The. and its. Martin Goosey. Loughborough University

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1 The Innovative Electronics Manufacturing Research Centre and its Green Electronics Projects Martin Goosey Loughborough University

2 The Innovative Electronics Manufacturing Research Centre (IeMRC) Established in 2005 Allocated 5 million to support research in UK academia Strong industrial input in setting research agenda Currently supporting more than 30 projects Most projects have a significant industrial input

3 The IeMRC Mission To establish a Centre of Expertise through which UK industry can access and influence research in electronics manufacturing

4 Design IeMRC Research Themes Packaging, materials and technology Assembly, manufacture and test Integration of disparate technologies, including design and manufacture Reliability Business Issues Environmentally Friendly and Sustainable Electronics

5 Sustainability Meeting the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs The World Commission on Environment & Development

6 Sustainability - Business Context For businesses, sustainable development means; adopting strategies and activities that meet the needs of the enterprise and its stakeholders today while protecting, sustaining and enhancing the human and natural resources that will be needed in the future

7 Electronics and Sustainability Electronics are essential to the modern way of life Traditionally, the electronics industry has not been regarded as operating sustainably; hazardous materials and processes short product lifecycles waste during manufacture and energy in use end of life issues around waste materials, pollution etc

8 Electronic Waste - the Scale of the Problem

9 Examples of Specific Legislation Various Directives and Regulations aimed at implementing Producer Responsibility in the electronics area; WEEE Directive RoHS Directive Energy using Products Directive REACH Regulations Batteries and Accumulators Directive Packaging Waste Regulations End of Life Vehicles Directive

10 Green Electronics Objectives Encourage producers to design products that: use fewer resources reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials use greater amounts of recyclate can be more easily treated at end of life minimise waste can be reused

11 Eco-Design A relatively new discipline addressing the whole lifecycle of the product Identifies environmental and financial opportunities Develops new products which are better eg use less materials use less energy easier to disassemble & recycle achieve legislative compliance avoid harmful materials Opens up new markets

12 Design Opportunities Design for disassembly requirement of WEEE Directive Design for energy efficiency energy rating, climate change, reduce operating costs Design for dematerialisation reduced weight, lower costs, less packaging Design for longevity buy right-buy once, higher retail prices, lower impact?

13 Design Opportunities Design for modularity future-proofing, easy repair, reuse Design for chemical safety - REACH Design for recycling extracting end value, WEEE Design for maintenance and repair extending product life Design for short-life avoids redundancy due to technological advancement

14 Electronics, Materials and Sustainability Lead Mercury Phthalates Antimony Chromium

15 PCB Materials for Lead-free Lead-free assembly means higher soldering temperatures Higher soldering temperatures can have a number of impacts; - increased stresses/thermal expansion issues - thermal degradation of materials - reliability and performance issues - new and enhanced failure mechanisms

16 Materials Opportunities Replacement of traditional materials with new ones can make products more sustainable and more profitable whilst offering enhanced performance Removal of hazardous materials makes recycling easier Use of fewer types of materials helps simplify recycling Emerging alternatives to non-renewable materials - biopolymers and degradable materials - NEC s shape memory modified PLA

17 Electronics Repurposing Convert existing electronics to a new multi-use modules

18 IeMRC Greener Electronics Activities Lithographically printed circuits, batteries and displays Sonochemical modification of surfaces Rapid identification of polymers at end of life Lead-free solders, assembly and reliability Reduced emission PCB manufacturing processes Various networking and training activities - SUMEEPnet

19 Green Electronics Projects Example 1 Brunel University

20 Printed Electronics at Brunel University Cleaner Electronics Group at Brunel working on printed electronics for many years Work currently supported by the IeMRC Wide range of printed structures demonstrated Currently working on printed batteries

21 Printed Electronics and Offset Lithography The "Conductive Lithographic Film (CLF) circuit fabrication process is a method of forming electronic circuit interconnect and components on flexible substrates via use of the offset lithographic printing process

22 CLF Demonstration Circuit Landline telephone mainboard Artwork taken from original resin laminate circuit board SMT passive components attached using conductive adhesive Microprocessor controlled thermometer Circuit interconnect, resistors, capacitors and switch actuator, all printed by offset lithography Device uses a glazed paper as the circuit substrate

23 Printed Battery Demonstrator Circuits Demonstrator printed on PolyArt substrate material Includes four cells producing a potential of 6.0 to 6.5V Incorporates printed switch pads Surface mount LEDs and resistors attached with conductive adhesive

24 Printed Electroluminescent Displays Interdigitated electrode structures formed using CLF conductive ink Electroluminescent ink deposited onto electrode structure Courtesy Darren Southee

25 Green Electronics Projects Example 2 Coventry University

26 Sonochemistry Research at Coventry Good adhesion is required at many interfaces used in electronics manufacturing, eg metals on polymers This is typically achieved by the use of aggressive and environmentally undesirable chemical processes An alternative method being developed at Coventry is to use sonochemical routes to offer more benign processes Use of ultrasonics can reduce process temperatures and generate less waste etc

27 Acoustic Cavitation - the Driving Force for Sonochemical Surface Modification Microjetting mechanical/physical attack of surface scrubbing/cleaning action destruction of boundary layers movement of reactants to, and products away from, the surface Extreme temperatures and pressures chemical/oxidative attack of the surface due to oxidative species breaking of bonds on surface of material chemical reactions on surface

28 Texturing the Surface of Noryl (PPO) Silent 20 khz Ultrasonic Probe Noryl samples textured in DI Water (40 (40 C for 60 minutes) Magnification x 500 Courtesy Andy Cobley

29 Green Electronics Projects Example 3 Surrey University

30 Plastics Recycling at Surrey University One of the barriers to polymer recycling is the identification of polymer types in mixed waste streams Needs to be made possible quickly and economically Work at Surrey has focussed on the use of multiwavelength spectroscopy coupled with MVSA for identifying plastics in real time

31 Spectroscopy combined with MVSA Visible spectral range used to obtain information relating to colour variation Near-infrared (NIR) spectral range: information relating to presence of specific functional groups MVSA unscrambles all spectral information; regression of spectral data against known materials parameters Fibre-optic probes designed for sampling in the field Non-destructive and fast technique

32 Identification of Polymers and Types Courtesy Gary Stephens

33 Plastics Characterisation Results Plastic types and grades can be identified Flame retardant content determined to better than 0.2% Polymer property variations monitored with good accuracy Influence of UV exposure can be seen Mechanical processing effects can be identified

34 Other Green Electronics Activities IeMRC is a member of SUMEEPnet sustainable use of materials in electrical and electronic products network Work with the Resource Efficiency KTN Green Electronics Design and Materials Seminars Participated in electronics recycling missions to Japan, Poland and Europe Close links with Government Agencies eg TSB Zero Emissions Programme, Envirowise, NISP, etc

35 Summary and Conclusions There is a need to move to more sustainable design and manufacturing processes in the electronics industry The IeMRC supports research in areas from design through new materials and manufacturing processes to end of life recycling Key projects on Green Electronics at several universities IeMRC Annual Conference in Loughborough on 4 th July

36 IeMRC Green Electronics Projects Martin Goosey Loughborough University

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