the case of the European Union; The absence of a unified private sector or national stakeholder body to effectively represent the needs of the sector; 2

9 The absence of a social policy for coastal fishing communities, particularly with respect to alternative or new job opportunities. An analysis of strategies employed in the development of successful fishing industries or operations both internationally and regionally indicated, that key elements of best practice included: The employment of strategies to attain sustainable fishery resources; The creation of an economically competitive industry; An inclusive or collaborative approach to management of the sector; A rural/coastal development agenda; An integrated approach to coastal and marine areas management; Based on these and other findings, the Team determined that the ultimate objective of a national strategic plan must be the emergence of a modern, profitable, sustainable and environmentally mindful fish and fish processing industry. It has determined further, that this vision can be achieved through the implementation of the following strategic interventions: Establishment of a national policy for the fisheries sector; Achievement of sustainable utilization and management of the fish resources, through the updating of fisheries legislation and the development and application of a national fisheries resource management plan; Development of a profitable and commercially viable industry, by upgrading or constructing new infrastructure at strategic locations, providing incentives and support for the development of the offshore fishery, providing increased and improved training in HACCP and quality assurance standards, developing market intelligence capability, encouraging and supporting new and value added product development, supporting initiatives for developing the game fishing and the aquaculture sub-sectors; Modernization of the governance framework of the sector through the creation of a lead agency to spearhead business development initiatives, strengthening the human resource capability within fisheries related agencies (particularly in project management, 3

10 economic analysis, marketing and information dissemination), and the creation of a unified private sector representative body with a voice in the governance process; Empowering coastal fishing communities through programmes for skills development in harvesting, handling, processing and value adding, small enterprise management, and alternative employment opportunities, while encouraging and supporting innovative business development activities, improving safety and security at sea and onshore, and improving the general standard of living and overall quality of life. The Team recognizes that achieving the objectives outlined, though challenging, are not insurmountable, providing that the political will exists to make available the resources required. Clearly, private sector stakeholders must buy into the exercise and give their full support for there to be meaningful and productive outcomes. Recognizing that no capability exists for carrying out the business development aspects of the plan, a final recommendation is made for the establishment of a Fishing Industry Development Committee, preferably housed and operating within a Fishing Industry Development Company, not only to oversee the implementation of the business development projects outlined, but also to guide long term business development within the sector. It is further recommended that the Committee, comprise representation from both the private and public sectors with majority representation and leadership (Chairman) coming from the private sector. 4

11 S E C T I O N O N E 1.1 Introduction One of the greatest challenges that Trinidad and Tobago will face over the next decade will be the diversification of the economy away from the energy sector. To this end, the Government of Trinidad and Tobago has established a Standing Committee on Business Development (SCBD) to spearhead the development of selected industries in the non-petroleum sector. One of the industries targeted for development is the fish and fish processing industry. A team comprising key stakeholders in the public and private sector was assembled to carry out a review of options for the development of a sustainable fishing industry and to draft a strategic plan for the fisheries sector for the short and medium and long term. The fishing industry and the resources on which it is based, are viewed as part of the wider agricultural sector of Trinidad and Tobago, and management and development of this subsector has traditionally been a minor addition to the responsibilities of the agencies managing the agricultural sector. As a sector, the relative contribution of agriculture to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over the period 1996 to 2002 averaged 3.3% per annum. The contribution of fisheries to agricultural GDP declined from 11.1% in 1995 to 8.1% in 2001 and the export of fish and fish preparations also showed a decline over this period 1. VISION 2020 The 2020 VISION 2 for the agricultural sector is one of a competitive sector with the capacity to sustain competitiveness by becoming resilient, adaptive, technology and market-driven. It will provide for sustainable livelihoods in the rural sector and the Food and Nutrition Security needs of the Nation. In pursuance of the vision, seven broad developmental objectives have been identified. These are as follows: Vision for Agriculture, The 2020 Vision for Agriculture, To improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. 1 From the 2020 Vision for Agriculture, The 2020 Vision for Agriculture,

