Global Warming is not a hoax. It s textbook physics. Textbook Energy Balance. Balance & Radiation. Textbook Radiation. Textbook Greenhouse Effect

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1 Global Warming is not a hoax. It s textbook physics. It is requires only textbook science from basic principles that are well understood. Ch.2! Textbook Energy Balance Energy In = Energy Out + Sources - Sinks FS = FL FL FS Earth Sun How do we know this? First Law of Thermodynamics Rudolf Clausius 1850 William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) 188 From Minnesotans for Global Warming Ch.3! Textbook Radiation Balance & Radiation More Infrared Radiation = Higher Temperature FL= σtsurf FS = FL FL FS Earth Sun It s the same law that night vision goggles use! How do we know this? Stefan-Boltzmann Law Josef Stefan 187 Ludwig Boltzmann 188 Max Planck 1901 Greenhouse gassesearth s can beblanket: The Greenhouse Effect thought of as a How a greenhouse Carbon works Blanket H2O and CO2 in the atmosphere act like the glass windows absorbing infrared energy emitting heat FL FS = σtsurf Tsurf -18 C or 0 F That s too cold! What did we forget? FS = 239 W m-2 Tsurf Ch.12! (and 217c) Textbook Greenhouse Effect FL FS + Fghg= σtsurf Tsurf 15 C or 59 F Tyndall measured how with CO (and H2O). increases + Aerosols FS CO2+ Fghg Tsurf How do we know this? The Greenhouse Effect of CO2 Joseph Fourier 182 John Tyndall 1858 Svante Arrhenius

2 The Textbook Equations Greenhouse Effect 25 C = 15 C W Mo ar re m G er HG Pl an et FS + Fghg= σtsurf Tsurf 15 C or 59 F 5 C What are Aerosol Particles? How long do particles stay in the atmosphere? Rain is big enough to fall 20 μm to 5 mm Aerosol particles are too small to fall one-millionth of a meter <1 μm ~100 μm Rain" Husar and Shu, 1976" Compare: Human hair" What are Aerosols? Aerosol Spray Cans Aerosol Particles Which one would you like to sit in on a hot day? White Reflects Energy Black Absorbs Energy We call this the white house effect The less black, the less absorption 2

3 Then 31% of the Sun s energy will be reflected back to space Now, imagine the Earth is a big car with different colors Incoming solar radiation Outgoing reflected energy Fs (αp~31%) S0 = 36 W m-2 The White House Effect + Aerosols + Land Clouds and Aerosols act like the white car reflect energy back to space FS = S0*(1-αp) = 36*(1-0.31) = 239 W m-2 31 March 2005 More sunlight is reflected Less infrared is emitted Temperature decreases 15 C 5 C 5 C Aerosol Effects on Climate Aerosol direct effect: Global Warming and Climate RH<100% Particle scattering increased albedo more scattering less scattering more humid What we know What we don t know CO2 traps sunlight energy Will temperature increase like a blanket Atmospheric CO2 has increased in the 20th century, like a thicker blanket RH>100% more scattering Earth s Tsurf increases Cloud albedo effect: More droplets increased reflectance more particles 15 C W Mo ar re m G er HG Pl an et Now αp is about 0.31 If we increase aerosols = 25 C αp less scattering Greenhouse Effect S0(1- αp) + Fghg= σtsurf Tsurf 15 C25 Cor 59 F l so et ro an A e Pl e r or le M oo C = l so et ro an A e Pl e r or le M oo C = 5 C Fghg White House Effect S0(1- αp) + Fghg= σtsurf Tsurf 15 C or 59 F 15 C The Greenhouse Effect The Textbook Model White House Effect 25 C CO2+ Adapted from K.N.Liou, 1992; Aerosol effects from IPCC 2001; How Aerosols Keep Planet Cool Tbb Outgoing absorbed energy FI (infrared) like a person under blanket Aerosols cause cooling could it be enough to offset warming? In 20 years? In 100 years? In California? In Siberia? Will sea level rise? Less sea ice? Which species will adapt? What migrations will result? Will aerosol changes cause Less rain? Less snow? 3

