Ash die-back. Introduction. Invading species. Spread of the fungus

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ash die-back. Introduction. Invading species. Spread of the fungus"

Transcription

1 Ash die-back Introduction Ash trees make up about 5% of woodland in Britain but are now under attack from a fungus, Chalara fraxinea. The Forestry Commission has identified over 300 infected sites across the UK. Spores from the fungus could spread from the east of England and Scotland to eventually cover Britain in some cases carried on people's shoes and clothes. Ash die-back disease could spread naturally across the UK by around 20 miles a year, infecting most of the country's 90m ash trees within a decade. Human movements could speed up the process considerably. Invading species According to botanists, more than 30 alien insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, diseases and invasive plants, are expected to reach Britain and other European countries in the next few years. Many of them have the potential to devastate native populations. Some could arrive on imported trees and shrubs from Brazil or in soil from China or Africa, others via wooden ornaments and even packaging crates. They are likely to behave differently in new environments In fact, there have been more outbreaks of diseases in the past decade than in the whole of the twentieth century. Some of these organisms move into new niches when they move into an unknown habitat. Plants have little or no resistance to them and outbreaks can happen very quickly. Spread of the fungus The cases of ash die-back in East Anglia and Kent are thought to have spread by the wind from the continent. The location of infected sites offers some hope that the disease can be contained. Forestry groups say the government was notified of the fungus as early as 2009, when disease broke out in France, having spread through the Baltics, Scandinavia and eastern Europe (see Table 1). It could also have come into the country via infected trees imported by the horticultural trade.

2 Table 1: Chronology of ash die-back 1992 The fungus behind ash die-back, Chalara fraxinea, emerges in Poland The Horticultural Trades Association warns the government that the fungus, now widespread in Denmark, could spread to the UK, and calls for an import ban Disease confirmed in the Netherlands and Belgium. February 2012 Summer 2012 October 2012 Infected trees detected in the UK for the first time, in a nursery in Buckinghamshire. Outbreaks of ash die-back identified at plantations and nurseries across England and Scotland, from County Durham to Berkshire. First cases in the wild identified in Norfolk and Suffolk. The government imposes an import ban. UK forests 'under unprecedented threat from a range of disease' The UK's forests are under unprecedented threat from foreign pests and diseases. Some could die out in months and do no damage but others could spread rapidly, as Dutch elm disease did in the 1960s. The ash die-back fungus is just the latest invader to pose a serious threat to UK trees: more than three million larch trees, mainly in the West Country, Wales and Scotland, as well as thousands of mature oaks and chestnuts, have been felled in the past three years to prevent similar fatal plant diseases from spreading out of control. Plant pathogens are on the rise globally and Britain is particularly susceptible because of its increasingly warm, wet winters and because it is a centre of world trade. Easy access to plants from around the world has encouraged gardeners to buy millions of exotic plants, many of which can arrive diseased. Some plants can only enter Britain with passports, but the majority of diseases are only identifiable in laboratories. The fashion for instant landscapes and the planting of very large trees increases the risk of diseases spreading. There is a greater demand for more exotic and bigger plants. Some plants are shipped in from China or elsewhere with 1,000 litres of soil around them. That soil is full of billions of bacteria. The diseases and pests can arrive by several routes. In March, more than 250 live larvae of the Asian longhorn beetle, which can kill oak and willows, were found in trees in Kent. More than 2,000 trees had to be felled and burned. It was thought to have entered in wooden packaging for Chinese stone. There are currently about eight organisms in the British Isles that are a real concern to botanists. In the 1960s and 1970s it was Dutch elm disease, which killed 30 million trees; in the 1990s it was a new Phytophthora which affected alders along riverbanks. Plant experts are particularly concerned about the Oak processionary moth, which arrived in west London in 2009 and has now developed two major