12 2. To contribute to food and nutrition security on a sustained basis by increasing selfsufficiency in strategic foods. 3. To achieve and sustain a quality of life in rural communities comparable to the larger society, commensurate with their social, cultural, economic and political aspiration. 4. To contribute to the conservation of the natural environment and promote and maintain its integrity. 5. To recognize and promote the multifunctional contribution of agriculture to societal wellbeing. 6. To promote holistic development of rural communities throughout Trinidad and Tobago. 7. To contribute to the socio-economic development of rural communities through exploitation of indigenous knowledge particularly herbal/medicinal application, knowledge, skills and positive attitudes. The vulnerability of Trinidad and Tobago in terms of food security has also been emphasized and this is reflected in a high dependence on imports, exceeding 50% for numerous commodities. In 2003, the country imported approximately TT$2.1 billion worth of food and related products for human and livestock consumption. The 2020 VISION Food Security Strategy has identified strategic food groups and quantities that the country should aim to produce so as to provide the Nation with its minimum nutritional requirements in the event of a disruption in supply from imported sources. The proposed targets for the contribution of fish to protein requirements are 40% of domestic demand for marine fisheries and 40% for aquaculture. In a specific reference to fisheries, the 2020 VISION report refers to the low priority that marine fisheries development has always been accorded and recognizes the importance of fish and fish products to the nutritional status of the country. A number of basic requirements have been identified as pre-requisites for development, the key issue being the need for a comprehensive master plan to chart a developmental agenda for the sector. The report identifies the following constraints to the development of marine fisheries and aquaculture: MARINE FISHERIES ISSUES - No master plan for development - Inadequate resources to ensure compliance - Inadequacy of marketing system - Outdated legislation - Inability to enforce provisions with respect to over exploitation of coastal resources 6

13 MARINE FISHERIES ISSUES - High cost and inadequacy of funds to upgrade landing sites - Lack of systems to generate market intelligence data AQUACULTURE ISSUES - Absence of a master plan for development - Limited programmes for research and development - Absence of strategies for identification and access to export markets - Inadequacy of resources for sub-sector development - Upgrading skills and new training in specific species production - No procedures for systematic identification of suitable land - Need for upgrading and modification of marketing infrastructure ADMINISTRATION OF THE FISHERIES SECTOR The Fisheries Sector comes under the overall administration of the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, except for the island of Tobago and those areas extending six nautical miles seaward from the baselines of Tobago which are administered by the Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Tobago House of Assembly. The (Draft) Strategic Plan of the Fisheries Division 3 for set as its goals: i) Sustainable management of the fisheries resources ii) Optimal utilization of the fisheries resources to enhance social and economic benefits to the fisheries sector iii) Development of Institutional capabilities within the Fisheries Division iv) Development of partnerships in fisheries management between the Fisheries Division and stakeholders v) Diversification of income and diet through alternative means of fish production. The Tobago House of Assembly 2002 Technical Agenda for Marine Affairs and Fisheries 4 identified the following goals for the period : 3 Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Agriculture, Marine Affairs and the Environment, Tobago House of Assembly,

14 i) Facilitate access to local, regional and international markets for fish and fish products by upgrading existing fishing facilities to meet international quality assurance standards including HACCP and European Union standards ii) Provide support to the fishing industry in terms of research and development and fisheries management. iii) Control coastal erosion pertinent to the possibility of sea level rise as a result of global warming iv) Conserve and restore the coral reef ecosystems of Tobago v) Regulate and manage diving and water sport activities in Tobago 1.2 Terms Of Reference This report sets out the findings of a review of the fishing industry of Trinidad and Tobago, set within the context of regional and global developments in marine fisheries. The report was produced as a result of a strategic planning exercise carried out by members of the fish and fish processing industry team and aims to promote strategies for the effective management and development of the fishing industry OBJECTIVE OF THE ASSIGNMENT The key objective of the industry team was to draft a strategic plan for the development of the fish and fish processing industry over the short, medium and long-term SCOPE OF WORK A mandate was given to the members of the fish and fish processing team to prepare a Strategic Plan for the development of the fishing industry over for the next three to five years, and an indicative path for implementation of the Plan. Strategic recommendations were based on: A review of global and regional marine fisheries and aquaculture A review of the fishing industry of Trinidad and Tobago and the current status of the marine resources An examination of approaches to fisheries management and development in other tropical fisheries Analysis of the current issues/ key challenges facing the industry Consultation with public and private sector stakeholders in the industry 8

