Student book answers Chapter 1

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1 Chemistry C2 Unit Opener Picture Puzzler: Key Words Picture Puzzler: Close up mercury, explosion, test tube, acid, lava The key word is metal. Banded iron rock with coloured mineral layers. C2 1.1 Metals and non-metals In-text A Metals are on the left-hand side and non-metals on the right-hand side of the Periodic Table. B poor conductivity of electricity, poor conductivity of heat, dull, low density, brittle, and not sonorous C Metal oxides are basic, non-metal oxides are acidic. Most metal oxides are solids at 20 C, non-metal oxides are usually gases at 20 C. Metal or non-metal? X is a metal because of its high melting point, electrical conductivity, and basic oxide. Y is a non-metal due to its low melting point, inability to conduct electricity, and acidic oxide. Z is likely to be a metalloid, as it exhibits properties of both metals (conductivity) and non-metals (reasonably low melting point). 1 metals: sonorous, good conductors of electricity, high density, malleable, basic oxides non-metals: low melting points, dull, brittle (8 marks) 2 Element A is likely to be a metal, which means it will be (credit six of the following): good conductor of electricity, good conductor of heat, shiny, high density, malleable, ductile, sonorous. (6 marks) Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity, but non-metals are not. Metals are shiny, but non-metals are dull. The density of metals is much higher than that of nonmetals. Metals are malleable and ductile, whereas non-metals are brittle. Metals are also sonorous, whereas non-metals are not. C2 1.2 Groups and periods In-text A groups B periods Predictable patterns? Credit bar charts to show atomic radii of elements in Period 2 and Period 3. For both periods, atomic radii are larger at the start of the period (Li and Na) than at the end (F and Cl). Atomic radii decrease more rapidly at the start of a period than at the end. Atomic radii for Period 3 are larger than those of Period 2.

2 1 groups, periods, down, across (4 marks) 2 Credit suitable bar charts for density data (one for cobalt, rhodium, and iridium, and another for nickel and platinum). Credit a predicted palladium density of 9 15 g/cm3. The actual density of palladium is 10.4 g/cm3. (3 marks) 3 Example answers (6 marks): Vertical columns are called groups. Horizontal rows are called periods. Numerical data for one element can be predicted given data of surrounding elements. These elements can be neighbouring elements in periods or groups. Melting points increase down a group. Atomic radii decrease across a period. The density of elements increases down a group. C2 1.3 The elements of Group 1 In-text A Group 1 metals have lower melting points than other metals. B decreases C hydrogen Which conclusion? Credit reasonable explanations that support either Sam s or Ben s theory. A more detailed description of the pattern may be: The density of Group 1 metals increases down the group in a roughly linear fashion. Potassium is an anomaly because it has a smaller density than that of sodium. Densities of caesium and francium are required to understand the trend in Group 1 metal densities better. 1 Any five from: From top to bottom of Group 1, boiling point decreases. From top to bottom of Group 1, the vigour of the reaction with water increases. From bottom to top of Group 1, melting point increases. All Group 1 elements have low densities. All Group 1 elements conduct electricity. All Group 1 elements react with water to make hydrogen and an alkaline solution. 2a Credit appropriate bar chart, with hardness decreasing from Li to Cs. (6 marks) b Hardness decreases down Group 1. (2 marks) c 0.4, because hardness decreases by 0.1 for each element down Group 1. (2 marks) Physical properties down Group 1: decreasing hardness, decreasing melting point, decreasing boiling point. Chemical properties down Group 1: increased reactivity with water. C2 1.4 The elements of Group 7 In-text A Destroy bacteria to make water safe to drink or swim in. B fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine C Boiling points increase down Group 7. D Reactions become less vigorous down the group.