4 Lecture Ch. 3a Types of transfers Radiative transfer and quantum mechanics Kirchoff s law Blackbody radiation Planck s radiation law Wien s displacement law Stefan-Boltzmann law Curry and Webster, Ch. 3 pp For today: Read Ch. 3 and Ch. 12 pp For Monday, 10/17: Homework Ch. 3, pp.9-95:#1,2,3; Read Ch. What are the 3 ways heat can be transferred? Radiation: transfer by electromagnetic waves. Conduction: transfer by molecular collisions. Convection: transfer by circulation of a fluid. Curry and Webster: Energy Radiation Conduction Advection Scalars Diffusion Advection Image from: lecture_radiation_energy_concepts.html#radiation Scalar Transport Mass conservation A continuity equation expresses a conservation law by equating a net flux over a surface with a loss or gain of material within the surface. Continuity equations often can be expressed in either integral or differential form. Energy Transport Thermodynamic changes with time Transport Thermodynamic changes with transport Sun - our star the source of most of our energy Solar Spectrum For the entire earth, climate can be explained by: 1) the amount of sunlight received and 2) the character of the surface receiving it.

5 Radiation Laws - Black Body Radiation Several physical laws describe the properties of electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by a perfect radiator, a so-called black body. By definition, at a given temperature, a black body absorbs all radiation incident on it at every wavelength and emits all radiation at every wavelength at the maximum rate possible for a given temperature; No radiation is reflected. A blackbody is therefore a perfect absorber and a perfect emitter. Radiation Laws - Black Body Radiation The term black body can be misleading because the concept does not refer to color. Objects that do not appear black may none the less be be blackbodies, perfect radiators. Most gases are not blackbodies (see instead Kirchoff s Law) Both the Sun and the Earth closely approximate perfect radiators, so that we can apply blackbody radiation laws to them. We'll discuss 2 laws for blackbody radiation, 1) Wien's displacement law 2) Stefan-Boltzmann law. Peak Area Under Curve Radiation Laws - Wien's Displacement Law Although all known objects emit all forms of electromagnetic radiation, the wavelength of most intense radiation is inversely proportional to the T. ( 1/T) Implications: Sun ~ 6000 deg Kelvin Earth 288 deg Kelvin, Which will emit radiation at the longer wavelength? Earth The peak of Solar output is in the visible (light, shorter) part of the electromagnetic spectrum while the Earth, emits most of its energy in the infrared (heat, longer) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum Wien s Displacement Law Inverse dependence of wavelength on temperature This is the location of the peak! Radiation Laws - Wien's displacement law What does this mean in terms of the Earth and the Sun? Warm objects, Sun (6000 K) emit peak radiation at relatively short wavelengths (0.5 micrometers ( 1 millionth of a meter) = yellow-green visible) Colder objects Earth-atmosphere (average T of 288 K, 15 C, 59 F) emit peak radiation at longer wavelengths ( 10 microns infrared part of the spectrum) Most of the sun's energy is emitted in a spectrum from 0.15 µm to µm. 1% of it is visible, 9% is uv, 50 % infra-red. Earths radiant energy, stretches from to 100µm, with maximum energy falling at about 10.1 µm (infrared). 5

6 Radiation Laws - Stefan-Boltzmann law Would you expect the same amount of electromagnetic radiation to be emitted by the Earth and Sun? No. The total energy radiated by an object is proportional to the fourth power of it's absolute T Planck s Radiation Law Direct consequence of quantum theory F = k (T ) = Stefan-Boltzmann law. F (rate of energy emitted) k = Stefan-Boltzmann constant ( 5.67 x 10-8 Wm-2 K - ) Sun radiates at a much higher temperature than Earth.- Sun s energy output/m 2 = 160,000 that of Earth Stefan-Boltzmann Law Describes T dependence of emission This is the area under the curve! Blackbody Radiation Maximum possible emission of radiation Comparison -Earth & Sun Radiation Sun more energy & shorter wavelength Earth-lower energy and longer wavelength Solar Radiation Luminosity of the sun L 0 ~ 3.9x10 26 W (p. 331) Irradiance F=Luminosity/Area=L 0 /(πr 2 )= 6.x10 7 W/m 2 r sun =6.96x10 8 m [p. 37] Estimate blackbody radiation T BB,sun =(F/σ) 0.25 ~ 5800K σ=5.67x10-8 W m -2 K - [p. 37] Use Wien s law to evaluate λ sun ~ 0.5 µm (visible) Similarly, λ earth ~ 10 µm (infrared) for T earth ~ 300K 6