3 populations. It has the potential to spread anywhere there are oak trees. Caterpillars from the Oak processionary moth can cause serious defoliation and weaken oaks to the point where they are prone to other diseases. The Dothistroma needle blight affects a range of conifer species, and threatens commercial forests by significantly reducing timber yields. In 2012 scientists also discovered a fungus that afflicts sweet chestnut trees in orchards sourced from France. A new and undiagnosed pathogen appears to be affecting Scots pine. Ecological value of ash trees The ash die-back fungus could be disastrous for Britain's ash trees with serious knock-on ecological consequences. It could change the countryside very significantly, and parallels with Dutch elm disease of the 1970s have been made. It causes leaf loss and can lead to the death of the tree. It has affected between 60% and 90% of ash trees in some areas of Denmark and is becoming widespread throughout central Europe. If ash trees suffer large scale declines, some of the country's rarest species could be at risk of being lost from Britain. As well as 80 common insects, at least 60 of the rarest insect species in the UK have an association with ash trees these are mostly rare beetles and flies. Scarce species could become even scarcer and may even be lost. Ironically, many of the rare species associated with ash depend on the dead or dying branches of old trees, but if infected trees are ultimately cleared away then even these species will suffer. Ash is also important for many lichens and mosses that grow in its bark, and its seeds are an important food for wood mice. Economic value of ash trees The UK government values the benefits of our woods and trees at about 1.2bn a year. The consequences of ash die-back could be catastrophic, not only for the environment but for the UK economy too. The ash crop, once worth millions of pounds, is now useless. Some nurseries infected with the fungus have been removed from the official map of the outbreak, after nursery owners complained that being identified might hurt their business. There is no longer any market for ash trees. Potential solutions To date, there is no chemical that kills the fungus and over 100,000 ash trees have been destroyed so far in England and Scotland. Trees cannot be vaccinated, and the airborne disease would be too expensive to treat chemically. However, there is a small chance that Britain's ash trees may have a resistance to the disease. If this is so, by the next season there could potentially be resistant forms of ash growing, though as very small saplings. Ash reproduces quite quickly. A small number of trees survived the very intense epidemic in

4 Denmark, where 90% were infected, so there must be hope here. If it is possible to slow its spread of the disease, it may be possible to find those trees with genetic resistance to the disease. One of the more radical suggestions is to have rigorous border checks on the billions of trees and plants imported into Britain and Europe from around the world every year for parks, gardens, woodlands and forests. Other measures expected include forcing nurseries to attach plant passports to all imported plants; a new system to ensure all plants are safe before they enter Britain; tighter rules on suppliers; restrictions on the public bringing in plants from abroad; and a radical overhaul of the European plant protection system. Mature trees will not be burned, because they are important for other wildlife and may help identify resistant strains. Websites Defra tackling the rising danger of imported diseases killing trees and plants Steve Collin of the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, who first discovered Ash die-back in Norfolk What ash die-back means for UK woods Download ash die-back guide from the Woodland Trust Activities 1 What is the fungus causing ash die-back? 2 Where did it come from, and how did it get into the UK? 3 How many ash trees have been felled as a result of ash die-back? 4 What can be done to reduce the impact on fungal infestations on ash trees?

5 Suggested answers 1 The fungus that is attacking ash trees is called Chalara fraxinea. 2 It most probably came from Denmark, by spores carried by the wind. Alternatively, it could have been brought in by an infected plant as part the UK s horticultural trade. 3 Over 100, It may be that a small number of trees survive the fungus because of natural immunity. These could be used to develop disease-free ash trees. There could be border checks on the billions of trees and plants imported into Britain and Europe from around the world. Plant passports could be issued to all imported plants, and there could be restrictions on the public bringing in plants from abroad.

Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative

Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative Images: Fera New approaches for the early detection of tree health pests and pathogens Led by Dr Rick Mumford, the Food & Environment Research Agency (Fera) rick.mumford@fera.gsi.gov.uk The UK s forests,

More information

A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA

A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA As you are probably aware, we have seen a significant amount of dying ash trees in the Plymouth, Canton, Northville area. This prompted

More information

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County

Tree Integrated Pest Management. Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County Tree Integrated Pest Management Dan Nortman Virginia Cooperative Extension, York County IPM Refresher Definition: The use of a combination of appropriate pest control tactics to reduce pest population

More information

Alaska Forest Pest Control Supplemental Information. Category Twelve

Alaska Forest Pest Control Supplemental Information. Category Twelve Alaska Forest Pest Control Supplemental Information Category Twelve In general, applicators who apply pesticides to property other than their own, or act as a pesticide consultant must obtain certification

More information

Tree Health Management Plan April 2014

Tree Health Management Plan April 2014 www.gov.uk/defra Tree Health Management Plan April 2014 Crown copyright 2014 You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government

More information

Advanced Intelligence Report Tree & Shrub Insect Control: Protecting Trees from Emerald Ash Borer

Advanced Intelligence Report Tree & Shrub Insect Control: Protecting Trees from Emerald Ash Borer Advanced Intelligence Report Treating For Emerald Ash Borer With Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub Insect Control Soil Drench Dr. Bruce Stewart, Bayer Advanced Consumer Products Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is

More information

GYPSY MOTH IN WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. A gypsy moth primer. Male gypsy moth

GYPSY MOTH IN WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. A gypsy moth primer. Male gypsy moth WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE The Washington State Department of Agriculture serves the people of Washington by supporting the agricultural community and promoting consumer and environmental

More information

Asian Longhorned Beetle Control Program

Asian Longhorned Beetle Control Program United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Asian Longhorned Beetle Control Program Environmental Assessment, December 1996 United States Department of Agriculture

