Vegetarian nutrition. Outline of this presentation. What is vegetarianism. Possible reasons for being a vegetarian. Types of vegetarians

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1 Vegetarian nutrition Georgine Leung Nutrition Scientist 5 th October 2010 Outline of this presentation What is vegetarianism Possible reasons for being a vegetarian Types of vegetarians Key messages for a healthy diet Nutrients that may be of concern Labelling 1

2 What is vegetarianism? A spectrum of dietary patterns. Possible reasons for being a vegetarian Ethical or ecological issues. Health concerns. Sensory and taste preferences. Philosophical/religious reasons. Cost. Family influences. Reactions to food safety scares. 2

3 Some types of vegetarians Demi(semi)-vegetarian Pesco-vegetarian Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-vegetarian Vegan Occasionally Occasionally Occasionally The eatwell plate Fruit and vegetables Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein Milk and dairy foods Food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar 3

4 Key messages for a healthy diet 5 A DAY. Base meals on starchy foods. Cut down on food that is high in saturated fat. Use healthier cooking methods. Eat some protein rich foods. Cut down on salt and sugar. Keep well hydrated. Ensure adequate intakes of protein, iron, calcium, Vitamins B 12 and D. Protein Needed for growth, development and repair. Essential/indispensable amino acids must be supplied by the diet. Animal protein: high biological value (HBV). Plant protein: low biological value (LBV). 4

5 Protein complementation When the amino acids of one protein compensates for the limitations of another. Rice and lentils Beans and toast Any other ideas? 5

6 Omega-3 fatty acids Needed for heart health. Good sources: oily fish. Plant sources: rapeseed, soybean, sunflower oil, flaxseeds and walnuts. Iron Needed for healthy blood and regulates metabolic processes. Animal sources (haem iron) are readily available. Plant sources (non-haem iron): pulses, green vegetables, bread and fortified breakfast cereals. 6

7 Which vitamin helps to absorb non-haem iron? a) Vitamin A. b) Vitamin C. c) Vitamin D. Calcium Needed for strong bones and teeth, regulates muscle contraction and helps blood clotting. Good animal sources: milk and dairy foods and canned fish with edible bones. Good plant sources: fortified soya drinks, tofu (beancurd) and green leafy vegetables. 7

8 Vitamin B 12 Needed for healthy blood, healthy nervous system and release energy from macronutrients. Mostly found in foods of animal origin. Good plant sources: yeast extract, fortified bread and fortified breakfast cereals. Vitamin D Needed for strong bones and muscles, and improved immune system. Mainly made by the action of sunlight on the skin during summer months. Good plant sources: fortified cereals and margarine. 8

9 Check the label There is no single legal definition of the terms vegetarian or vegan. Look out for ingredients. Useful sites The Vegetarian Society The Vegan Society 9

10 Be active How much physical activity should children and young people take part in each day? a) 15 minutes. b) 30 minutes. c) 60 minutes. For further information, go to: BNF is grateful for financial support from the Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board to enable us to develop these eseminars. 10

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