15 A process of strategic thinking The Strategic Plan follows a prescribed format and includes the following components: A background analysis of the sector, which includes: A review of past studies on the development of the fish and fish processing industry both internationally and locally; The development of an outlook for the industry: International Domestic An identification of international best practice used in the development of the industry; An examination of the case of Trinidad and Tobago to identify: Strengths Weaknesses Key challenges Opportunities Threats Development of a business/strategic plan for the industry. Develop a vision for the industry; Identify and analyze key problems; Set objectives; Develop strategies to overcome problems, achieve objectives and the overall vision; Design an implementation schedule for the project; Establish key indictors for monitoring and review of the process; Identify sources of funding for the implementation of the recommendations. Given the nature of the project, collaboration and consultation with key stakeholders in the industry is essential, the groups to include fishers and vessel owners, companies operating in the industry as processors, retailers and exporters, and government officials with responsibility for development of the sector. 9

16 1.3 Report Structure Executive Summary Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Introduction & Terms Of Reference A Framework For The Development Of The Fisheries Sector Key Elements In The Promotion Of A Sustainable Fishing Industry Environmental Scan International & Regional Developments In Fisheries International Best Practice Case Study The Fisheries Sector Of Trinidad & Tobago The Current State Of The Industry Recent Developments In The Industry An Analysis Of Key Problems Outlook For The Future Of The Fisheries Sector A Strategic Plan For The Fisheries Sector A Vision, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Goals & Initiatives Implementation Of The Plan Project Implementation Matrix References Appendices 10

17 S E C T I O N T W O A Framework For The Development Of The Fisheries Sector 2.1 Introduction A long term strategy for the sustainable future of the fishing industry of any country, developing or developed, should be based on sustainable management of marine resources and ecosystems, and should take account of the diverse and changing circumstances of fishing and related industries, and the social and economic development of the communities that depend on fishing activity. The strategy should guide policy formulation in government agencies with a role in the development of the fisheries sector, and private sector investment in the fishing industry and associated industries. The strategy should promote the concept of integrated coastal area management as fundamental to defining a future for the fisheries sector. The strategy should be geared to provide a basis for response to regional and international developments that affect the environment in which the fisheries sector operates. The strategy should draw on the principles and guidelines set out in the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, which is widely recognized by governments and non-governmental organizations as setting the aims for sustainable fisheries over the next few decades. 2.2 Key Elements In The Promotion Of A Sustainable Fishing Industry A sustainable fishing industry must have firm foundations in five related areas. At the heart of a strategic agenda must be the sustainability of the fisheries resources. Supporting that central objective, further themes are identified as providing the means by which sustainability of the 11

18 fisheries resources, the marine environment supporting those resources, and the fishing industry itself might best be achieved THE FOUNDATIONS OF A SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRY Sustainable Fisheries Resources An Economically Competitive Industry A Rural/ Coastal Development Agenda An Integrated Approach to Coastal and Marine Areas Management An Inclusive Approach to Management of the Fisheries Sector Sustainable Fisheries Resources a) In general, experience has shown that in the absence of effective fisheries management, fisheries resources become over-exploited. Over-exploitation is synonymous with overcapitalization, falling yields from a fishery and, ultimately, falling financial returns. Overcapacity of fishing fleets is one of the main factors responsible for unsustainable fishing effort, while a regime of open access to marine resources and inefficiency of traditional management measures have contributed to this situation. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) 6, estimates that worldwide, 47% of the main stocks or species groups are fully exploited, producing catches at their maximum sustainable limits; 18% are over-exploited with negligible prospects for increased production, and 10% are significantly depleted requiring drastic long term measures to support recovery. Increases in population and economic growth are putting additional pressures on fisheries resources as contributors to food security and providers of a social safety net. At the same time, the use of domestic fisheries to generate foreign exchange is exacerbating 5 Prime Ministers Strategy Unit, UK, Net Benefits A sustainable and profitable future for UK fishing. Fisheries Division, (Draft) Policy Directions for Marine Fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago in the1990 s World Fish Centre, Assessment, Management and Future Directions for Coastal Fisheries in Asian Countries 6 FAO 2002, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 12