More information

1 ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE OUTBREAK

1 ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE OUTBREAK 1 THE REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF YORK REPORT NO. 10 OF THE REGIONAL COMMISSIONER OF TRANSPORTATION AND WORKS For Consideration by The Council of The Regional Municipality of York on October 16, 2003 1 ASIAN

More information

Common diseases of nectarines

Common diseases of nectarines OCTOBER 2009 PRIMEFACT 890 Common diseases of nectarines L. Ullio Cleanfresh Project, Intensive Industries, Sydney Markets Bacterial canker Bacterial canker is considered a major disease of stone fruit

More information

The UK Timber Resource and Future Supply Chain. Ben Ditchburn Forest Research

The UK Timber Resource and Future Supply Chain. Ben Ditchburn Forest Research The UK Timber Resource and Future Supply Chain Ben Ditchburn Forest Research Timber availability The landscape of timber availability in Great Britain and the United Kingdom is moving through a period

More information

Forest Insect Pests and Diseases

Forest Insect Pests and Diseases Forest Insect Pests and Diseases Forest insect pests The forest is home to an abundant diversity of organisms, including insects. The study of forest insects is called forest entomology. Many insects play

More information

Division of Forestry

Division of Forestry Guidelines for Managing Sites with Ash To Address the Threat of Emerald Ash Borer On Forestry-Administered Lands BACKGROUND The ash genus (Fraxinus) in Minnesota comprises some 900 million trees and is

More information

the Horizon Sustainable Forestry Conference

the Horizon Sustainable Forestry Conference Tree Tree Insects Death & Is Diseases Coming on the Horizon Sustainable Forestry Conference Brian Schwingle, DNR Forest Health Specialist April 15, 2010 Sign up for newsletter: brian.schwingle@wisconsin.gov

More information

Woodlands Management Plan. (Draft June 2011) A. Definition of Woodlands Areas vs. Landscaped Areas of Parkfairfax

Woodlands Management Plan. (Draft June 2011) A. Definition of Woodlands Areas vs. Landscaped Areas of Parkfairfax Woodlands Management Plan (Draft June 2011) I. Background A. Definition of Woodlands Areas vs. Landscaped Areas of Parkfairfax The woodlands are defined as those wooded areas of Parkfairfax which are left

More information

The Basics of Tree Pruning

The Basics of Tree Pruning The Basics of Tree Pruning By John Ball, Forest Health Specialist and Aaron Kiesz, Urban and Community Forestry Specialist Until the end of the 19 th century, trees were not a common sight in many parts

More information

Plant disease, plant pest and invasive alien species prevention and control (England) scheme. December 2014

Plant disease, plant pest and invasive alien species prevention and control (England) scheme. December 2014 www.gov.uk/defra Plant disease, plant pest and invasive alien species prevention and control (England) scheme. December 2014 Crown copyright 2014 You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free

More information

Tree Insects in the Forest and Urban Landscape Christine Buhl, ODF Entomologist Eugene MG

Tree Insects in the Forest and Urban Landscape Christine Buhl, ODF Entomologist Eugene MG Tree Insects in the Forest and Urban Landscape Christine Buhl, ODF Entomologist Eugene MG 6.21.16 Trees are stressed by Inappropriate climate, location, etc. for the species (offsite) Poor site quality

More information

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime What is Entomology? Entomology is the study of insects. Entomologists study bees, ants, beetles,

More information

The Virtual Woodland Worksheet

The Virtual Woodland Worksheet Food Chains All living things need food to give them energy to move and grow. A food chain can show us how living things get their food by showing us what feeds on what in a particular habitat. Food chains

More information

Extinction; Lecture-8

Extinction; Lecture-8 I. introduction Definition Current extinction Genetic drift Extinction; Lecture-8 II. 3 types of extinction 1. background 2. mass 3. stochastic III. 5 periods of mass IV. human caused 1. on land and in

More information

Entomology 462 Ornamentals Pests: Borers

Entomology 462 Ornamentals Pests: Borers Entomology 462 Ornamentals Pests: Borers David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH October, 2004, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved Woody Ornamental

More information

Symptoms Include: Stippled, bronzed or bleached appearance of leaves

Symptoms Include: Stippled, bronzed or bleached appearance of leaves Common Tree Pests & Diseases Of Central Texas Lara Schuman City of Austin Urban Forestry Program Stress and Trees City life can be stressful, and trees feel stress too. Common urban tree issues include:

More information

Controlling Invasive Plants and Animals in our Community

Controlling Invasive Plants and Animals in our Community Controlling Invasive Plants and Animals in our Community PROVIDED BY THE WILDLIFE COMMITTEE What makes a plant or animal invasive? When a plant or animal from another region of the world (usually Europe