7 Wavelength Dependence From one direction Radiance and Irradiance From all directions Shortwave Solar Wavelengths 0.3- µm Longwave Terrestrial Wavelengths -200 µm Q I [W m -2 sr -1 ] Radiant energy per unit time Surface area Q F [W m -2 ] Radiant Energy Radiative Transfer Direct Parallel beam One direction Diffuse Isotropic All directions Absorption, Transmission, Reflection Energy Balance Reflected = = 30 Absorbed = = 70 Sun s energy is emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation (Radiant Energy) Radiant energy can interact with matter in 3 ways. Most often its behavior is a combination of two or more of these modes Reflection - there is no change in the matter because of the radiant energy that strikes it and it does not let the energy pass through it (i.e. it is opaque to the radiant energy), then it reflects the energy. Reflection only changes the direction of the beam of radiant energy, not its wavelength or amplitude. Transmission - matter allows radiant energy to pass through it unchanged. Again, there is no change in any of the properties of the radiant energy. Absorption energy is transferred from the radiant beam to the matter resulting in an increase in molecular energy of the matter From Cunningham & Cunningham, 200, Fig

8 Reflectivity = Albedo Reflected Energy/ Incident Energy Higher reflectivity = brighter, shinier surface (snow, ice) Lower reflectivity = darker, rougher surface (soil, sand) Water depends on the angle of the sun Kirchoff s Law Molecules absorb and emit radiation Wavelength determined by quantum mechanics (discrete) Average albedo for Earth = 30 Average albedo for moon = 7 Image from: Kirchoff s Law Emissivity and absorptivity Quiz Ch. 3 Answer briefly and clearly, with appropriate equations or diagrams. What is the approx. wavelength of energy emitted from the Earth? Name one property of blackbody radiation. What is Wien s displacement law? Draw a sketch of Plank s radiation law. What is the major difference between reflection and absorption-then-emission? Curry and Webster, Ch. 3 Lecture Ch. 3b Simplified climate model Assumptions Calculations Cloud sensitivity Effect of an atmosphere Absorption coefficient Optical thickness Heat transport Curry and Webster, Ch. 3; Ch. 12 pp ; also Liou, 1992 For today: Read Ch. For today: Homework Ch. 3, pp.9-95: 1,2,3 Energy Balance Incoming = = 133 Outgoing = = 133 From Cunningham & Cunningham, 200, Fig

9 Atmospheric Radiation Balance Incoming solar radiation 100 energy units Outgoing shortwave radiation (albedo) Backscattered by gases and aerosol Outgoing longwave radiation 22 Absorbed by H 2 O, O 3, dust, BC Reflected by clouds Emission by CO 2,O 3, H 2 O Emission by clouds Absorbed by clouds Absorbed by surface Reflected by surface Absorption by clouds, H 2 O, CO 2, O Sensible heat flux Latent heat flux Adapted from K.N.Liou, 1992; Aerosol effects from IPCC 2001; Simplified Climate Model Absorption and Emission Atmosphere described as one layer Albedo α p ~0.31: reflectance by surface, clouds, aerosols, gases Shortwave flux absorbed at surface F S =0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) Earth behaves as a black body Temperature T e : equivalent black-body temperature of earth Longwave flux emitted from surface F L =σt e Curry and Webster, Ch. 12 pp ; also Liou, 1992 Emissivity the irradiance from the body divided by the irradiance from a blackbody at the same temperature Absorptivity the amount of irradiance absorbed divided by that absorbed by a blackbody (perfect absorber). Absorption by Molecules Occurs only when incident photon has same energy as difference between two energy states States may differ in rotation, vibration or electronic Result may not be chemical, e.g. heating (GHGs) Consequences of Absorption Molecules may lose absorbed photon s energy by several mechanisms Dissociation (breaks apart) Direct reaction (excited molecule reacts with other molecule) Isomerization (internal rearrangement of bonds to make more stable) Collision (losing energy to other molecules w/o chemical changes) Internal energy transfer Luminescence (fluorescence or phosphorescence: emission of a photon) Photoionization (ejection of an electron to form an ion) Photolysis -- general word describing chemical changes from reactions initiated by light, regardless of the detailed mechanism 9