19 allocation issues between artisanal and industrial fleets. Countries must therefore clarify the linkage between development activities and sustainable resource use. Key elements in ensuring the sustainability of the fisheries resources include: 1. An effective fisheries management policy; 2. Objective and reliable reporting on the status and trends in commercial fisheries production, fish populations, and social and economic performance; 3. A regulatory framework that supports good fisheries management practices; 4. Collaboration among stakeholders, including community based management systems and partnering arrangements; 5. Regional and international collaboration in the management of shared or transboundary fisheries resources. An Effective Fisheries Management Policy Ensure through proper conservation and management, that the fisheries resources are not endangered by overfishing; Ensure that the exploitation of the fisheries resources and the conduct of related activities, are consistent with ecological sustainability; Maximise economic efficiency of identified fisheries; Ensure accountability to the fishing industry and the community at large for fisheries management; Support a collaborative approach to management of the fisheries sector through a formalized system of social partnership between the government and the private sector; Support national participation in a regional or international approach to the management of shared stocks 13

20 b) The Case of Trinidad & Tobago In Trinidad and Tobago, many of the traditional coastal marine resources are either heavily exploited or over exploited. There are also problems of incidental capture of non-target species and a high level of discards of juvenile finfish. There is a general lack of information on the offshore fishery, however, there is evidence of a decline in the abundance of certain commercially valuable offshore species. The critical issues in fisheries management particularly in the coastal areas are the open access regime which permits free entry to the fisheries for nationals, and the conflicts caused through interactions between different fishing fleets; the nonselective nature of fishing gear; the need for a bilateral or regional approach to the management of shared resources; problems of surveillance and enforcement of maritime boundaries and illegal fishing activity occurring in both inshore and offshore areas; and inadequate representation and participation of stakeholders in fisheries management, resulting in a lack of support for existing management measures An Economically Competitive Industry a) A sustainable industry needs commercial strategies to ensure that it is profitable and competitive in the local, regional and global markets for fish products. Long-term profitability requires returns adequate to allow investment in new boats and equipment, wages high enough to attract and keep a skilled crew, safety in fishing operations, and sufficient reserves to enable survival through natural downturns in fish stocks and prices. Fish and fish products are at the forefront of food safety and quality improvement because they are among the most internationally traded food commodities. In 2001, global fish trade amounted to US$54,000 million, of which approximately 50% originated in developing countries. To ensure competitiveness an industry must be structured to support investment in processing and trade where international quality 14

21 control standards are applied to the method of production as well as to the final product. Additional issues such as increasing the value-added to fish products, the development of new products, niche markets and other new market opportunities must also be considered. The commercial environment should provide for:- 1. Proper management of the commercial fisheries in support of a modern economically efficient fleet; 2. Infrastructure appropriate to the landing, marketing, storage and distribution of fish; 3. Fish production and processing systems that conform to national and international quality control criteria; 4. Market intelligence and a strategy in support of investment and trade in the fisheries sector, particularly in the development of new market opportunities. b) The Case Of Trinidad & Tobago The national fishing fleet is mainly artisanal and therefore restricted in its range and capabilities. There is a small, mobile, adaptable semi-industrial fleet and an ageing industrial fleet. Over 80% of the industrial vessels are over 20 years old 7. There is little economic data and few economic analyses of the performance of the fishing sector, however recent analyses of two fisheries suggest that the operations of semi-industrial vessels are the most economically efficient 8. Artisanal fishermen are particularly vulnerable to instabilities in resource abundance and market prices, with limited access to financial support, and no access to insurance, either for themselves or for their assets. With increasing concerns about theft of engines and equipment, and at-sea piracy, fishing has become a high risk investment. 7 Kuruvilla, S. et al, 2000, Economic performance and technological features of marine capture fisheries the trawl fishery of Trinidad and Tobago 8 Martin, L et al, 2004, Economic performance and technological features of marine capture fisheries the longline fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago 15