More information

Wildfire Damage Assessment for the 2011 Southeast Complex Fires

Wildfire Damage Assessment for the 2011 Southeast Complex Fires Wildfire Damage Assessment for the 2011 Southeast Complex Fires Chip Bates & Mark McClure, Forest Health Management Background: On March 24, 2011, multiple wildfires began across southeast Georgia. Strong,

More information

Homeowner handout Homeowner Detection of and Recommendations for Mitigating Laurel Wilt on Redbay and Avocado Trees in the Home Landscape

Homeowner handout Homeowner Detection of and Recommendations for Mitigating Laurel Wilt on Redbay and Avocado Trees in the Home Landscape Homeowner handout Homeowner Detection of and Recommendations for Mitigating Laurel Wilt on Redbay and Avocado Trees in the Home Landscape Update: February, 2011 Jonathan H. Crane, Tropical Fruit Crop Specialist

More information

Pecan Diseases and Nematodes

Pecan Diseases and Nematodes Pecan Diseases and Nematodes Western Pecan Production Short Course September 27, 2012 Natalie Goldberg Extension Plant Pathologist Diseases of Pecan Phymatotrichum root rot Root-knot nematode Powdery mildew

More information

USING ARBORIST WOOD CHIPS AS LANDSCAPE MULCH. Home Garden Series FS160E

USING ARBORIST WOOD CHIPS AS LANDSCAPE MULCH. Home Garden Series FS160E USING ARBORIST WOOD CHIPS AS LANDSCAPE MULCH Home Garden Series By Linda Chalker-Scott, Washington State University Puyallup Research and Extension Center. FS160E Page 1 ext.wsu.edu FS160E Using Arborist

More information

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region Growing Cocoa Beans All chocolate begins with cocoa beans, the fruit of the cacao tree (also called a cocoa tree). Scientists know that the cacao tree originated somewhere in South or Central America.

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

Objectives. EAB Symptoms 8/18/14. Emerald Ash Borer: A Threat to Colorado s Community Forests. 1- to 2-Year Life Cycle.

Objectives. EAB Symptoms 8/18/14. Emerald Ash Borer: A Threat to Colorado s Community Forests. 1- to 2-Year Life Cycle. 8/18/14 Emerald Ash Borer: A Threat to Colorado s Community Forests Objectives Introduce EAB Pest origins and biology Current impacts Threat to Colorado Keith Wood Community Forestry Program Manager Colorado

More information

2. Trade in forest commodities

2. Trade in forest commodities 5 2. Trade in forest commodities The volume of wood products in international trade increased 125 percent between 1992 and 2008 (FAO, 2010b). Some examples of the changes in volume of exports of particular

More information

Southern California Insect related Tree Mortality. GIS Master Plan September 2003

Southern California Insect related Tree Mortality. GIS Master Plan September 2003 Southern California Insect related Tree Mortality GIS Master Plan September 2003 Abstract Consecutive years of below-average precipitation from 1998 to 2003 resulted in large-scale insect outbreaks in

More information

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed?

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed? JAPANESE KNOTWEED What is Japanese Knotweed? Japanese Knotweed (botanical name Fallopia japonica) was introduced into Britain from Japan in the early 1800 s. It was originally grown as an ornamental plant,

More information

The economic and social impact of the Institute for Animal Health s work on Bluetongue disease (BTV-8)

The economic and social impact of the Institute for Animal Health s work on Bluetongue disease (BTV-8) The economic and social impact of the Institute for Animal Health s work on Bluetongue disease (BTV-8) Donald Webb DTZ One Edinburgh Quay 133 Fountainbridge Edinburgh EH3 9QG Tel: 0131 222 4500 March 2008

More information

Mild winters, early springs: requirements for species and provenances for the next generations

Mild winters, early springs: requirements for species and provenances for the next generations Mild winters, early springs: requirements for species and provenances for the next generations Tore Skrøppa Norwegian Genetic Resource Centre and NordGen I will present and discuss: - Implications of climate

More information

prevention an ounce of How to Stop Invasive Insects and Diseases from Devastating U.S. Forests

prevention an ounce of How to Stop Invasive Insects and Diseases from Devastating U.S. Forests prevention an ounce of How to Stop Invasive Insects and Diseases from Devastating U.S. Forests A Report from The Nature Conservancy s Global Forest Partnership, Forest Health Program COVER PHOTOGRAPH Port-Orford-cedar

More information

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees 148 Appendix A Diagnosing Disorders of Trees Diagnosing tree problems can be difficult. Symptoms and signs can be subtle or only visible using special techniques, important information can be missing,

More information

Lesson 10 Succession. Overview. Students will: Content Background. Ti m e : 2 Cl a s s Pe r i o d s

Lesson 10 Succession. Overview. Students will: Content Background. Ti m e : 2 Cl a s s Pe r i o d s Lesson 10 Succession Overview Now that students have learned about the diversity of life and the complexity and differences in ecosystems and biomes, they will observe what happens when an ecosystem is

More information

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it.

