Chemistry. General Course Information :: The student is expected to...

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1 Chemistry General Course Information :: The student is expected to... Pacing Guide Weeks 1-3: Lab Safety, Intro to Chem, States of Matter, Scientific Method Weeks 4-6: Physical vs. Chemical Change, Mixture vs. Substance, Measurement, Density, Dimensional Analysis, Sig Figs, Scientific Notation Weeks 7-9: Atomic Structure, Periodic Table Weeks 10-12: Electron Configurations, Quantum Mechanical Model Weeks 13-14: Molecules vs. Compounds, Ions and Ionic Charges, Ionic Compounds, Ionic Bonding Weeks 15-16: Molecular Compounds, Covalent Bonding, Final Exams (End of Fall Semester) Weeks 17-19: Molecular Geometry, Chemical Quantities Weeks 20-22: Types of Chemical Reactions, Balancing Chemical Reactions Weeks 23-25: Stoichiometry, Gas Laws Weeks 26-28: Properties of Water, Solution Chemistry Weeks 29-33: Acids and Bases, Thermochemistry Weeks 34-37: Nuclear Chemistry, Final Exams Introduction (1) Chemistry. In Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include characteristics of matter, use of the Periodic Table, development of atomic theory and chemical bonding, chemical stoichiometry, gas laws, solution chemistry, thermochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives. (2) Nature of Science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable. (3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. (4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information. (5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment. 1st Nine Weeks :: The student is expected to...

2 research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.[3f] differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties.[4a] identify extensive and intensive properties.[4b] compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape, and volume.[4c] classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.[4d] understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom.[6a] understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light.[6b] calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light.[6c] use isotopic composition to calculate average atomic mass of an element.[6d] express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.[6e] describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.[12a] describe radioactive decay process in terms of balanced nuclear equations.[12b] compare fission and fusion reactions.[12c] How does knowing the arrangement of electrons in atoms help us understand their chemical behavior? How do understanding physical and chemical changes help us classify matter? How do scientists communicate about electron configuration? How does knowledge of the historical development of the atom help us understand matter? How is energy related to the atomic theory? How did scientists' understanding of light help them understand the atom? How does Kinetic Molecular Theory explain the properties of gases? What are the processes of nuclear reactions?\ accuracy, chemical property, compressibility, conductivity, half-life, isotopes, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, physical property, precision 2nd Nine Weeks :: The student is expected to...

3 explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table.[5A] use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals.[5b] use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends, including atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, and ionization energy.[5c] name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases, using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules.[7a] write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases.[7b] construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds.[7c] describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply the theory to explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility.[7d] predict molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.[7e] Essential Questions How does knowledge of the historical development of the Periodic Table help us understand matter? How are chemical families grouped on the Periodic Table? How can we use our knowledge of atomic theory and elements to explain the trends found on the Periodic Table? How does knowing the arrangement of electrons for elements in Periodic Table help us understand their chemical behavior? Why is it important to have a systematic way of naming chemicals and writing formulas? How do different chemical bonds drive the behavior or matter? acid, base, covalent bond, ion, ionic bond, polymer, scientific notation, significant figures 3rd Nine Weeks :: The student is expected to... collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.[2f]

4 express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures.[2g] define and use the concept of a mole.[8a] use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of material.[8b] calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.[8c] perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between reactants and products, calculation of limiting reagents, and percent yield.[8e] understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies.[11a] understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer.[11b] use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic.[11c] perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat.[11d] perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat.[11d] use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.[11e] How is the law of conservation of mass exhibited in chemical equations? How is the quantification of chemical reactions utilized in our everyday lives? How is the Law of Conservation of Energy expressed in chemical systems? How is energy transferred in chemical and physical systems? aqueous, reactant 4th Nine Weeks :: The student is expected to... collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision.[2f] express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures.[2g] describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law.[9a] perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and volume relationships between reactants and products for reactions involving gases.[9b]

5 describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.[9c] describe the unique role of water in chemical and biological systems.[10a] develop and use general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions.[10b] calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity.[10c] use molarity to calculate the dilutions of solutions.[10d] distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions.[10e] investigate factors that influence solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area.[10f] define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions and predict products in acid base reactions that form water.[10g] define ph and use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentrations to calculate the ph of a solution.[10i] distinguish between degrees of dissociation for strong and weak acids and bases.[10j] How does water play a unique role in chemical and biological systems? How do outside factors such as pressure and temperature influence solutions in our everyday lives? Why do some substances readily dissolve in water? Why is it important to be able to predict the products of a chemical reaction? How does the ph of a substance relate to its chemical properties and behavior in chemical reactions? How are the conditions that influence an ideal gas interrelated? colligative properties, concentration, neutralization, oxidation-reduction, ph, saturated, solute, solvent, supersaturated, unsaturated

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