22 Landing site infrastructure is inadequate to service the semi-industrial and industrial fleet 9. There are no ice-making facilities, little or no storage for the catch and few sites provide fuel and other basic amenities. Conditions at the sites are generally unsanitary and do not conform to public health and quality assurance standards 10. Market infrastructure is sub-standard, and poor marketing and distribution systems result in losses and a poor quality product 11. International trade in fish and fishery products out of Trinidad and Tobago is based mainly on the export of shrimp, flyingfish, snappers, swordfish, and tunas. Fishery products are exported mainly chilled or frozen, with minimal processing, so there is little value added to the product. Trinidad and Tobago has not been eligible to export to the EU since 1999 because of the lack of conformity to the required quality control criteria. There is no policy or strategy in place, to facilitate development of trade in the sector and existing administrative procedures are inefficient and onerous A Rural / Coastal Development Agenda a) Fisheries can be a sustainable, renewable resource, and for some fisheries-dependent areas, maintaining access to fishing opportunities is one of only a few viable ways of sustaining local employment and income generation. Maintaining a sustainable fishing industry can contribute to these objectives but it requires a strategic approach to ensure maximum impact and support from available mechanisms. Explicit social objectives are required for the sector. With collaboration between institutions with economic development roles, there may be opportunities in fisheries that will contribute to social policy objectives. Social policy tools should be analysed to ensure that they do not hamper the competitiveness of the industry or the good management of the stocks. 9 Jordan, C., 2002, Determination of the most appropriate landing site for the offshore fisheries sector. 10 Teemull, S., 1999 Memorandum with enclosed report on evaluation of 36 landing sites in Trinidad and Tobago by the Chemistry, Food and Drugs Department. 11 Nurse, C., 2004, A summary of fisheries infrastructure in Trinidad and Tobago with respect to fish landing, handling and storage facilities 16

23 It is important to ensure that smaller, vulnerable communities continue to have access to fishing opportunities that, with increased competition, may flow to larger ports or operators. The development of an agenda for Rural/ Coastal Fishing Communities should include: 1. An assessment of the economic and social importance of the fisheries sector to coastal fishing communities; 2. Clear objectives for enabling the most vulnerable and fishing dependent communities to maintain a local fishing industry where it can be competitive and profitable; 3. An examination of alternative employment opportunities within the fisheries sector, and in other sectors; 4. Strategies to address issues of safety and security at sea. b) The Case Of Trinidad & Tobago There is very little information available on the economic and social importance of fisheries to rural/ coastal communities in Trinidad and Tobago although many coastal communities depend either entirely or partially on fisheries for their livelihood. There are about 3000 artisanal fishermen, and small scale fishing accounts for 80% of the national fish production. For many, this is a subsistence activity, very much subject to the cycle of peaks and troughs in abundance of the resource. Fishing communities often depend on alternative sources of income during seasons of low fisheries abundance. Fishing gear is traditional, and boats are seldom outfitted with navigational aids or safety equipment. Artisanal fishermen are increasingly subject to security risks and piracy. 17

24 There are few administrative or legal controls on artisanal fishing, and limited protection from the impact of more large scale semi-industrial or industrial fishing by nationals and illegal foreign fishing vessels An Integrated Approach To Coastal & Marine Areas Management a) If coastal resource systems are to remain productive, their management requires a holistic and comprehensive approach. Integrated Coastal Area Management is a recognized tool for managing coastal areas. Coastal states should ensure that an appropriate policy, legal and institutional framework is adopted to achieve the sustainable and integrated use of the resources. Commercial fisheries are only one user of the wider marine environment, alongside recreational activities (including fishing), tourism, energy based activities, agriculture, settlements, and habitat and biodiversity protection. In view of the multiple uses of the coastal area, and the rights of coastal communities, the fisheries sector must be represented in coastal area management planning and development. The integration of fisheries within a framework of broader marine management should: 1. Maximize the overall value of using the marine environment; 2. Ensure ecosystem health, and fulfill national obligations on resource management and species protection; 3. Ensure that representatives of the fisheries sector and fishing communities are consulted in the decision-making processes and involved in other activities related to coastal area management planning and development. b) The Case Of Trinidad & Tobago 18