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it. In the previous presentation on Human Health and Pesticides, we discussed some of the negative consequences associated with pesticide use. In this presentation we will focus on environmental degradation

More information

Experiences of ash dieback in Denmark

Experiences of ash dieback in Denmark Experiences of ash dieback in Denmark Senior adviser Iben Margrete Thomsen Department of Geosciences and Natural Ressource Management University of Copenhagen Expertmeeting Essentaksterfte, Drachten, NL

More information

Helping Trees Recover From Stress

Helping Trees Recover From Stress Helping Trees Recover From Stress INTRODUCTION Trees are the dominant component in the natural and managed landscape in New England. For the most part, trees in forests thrive and, typically, live more

More information

Oak Trees BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR

Oak Trees BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR They are beautiful in their peace, They are wise in their silence. They will stand after we are dust. They teach us, and we tend them. G.A. MacDunelmor BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR Oak Trees The

More information

Leaders in a domestic and global arena

Leaders in a domestic and global arena GS-21F-0037W Leaders in a domestic and global arena F rancis A. Bartlett founded the F. A. Bartlett Tree Expert Company in 1907. His mission was to provide scientifically based care to improve the safety,

More information

AN ORDINANCE RELATING TO THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION PROGRAM OF SHADE TREE DISEASES AND SHADE TREE PESTS WITHIN THE CITY OF OAK PARK HEIGHTS.

AN ORDINANCE RELATING TO THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION PROGRAM OF SHADE TREE DISEASES AND SHADE TREE PESTS WITHIN THE CITY OF OAK PARK HEIGHTS. 1302 AN ORDINANCE RELATING TO THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION PROGRAM OF SHADE TREE DISEASES AND SHADE TREE PESTS WITHIN THE CITY OF OAK PARK HEIGHTS. THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF OAK PARK HEIGHTS, WASHINGTON

More information

FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive?

FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive? FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive? During normal sexual reproduction, each of the two versions of a given gene has a 50 percent chance of being inherited by a particular offspring (Fig 1A). Gene

More information

Black Dotted Brown Moth

Black Dotted Brown Moth Athens-Clarke County Community Tree Program Black Dotted Brown Moth Athens is experiencing its fourth year of significant infestation by the black dotted brown moth (Cissusa spadix). The caterpillar of

More information

CARING FOR ICE-DAMAGED WOODLOTS AND PLANTATIONS

CARING FOR ICE-DAMAGED WOODLOTS AND PLANTATIONS CARING FOR ICE-DAMAGED WOODLOTS AND Ice storms are common in southern Ontario and play an important role in the natural cycle of forest succession. Depending on the level of damage, trees can recover from

More information

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) Disease Identification and Management

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) Disease Identification and Management Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) Disease Identification and Management Economic Losses Asia Disease endemic tree life 8-12 yr, yields low, fruit small and/or unmarketable; yields better in cooler, highland

More information

A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRELAND

A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRELAND Name: Date: A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRELAND Today, Ireland is a country with a bright future. In 2005, Economist magazine selected it as the best place in the world to live. Hundreds of thousands of people

More information

Managing Black Walnut

Managing Black Walnut Managing Black Walnut Mel Baughman Professor Emeritus University of Minnesota Lenny Farlee Extension Forester Purdue University Why Grow Black Walnut? Wood Products Rich, brown color Novelty items Lumber

More information

Susan Donaldson, Water Quality Education Specialist Steven J. Seybold, Research Biochemist

Susan Donaldson, Water Quality Education Specialist Steven J. Seybold, Research Biochemist FACT SHEET 98-40 Susan Donaldson, Water Quality Education Specialist Steven J. Seybold, Research Biochemist Introduction Trees in the Lake Tahoe Basin and the Sierra Nevada are turning brown and dying.