3 Better bar charts Credit correctly drawn bar charts where boiling points increase down Group 7 (from F to At). Students should offer suggestions on how to improve each other s bar charts. 1 halogens, right, non-metals, increase, less (5 marks) 2 Reactions a, c, and d will happen. In each case the Group 7 element on its own is more reactive/higher up in Group 7 than the Group 7 element in the compound. A displacement reaction occurs. (6 marks) As non-metals, Group 7 elements do not conduct electricity. They have low melting points that increase down the group. They have low boiling points that increase down the group. Fluorine and chlorine are gases, but bromine is a liquid and; iodine and astatine are solids. Reactivity of Group 7 elements decreases down the group. This means that halogens can displace metal halides in chemical reactions. C2 1.5 The elements of Group 0 In-text A helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon B Boiling points increase down Group 0. C Takes part in very few reactions. Using Group 0 Credit suitable eye-catching and persuasive adverts about the merits of using Group 0 elements or compounds in the correct product. For example, neon in advertising signs, helium in balloons, argon as insulating gas between the layers in double glazing, or krypton in lasers. 1 The noble gases are all in Group 0 of the Periodic Table. The element at the top of the group is helium. The noble gases are non-metals. They have very few reactions. From bottom to top of the group, boiling point decreases. (5 marks) 2 Melting point increases down Group 0. Credit predictions for the melting point of argon between 180 and 220 ºC. (The melting point of argon is ºC.) 3 Song or rap must include six of the following (6 marks): Melting point increases down Group 0. Boiling point increases down Group 0. They are all colourless gases at room temperature. They glow brightly when high-voltage electricity passes through them. They are all very unreactive. They are found in the atmosphere, mixed with other gases. Helium can be found with natural gas underground or under the sea.

4 C2 summary End-of-chapter 1a Going down the group from titanium to hafnium, melting point increases. (2 marks) b 1850 C (2 marks) 2a Mendeleev left gaps for elements he predicted should exist, but that had not yet been discovered. (1 mark) b Mendeleev predicted a low melting point for the missing element, and was correct in this prediction, since 30 C is a low melting point for a metal. (2 marks) c So that he could find the mean value. This value is more likely to be accurate than the value obtained from one measurement. (1 mark) d ( ) 6 = C (1 mark) e Mendeleev predicted a density of 6.0 g/cm3, and Boisbaudran measured a value of 4.7 g/cm3. Boisbaudran probably decided to do the experiment again because his value was not close to that predicted by Mendeleev. (2 marks) 3 This is a QWC question. Students should be marked on the use of good English, organisation of information, spelling and grammar, and correct use of specialist scientific terms. The best answers will provide a detailed comparison between patterns in properties of Group 1 and Group 7 elements (maximum of 6 marks). Examples of correct scientific points: Going down Group 1, the elements become more reactive. For example, the reactions with water become more vigorous. Going down Group 7, the elements become less reaction. For example, the reactions with iron become less vigorous. These patterns also apply to the reactions with oxygen and with displacement reactions. Melting points decrease going down Group 1. On the other hand, melting points increase going down Group 7.

5 Answer guide for Maths Challenge Developing Secure Extending 1 2 marks 3 4 marks 5 6 marks One or both bar charts include One Y-axis labelled correctly, but units not included. Uneven scales on y-axes on both Some bars drawn accurately on both Sentence such as Going down Group 3, density increases or Going down Group 3, boiling point decreases. One or both bar charts include Y-axis on one bar chart labelled density, but units missing. Y-axis on other bar chart labelled boiling point, but units missing. Even scales on y-axes on both Most bars plotted accurately on both One or two sentences such as Going down Group 3, density increases or Going down Group 3, boiling point decreases. Both bar charts include Y-axis on one bar chart labelled density (g/cm 3 ). Y-axis on other bar chart labelled boiling point ( C). Even scales on y-axes on both Bars plotted accurately on both Sentence such as Going down group 3, density increases for the first three elements. Several sentences such as Going down Group 3, boiling point decreases. At the top, boron has the highest value of 3930 C, and at the bottom thallium has the lowest value of 1460 C.

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