25 Commercial fisheries are only one user of the wider marine environment, alongside energy based activities, agriculture, settlements, tourism, and habitat and biodiversity protection. The fisheries sector is increasingly marginalised by coastal development in Trinidad, where the oil and gas sector and associated industries take precedence in the development agenda, and in Tobago, where tourism is recognized as a powerful tool for development, and there are potential areas of conflict with the fishing industry. A 1992 study of the Gulf of Paria 12 examined the threats to fisheries from pollution from a range of man made sources, including oil pollution, shipping activity, pesticides, and industrial effluent. A 1995 survey of 100 fishermen 13 from the west coast of Trinidad found one of the greatest concerns to be the impact of pollution from oil and shipping on the fisheries resources. A 2005 Report in UWItoday 14 referred to the ongoing decline of the marine environment from trace metal pollution in Chaguaramas, sewage in Port of Spain Harbour, industrial effluents at Pt. Lisas and oil in Point Fortin and calls for Holistic Development Planning to balance development aspiration and environmental needs. These issues are of increasing concern in the present trading environment where ongoing environmental monitoring of fisheries habitats, are part of the fisheries production and processing system. Statutory land use planning is conducted by the Town and Country Planning Division, under the Town and Country Planning Act, Chapter 35:01. The Act concentrates on the control of land development and does not specifically address marine areas, however, it acknowledges the need for the control of activities that will impact on the marine environment 15. The Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement) Act of 1970, and the Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement) Regulations of 1973 are conservation oriented however, the Act is currently applied only to the management of coral reefs. The 12 Boodoosingh, M., 1992 A Review of the Possible Impacts of Human Activities on Fisheries in the Coastal Waters of Trinidad With Emphasis on the Gulf of Paria 13 Ramjohn, D., 1995 Local Knowledge Survey, FAO/UNDP Project INT/91/ 007 Integrated Coastal Fisheries Management: 14 Agard, J. and J. Gobin, 2005 Gulf of Paria Heavily Polluted: Holistic development planning needed to balance development aspirations and environmental needs. UWItoday, Town and Country Planning Division, Ministry of Planning and Mobilisation, Land use planning: an important basis for sustainable development. Ministry of Planning and Mobilisation, Port of Spain: Trinidad. 13 p. 19

26 Buccoo Reef area in Tobago is the only area that has been designated a restricted area under the Act. The key agencies involved in environmental and coastal zone management are the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA), established by Act of Parliament in 1976, and the Environmental Management Authority (EMA), arising out of the Environmental Management Act No. 3 of The Act provides for management of the environment within Trinidad and Tobago and defines environment as all land, area beneath the land surface, atmosphere, climate, surface water, groundwater, sea, marine and coastal areas, sea bed, wetlands and natural resources within the jurisdiction of Trinidad and Tobago. The Act promotes an integrated approach to sustainable development and provides for environmental impact assessments, protection of natural resources, control of pollution and hazardous substances. The submission of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) by the developer and the mandatory Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC) issued by the EMA for most development activities provide opportunities for the implementation of an integrated approach to development An Inclusive Approach To Management Of The Fisheries Sector a) A strategic approach to a sustainable fishing industry will have maximum impact if all fisheries interests are willing to support the aims contained within it. Over the last decade, co-management arrangements in fisheries and coastal resource management have been widely promoted. In the Caribbean region there has also been increased interest in co-management, and new management approaches have been sought. Co-management focuses on sharing management responsibility and authority between government and stakeholders. There may be several possible arrangements. Consultative comanagement Collaborative comanagement Delegated comanagement Government lets formally organized users / stakeholders make decisions Government has the most control Government interacts often but makes all the decisions Government and the stakeholders work closely and share decisions People have most control (From Pomeroy et al, 2004) 20