More information

Forest Preserve District of Cook County OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION www.fpdcc.com

Forest Preserve District of Cook County OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION www.fpdcc.com Forest Preserve District of Cook County FAQ: Ash Tree Removal Strategy to Respond to Emerald Ash Borer Infestation What Is the Issue? The Forest Preserve District of Cook County (FPDCC) has been removing

More information

Beaver Creek Resort Proposed Action April 12, 2010

Beaver Creek Resort Proposed Action April 12, 2010 Beaver Creek Resort Proposed Action April 12, 2010 The Holy Cross District of the White River National Forest (WRNF) is proposing a forest health and fuel reduction project on National Forest System lands

More information

FORESTED VEGETATION. forests by restoring forests at lower. Prevent invasive plants from establishing after disturbances

FORESTED VEGETATION. forests by restoring forests at lower. Prevent invasive plants from establishing after disturbances FORESTED VEGETATION Type of strategy Protect General cold adaptation upland and approach subalpine forests by restoring forests at lower Specific adaptation action Thin dry forests to densities low enough

More information

TREE NOTES. CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND FIRE PROTECTION Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor State of California. Dale T.

TREE NOTES. CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND FIRE PROTECTION Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor State of California. Dale T. TREE NOTES CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND FIRE PROTECTION Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor State of California Dale T. Geldert Director NUMBER: 30 February 2005 Mike Chrisman Secretary for Resources

More information

-* -* -* -* reflecting. A~fion ~ynop i. Gl) ~ linking to real world

-* -* -* -* reflecting. A~fion ~ynop i. Gl) ~ linking to real world Afion ynop i Students make food webs of their study site, then trace how a change in one population could affect other populations within the web. Session 1 1. Show a food web made by a team of ecologists.

More information

Avian Influenza: the moving target

Avian Influenza: the moving target Avian Influenza: the moving target Ilaria Capua 1 & Dennis J Alexander 2 OIE/FAO Reference Laboratories 1 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie Legnaro, Padova IT 2 VLA Weybridge, UK H5N1

More information

Questions and Answers about the Emerald Ash Borer in Colorado

Questions and Answers about the Emerald Ash Borer in Colorado Questions and Answers about the Emerald Ash Borer in Colorado What is the emerald ash borer? The emerald ash borer is a type of beetle that develops under the bark of ash trees. Its scientific name is

More information

Trees & Development - A Guide to Best Practice is sponsored by:

Trees & Development - A Guide to Best Practice is sponsored by: Trees & Development - A Guide to Best Practice is sponsored by: The Forest of Belfast The Planning Service Landscape Architects Branch, Construction Service, Central Procurement Directorate, DFP and and

More information

Invertebrate. Tales. Challenges, facts and activities for children, and grown-ups too

Invertebrate. Tales. Challenges, facts and activities for children, and grown-ups too Invertebrate Tales Challenges, facts and activities for children, and grown-ups too Earth Trust s Invertebrate Tales Project! Here at the Earth Trust we love our woodlands, and our bugs. In fact, we re

More information

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Biomass Harvest Guidelines

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Biomass Harvest Guidelines FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Biomass Harvest Guidelines What do Biomass Harvest Guidelines offer? They offer recommendations to manage forest-, brush- and open- land with the intent to protect water, timber,

More information

Government Forestry and Woodlands Policy Statement Incorporating the Government s Response to the Independent Panel on Forestry s Final Report

Government Forestry and Woodlands Policy Statement Incorporating the Government s Response to the Independent Panel on Forestry s Final Report www.defra.gov.uk Government Forestry and Woodlands Policy Statement Incorporating the Government s Response to the Independent Panel on Forestry s Final Report January 2013 Crown copyright 2013 You may

More information

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED ENDANGERED AND THREATENED Understand how species in the Sonoran Desert Region may become endangered or threatened and what is being done to protect them. ARIZONA SCIENCE STANDARDS SC03-S4C3-03&04, SC08-S1C3-07,

More information

Sur vey Report. City of Edinburgh. Revised

Sur vey Report. City of Edinburgh. Revised Sur vey Report City of Edinburgh 2013 Revised Introduction Native woodlands are a vital part of Scotland s natural and cultural heritage, providing us with a wide range of social, environmental and economic

More information

Objectives. Key Terms

Objectives. Key Terms Objectives Identify causes and possible results of interspecific competition. Identify some adaptations of predators and prey. Compare and contrast symbiotic relationships. Key Terms interspecific competition

More information

Lesson 1. Objectives: ocus: Subjects:

Lesson 1. Objectives: ocus: Subjects: Lesson 1 The Web of Life Objectives: 1. Understand the concept of an ecosystem. 2. Understand the interdependence of members of an ecosystem. Subjects: 1. Ecology 2. Language 3. Art MATERIALS: Copies of

More information

QQ01 To cover handouts FC01-FC03

QQ01 To cover handouts FC01-FC03 QQ0 To cover handouts FC0-FC03 QUICK QUESTIONS ON CELL BIOLOGY!. Give 2 differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. See class sheets 2. State whether the following cell types are prokaryotic

More information

European Forest Risk Network Wind and Snow/Ice Damage to Forests and the Secondary Impact of Bark Beetles

European Forest Risk Network Wind and Snow/Ice Damage to Forests and the Secondary Impact of Bark Beetles European Forest Risk Network Wind and Snow/Ice Damage to Forests and the Secondary Impact of Bark Beetles Barry Gardiner with thanks to Kana Kamimura, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Heli Peltola, Hervé Jactel INRA,

More information

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Occasionally, fruit trees decline and often die. Diseases affecting the leaves, fruit, and twigs of fruit trees usually

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations Population Ecology An Overview of Population Ecology Population ecology is the study of factors that affect population: Density Growth A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy

More information

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot?