10 Atmospheric Radiation Balance Incoming solar radiation 100 energy units 22 F S = 0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) F L = σt e Outgoing shortwave radiation (albedo) Outgoing longwave radiation Simplified Climate Model Incoming shortwave = Outgoing longwave Energy absorbed = Energy emitted F S = 0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) F L = σt e F S Incident on projected disc πr 2 F L Emitted from sphere surface πr 2 F S = F L Adapted from K.N.Liou, 1992; Aerosol effects from IPCC 2001; Solar Constant Luminosity of the sun Irradiance at earth S 0 = L 0 /(πd 2 ) = 1.x10 3 W/m 2 L 0 ~ 3.9x10 26 W (p. 331) Area = πd 2 d = m (p.37) Simplified Climate Model: First 2 Assumptions Atmosphere described as one layer Albedo α p ~0.31: reflectance by surface, clouds, aerosols, gases Shortwave flux absorbed at surface F S =0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) Earth behaves as a black body Temperature T e : equivalent black-body temperature of earth F L =σt e Longwave flux emitted from surface Simplified Climate Model Incoming shortwave = Outgoing longwave Energy absorbed = Energy emitted F S = 0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) F L = σt e Energy Balance Energy In = Energy Out + Sources - Sinks Any System Earth System In +Sources Out Earth -Sinks SW F S Incident on projected disc πr 2 F L Emitted from sphere surface πr 2 At TOA : F S = F L As a 1 st approximation, there are no continuous sources or sinks of energy on Earth (only temporary storage, e.g. ocean) Energy In (Shortwave) = Energy Out (Longwave) Thermal Equilibrium is the name of this assumption 10

11 Simplified Climate Model At thermal equilibrium (what happens if not?) F S = F L 0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) = σt e T e = [0.25*S 0 (1- α p )/σ] 0.25 T e ~ 255K Observed surface temperature T = 288K What s missing? Sensitivity to Albedo What if albedo changes? T e = [0.25*S 0 (1- α p )/σ] 0.25 α p =0.31, T e ~ 255K α p =0.30, T e ~? 1% decrease in albedo warms temperature 1K 1% increase in albedo cools temperature 1K Add an Atmosphere! Atmosphere is transparent to non-reflected portion of the solar beam Atmosphere in radiative equilibrium with surface Atmosphere absorbs all the IR emission Energy Balance Energy In = Energy Out + Sources - Sinks Any System Earth System In +Sources Out Earth -Sinks SW F S F atm TOA: F S = F atm 0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) = σt atm T atm = 255K F S F atm TOA: F S = F atm 0.25*S 0 (1- α p ) = σt atm T atm = 255K F surf F atm Atmos: Fsurf = 2F atm σt surf = 2σT atm T surf = 303K F surf F atm Atmos: F surf = 2F atm σt surf = 2σT atm T surf = 303K What s (still) wrong? With no atmosphere, T surf = 255K With atmosphere, T surf = 303K From observations, T surf = 288K Real atmosphere: Not perfectly transparent to incoming solar (20 unit absorbed by atm.) Not perfectly opaque to infrared (12 unit window ) Not in pure radiative equilibrium with surface (23 units latent heat) Three assumptions were wrong -- but we got very close by adding the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere. Midterm Mon. Oct. 2 Chapters 1-, excluding ocean-specific sections Composition, Structure, State First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics Transfer Processes plus Simple Thermo Model Thermodynamics of Water In class 80 min (12:30-1:50 pm, NTV 330) Closed book Constants provided Curry and Webster, Ch. 1-11

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