27 A study in the region examined co-management projects in Belize, Barbados and Grenada and at special workshops for stakeholders in each country, the conditions supporting and constraining the implementation of co-management were identified 16. Six conditions were considered particularly important for the success of comanagement: 1. Membership is clearly defined as to who really has a stake in the fishery; 2. There is a shared recognition of a resource use problem that needs to be addressed; 3. Clear objectives for management can be defined based on the problems and interests; 4. Communication amongst the stakeholders is effective, and there is adequate networking; 5. External agents provide support for management but do not encourage dependency; 6. Management rules are enforceable by resource users and the management authority. Several conditions were found to constrain the implementation of co-management: Management approaches of government for coastal resource management are not flexible and responsive to changing circumstances There is a lack of effective leadership among fishers to guide change Group cohesion among fishers is weak and they tend to quarrel among themselves There is limited trust and mutual respect between government and fishers and, in some cases, between fishers for each other Organizational capacity of fishers is weak 16 Pomeroy, R.S. et al, 2004, Comparative analysis of coastal resources co-management in the Caribbean 21

28 Legislation providing property rights over resources and providing authority for fishers to make decisions is absent In many cases, fishers expect government to do things for them and they are reluctant to get involved in management b) Case of Trinidad & Tobago There are currently 34 fishing organizations (9 co-operatives and 25 Associations) in Trinidad and Tobago. Of these, 24 are in Trinidad and 10 in Tobago, however, these organizations are generally not well managed or effective 17. Of the two groups, the cooperatives are more organized, with formal registration with the Ministry of Labour, and management by a Board of Directors. In Trinidad, the Cedros Fishing Cooperative is the most successful maintaining a fishing complex, and operating a gas station and post-office. In Tobago where the industry is not as diverse, there has been greater success in forming a united grouping. In 1999 the All Tobago Fisherfolk Association (ATFA) was formed as a legal entity. In 1988, an umbrella organization of fisheries related groups, called the National Organisation of Fishermen and Allied Cooperatives Society Ltd.(NOFACS), was formed to coordinate the representation of the fisheries sector. The effectiveness of this organization has been severely limited by the general lack of organization at all levels in the industry, and poor representation in the fishing communities. Based on the achievements of ATFA, an umbrella organization called the Trinidad and Tobago Union of Fisherfolk (TTUF) was registered in There is a Monitoring and Advisory Committee on the fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago made up of public sector representatives and members of the fishing industry, and a National Monitoring Committee on Foreign Fishing and Related Matters (MCFF.) Both committees are chaired by the Director of Fisheries and 17 Picou-Gill, 2003, Picou-Gill, M Report on Institutional Building Conference. CARICOM Regional Fisheries Mechanism Workshop, Georgetown, Guyana. September 29-30, pp. 22

29 report to the Minister responsible for fisheries. There are concerns however that the structure and operations of the Committees are public sector driven and do little to strengthen capability within the industry. Consultation with the fishing industry is generally not ongoing, tending to be reactive to the need to resolve contentious issues that impact the livelihood of the industry. The mechanisms for ongoing consultation and information sharing are hampered by a lack of information and understanding on the part of both the industry and government officials. The existing legal framework and institutional structure do not provide for the enabling policies or legislation required to support formal co-management initiatives or to guarantee the involvement of the fishing industry in the management of the sector. 23

30 S E C T I O N T H R E E Environmental Scan 3.1 Recent International Developments GLOBAL TRENDS IN PRODUCTION, UTILIZATION & TRADE Global production from capture fisheries and aquaculture, provides more that 15% of total animal protein supplies 18 (FAO SOFIA, 2002). In 2000, marine capture fisheries were estimated at 95 million tonnes and the contribution to global supplies from aquaculture was reported at 46 million tonnes. The increase in marine capture fisheries after a period of relative stability since the early 1990 s has been attributed to China, which is by far the largest producer, at 17 million tonnes. Aquaculture production has increased from 4% of total production in 1970 to 27% in China was reported to have produced 71% of the total volume of aquaculture production. It is estimated that global demand for seafood will increase to over 160 million tones by 2020 with the increase being met mainly through an increase in aquaculture production 19. Outside of China, however, global per capita fish supply has fallen from 15 kg in 1987 to 13 kg in In recent years, after four decades of steadily expanding catches, there have been significant declines in a number of commercially important fish stocks. While for the two decades following 1950, fisheries production increased by about 6% per year, trebling from 18 to 56 million tonnes, the average rate of increase declined to 2% between 1970 and 1980, and fell to almost zero in the 1990 s. Employment in the primary capture fisheries and aquaculture production sectors has remained relatively stable since 1995, and was estimated to be about 35 million in 2000, of which 65 percent were in marine capture fisheries and 20 percent in aquaculture production. Declining catches in some of the major commercial fisheries have however cost about 100,000 jobs and the cost of fish in some local market places rose dramatically, placing fish our of reach for many low income consumers. 18 FAO 2002 State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 19 Seafood International 2004/