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot? 3.1 Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities Here is a summary of what you will learn in this section: Ecosystems change in predictable ways known as succession. Ecosystems can establish

More information

Hands-on Series: Caring for our Forest. Homeowner s Guide. Maintaining Your Trees Following Ice Storms and How to Prevent Future Damage

Hands-on Series: Caring for our Forest. Homeowner s Guide. Maintaining Your Trees Following Ice Storms and How to Prevent Future Damage Hands-on Series: Caring for our Forest Homeowner s Guide Maintaining Your Trees Following Ice Storms and How to Prevent Future Damage 1 Benefits of Urban Trees Trees provide numerous benefits to you as

More information

Subd. 4. Public nuisances defined. A shade tree pest, as defined by section XXX.02, occurring within a defined control zone is a public nuisance.

Subd. 4. Public nuisances defined. A shade tree pest, as defined by section XXX.02, occurring within a defined control zone is a public nuisance. LEAGUE OF MINNESOTA CITIES SAMPLE SHADE TREE PEST ORDINANCE SECTION ###.01: SHADE TREE PEST CONTROL. Subd. 1. Declaration of policy. The health of the trees in the city is threatened by shade tree pests,

More information

Issues in Tree and Forest Health Care:

Issues in Tree and Forest Health Care: About the Program This course will focus on key components of tree and forest health in Southern forested landscapes. In-depth topics will include insect threats, tree diseases, and abiotic stress factors

More information

Pest Toolkit. Pest proofing your land for a sustainable community. Help is at hand. Main topics: Pest Animal control. pest plant control

Pest Toolkit. Pest proofing your land for a sustainable community. Help is at hand. Main topics: Pest Animal control. pest plant control Pest Toolkit Pg1 Main topics: RPMP Pest proofing your land for a sustainable community Pg2 Pg3 Pg4 Pest Animal control pest plant control weed control in retirement areas Pests are unwanted plants (invasive

More information

Insects That Kill Trees. Diane G. Alston Extension Entomologist Utah State University 2004 Professional Tree Care Workshops

Insects That Kill Trees. Diane G. Alston Extension Entomologist Utah State University 2004 Professional Tree Care Workshops Insects That Kill Trees Diane G. Alston Extension Entomologist Utah State University 2004 Professional Tree Care Workshops Topics Introduction websites, IPM strategies Ips bark beetles Tree borers flatheaded,

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

Invasive Species Management and Control: Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Invasive Species Management and Control: Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) Invasive Species Management and Control: Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) 1.0 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT 2.0 PREVENTATIVE MEASURES 3.0 PREDICTION AND MONITORING 4.0 PHYSICAL CONTROL 5.0 CHEMICAL

More information

Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe

Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Bees : minute animals, massive importance Bees have a lot of responsibility on their tiny striped backs.

More information

Invasive Species Jeopardy

Invasive Species Jeopardy LESSON FOURTEEN: INVASIVE SPECIES JEOPARDY Duration: One 45-minute class period Objectives: To test students knowledge of exotic invasive plant species taught in this unit. Prepare in advance: Practice

More information

YOUR KNOWLEDGE. Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-61526-7 - Unlock: Reading and Writing Sills 3 Carolyn Westbrook Excerpt More information

YOUR KNOWLEDGE. Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-61526-7 - Unlock: Reading and Writing Sills 3 Carolyn Westbrook Excerpt More information ANIMALS UNIT 1 YOUR KNOWLEDGE Work with a partner. Discuss the questions below. 1 Is it better to see animals in a zoo or in the wild? Why? 2 Are there more wild animals in your country now or were there

More information

Pruning Mature Trees. Reasons for Pruning

Pruning Mature Trees. Reasons for Pruning Pruning Mature Trees Pruning is the most common tree maintenance procedure. Although forest trees grow quite well with only nature's pruning, landscape trees require a higher level of care to maintain

More information

Brenda Librecz, General Manager, Parks, Forestry and Recreation

Brenda Librecz, General Manager, Parks, Forestry and Recreation STAFF REPORT ACTION REQUIRED Forest Health Care Invasive Exotic Pests Date: December 17, 2007 To: From: Wards: Parks and Environment Committee Brenda Librecz, General Manager, Parks, Forestry and Recreation

More information

Chapter 4: The Development of the 13 Colonies. Manufacturing : making things by hand or by machine.