31 International trade in fish products increased to a new record of US$55 billion in 2000, with developing countries accounting for 50% of total exports in value terms. Net export trade from developing countries increased from US$ 10 billion in 1990 to US$18 billion in 2000 corresponding to a real growth of 45%. Developed countries accounted for more that 80% of the value of total fishery product imports, with Japan, the EC and the United States as the main importers. Figure 1: World Capture Fisheries Production (FAO State of World Fisheries, 2002). Figure 2: Trends in World Aquaculture Production (SOFIA Report, 2002) 25

32 3.1.2 DEVELOPMENTS IN FISHERIES MANAGEMENT In recent years, world fisheries have become a market-driven, dynamically developing sector and coastal States have striven to take advantage of new opportunities by investing in modern fishing fleets and factories in response to the growing international demand for fish and fish products. It was clear that unregulated fisheries on the high seas, in some cases involving straddling and highly migratory fisheries which occur within and outside EEZ s were becoming a matter of concern. As a result, there have been a number of international Conventions and Agreements to manage these resources, and increasing emphasis on the formation of international and regional fisheries management bodies. Consistent with these instruments, the FAO Governing Body in 1995, formulated a global Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries establishing principles and standards of good fisheries practice. The major global developments affecting the practice of fisheries management are as follows: 1982 United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea (UNCLOS) The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) created a new international order for global fisheries conferring on coastal states both the rights of access to marine resources in a new 200 mile exclusive economic zone, and the responsibility for conservation and management of these resources. It conferred on Trinidad and Tobago, archipelagic status and gave the country jurisdiction over a maritime area of approximately 75,000 km, or almost 15 times the land area Rio Declaration Subsequent to UNCLOS, there has been increasing global concern about the depletion of fish stocks and the collapse of major commercial fisheries. This has been attributed to a combination of factors including over capacity of fishing fleets, pollution, environmental degradation, and habitat loss. In the 1992 Rio Declaration, States reaffirmed there commitment to pursue integrated coastal fisheries and oceans management as set out in the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), Chapter 17 of Agenda

33 1993 Compliance Agreement, 1995 Fish Stocks Agreement Over the last ten years, new approaches to fisheries management have been institutionalized by the adoption of a number of international conventions, agreements and legal instruments. Of particular importance is the 1993 Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas and the 1995 Convention on the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks which established in international law, provisions, in respect of sustainable management and conservation of fisheries resources in the high seas. Code Of Conduct On Responsible Fisheries In 1995, member states of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) adopted the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, a voluntary instrument which promotes the adoption of responsible practices in fishing and commercial practices by States at the national and regional level. The Code is a guide for States, fishing entities and all those with an interest in the fisheries sector The international plans of action (IPOA s) were developed in 1999 as a form of international voluntary agreement to manage compliance with the Code. They seek to manage and conserve on an international level, the resources of Sharks and Seabirds threatened by fishing activity, to limit and reduce the current overcapacity in the worldwide fishing fleet, and to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Environmental Issues There are serious concerns about bycatch and discards in major commercial fisheries particularly where protected species such as dolphins and turtles have been affected. There is also increasing emphasis on the importance of a holistic approach to managing fisheries resources. It requires good-quality, relevant data on fish populations, the ecosystem and fishery dynamics and interactions, and may involve collaboration with neighbouring States or fishing nations who share these resources. 27

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