Chapter 4: The Development of the 13 Colonies. Manufacturing : making things by hand or by machine. Chapter 4: The Development of the 13 Colonies Economic Problems: More Than Basic Needs Economic Activities in the 13 Colonies Some countries, besides England, that were in the British Empire were : Wales,

More information

Show me your root flare! Ellen A. Vincent Environmental Landscape Specialist Clemson University Horticulture Dept.

Show me your root flare! Ellen A. Vincent Environmental Landscape Specialist Clemson University Horticulture Dept. Show me your root flare! Ellen A. Vincent Environmental Landscape Specialist Clemson University Horticulture Dept. What we know Right tree right place Choose pest resistant species or cultivars Plant at

More information

Insect and Mite Galls

Insect and Mite Galls Insect and Mite Galls Robert P. Wawrzynski, Jeffrey D. Hahn, and Mark E. Ascerno Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota Extension Service Galls are abnormal plant growths caused by various organisms

More information

GROWING FOREST TREES. For the new BMPs update - Call the Georgia Forestry Commission or visit

GROWING FOREST TREES. For the new BMPs update - Call the Georgia Forestry Commission or visit GROWING FOREST TREES TIMBER MANAGEMENT One forestry objective of many landowners is timber production. Even lands managed primarily for wildlife, recreation or water protection can produce timber. Forest

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Strawberry Leaf Spot

Strawberry Leaf Spot Strawberry Leaf Spot Cathy Heidenreich and Bill Turechek Introduction - Leaf spot is one of the most common and widespread diseases of strawberry. Mycosphaerella fragariae is also the cause of black seed

More information

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest About deforestation Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people s need to provide for their families. The

More information

Pay Later: The Cost of Inaction. Climate change will have a negative impact on many of the industries that 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 5.

Pay Later: The Cost of Inaction. Climate change will have a negative impact on many of the industries that 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 5. FACTS CONNECTICUT A M E R I C A N S E C U R I T Y P R O J E C T Pay Now, Pay Later: Connecticut The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that the cost of protecting Connecticut s coast from the potential

More information

Socio-economic benefits of Natura 2000 in the UK

Socio-economic benefits of Natura 2000 in the UK Socio-economic benefits of Natura 2000 in the UK Rebecca Halahan, December 2002 SUMMARY WWF has worked for many years to ensure that Member States and, more recently Accession Countries, fully implement

More information

4.0 Discuss some effects of disturbances on the forest.

4.0 Discuss some effects of disturbances on the forest. 4.0 Discuss some effects of disturbances on the forest. 4.1 Describe common disturbances that occur in the Boreal forest. Disturbances are normal to the life of the forest. Forests are very resilient (able

More information

Today, we re going to tackle your GUM U7, L2 & L3 Cause and Effect Essay! Chat me your best sentence using the word conscientious.

Today, we re going to tackle your GUM U7, L2 & L3 Cause and Effect Essay! Chat me your best sentence using the word conscientious. Good Morning Conscientious 7 th Graders! Today, we re going to tackle your GUM U7, L2 & L3 Cause and Effect Essay! Chat me your best sentence using the word conscientious. Rainforest Destruction: Causes

More information

Tree and forest restoration following wildfire

Tree and forest restoration following wildfire Peter F. Kolb (PhD) MSU Extension Forestry Specialist Adj. Assistant Professor Forest Ecology School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59808 Tel. (406) 243-4705, e-mail: efpfk@forestry.umt.edu

More information

Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health

Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health Mare Lõhmus Climate centrum / SMS / KMF National Veterinary Institute Uppsala, Sweden The source of many

More information

Field identification guide to the UK s bumblebees. What s that bumblebee? bumblebeeconservation.org

Field identification guide to the UK s bumblebees. What s that bumblebee? bumblebeeconservation.org Field identification guide to the UK s bumblebees. What s that bumblebee? bumblebeeconservation.org Bumblebees are large, hairy and colourful, with a distinctive bumbling flight and constant buzz. You

More information

Resource development to maximise effective control of an outbreak of African Horse Sickness in Great Britain

Resource development to maximise effective control of an outbreak of African Horse Sickness in Great Britain Horserace Betting Levy Board Parnell House 25 Wilton Road London, SW1V 1LW Tel: 020 7333 0043 Fax: 020 7333 0041 Web: www.hblb.org.uk Email: equine.grants@hblb.org.uk Resource development to maximise effective

More information