1 World Energy Sources and Fossil Fuel Production An International Baccalaureate Standard Level Advanced Placement Physics PowerPoint Presentation by Peter Centner, Ian Hamerlinck, Brandon Nelson, and David Rokke
2 World Energy Sources
3 Solar Solar power is defined as the converting of light energy from the sun into electric energy by either directly using photovoltaic cells, or indirectly via concentrated solar power Advantages: Free Energy. Environmentally Friendly. Self Sustainable. Low Maintenance. Disadvantages: High Initial Cost. No Sun, No Energy. Requires Large Surface Area. Not Very Efficient.
4 Wind Wind power is defined as the converting of motion produced by natural convection currents in the atmosphere into electric energy via turbines. Advantages: Free Energy. Environmentally Friendly. Spatially Efficient. Becoming Increasingly Efficient. Good For Remote Locations. Reliable Source. Disadvantages: No Wind, No Energy. Less Energy than Fossil Fuels. Expensive and Potentially Harmful to Wildlife. Noisy.
5 Geothermal Geothermal power is defined as the converting of heat from the earth into electric energy via steam power plants, flash steam power plants, binary cycle power plants, etc. Advantages: Free Energy. Environmentally Friendly. Self Sufficient. Spatially Efficient. Disadvantages: Very Location Specific. Requires Maintenance. Deals with Hazardous Materials Trapped in the Earth.
6 Hydroelectric Hydroelectric power is defined as the converting of the motion of water into electric energy through the use of strategically placed turbines. Advantages: Free Energy. Cost Effective. Environmentally Friendly. Continuous Supply of Energy. Disadvantages: Can Create a Dangerous Energy Surplus. Disrupts Aquatic Ecosystems. No Water, No Energy. Precision Engineering is Required.
7 Coal Coal power is defined as the converting of heat energy produced by burning of coal, into electric energy. This is done by first converting the heat energy into mechanical energy and then into electric energy via generators. Advantages: Geographically Abundant. Low Cost for Fossil Fuels. High Efficiency. Reliable. Safe. Easy to Transport. Disadvantages: Produces Harmful Bi-products. Emits 2x as much CO 2 as other Fossil Fuels. Noisy. Dangerous to Obtain. Limited Supply, Non-Renewable.
8 Nuclear Nuclear power is defined as the converting of heat energy, produced by a nuclear reaction, into electric energy via steam and turbines. Advantages: Emits No Air Pollutants. High Volumes of Energy over a Long Period of Time. 1 Ton of Uranium Produces More Energy than 1 Million Tons of Coal and 1 Million Barrels of Oil Combined. Disadvantages: Leaks Radiation. Meltdowns Can Result in Catastrophic Destruction. Waste Materials are Radioactive. Reactors Have Short Life Span (40-50 Years)
9 Natural Gas Natural gas, as an energy source, is the burning of natural gas (most commonly methane) to produce heat energy. This heat energy can then be used either directly in devices like stoves, furnaces, etc. or indirectly to produce electric energy via gas and steam turbines. Advantages: More Environmentally Friendly than Oil and Coal. Cheap. Can be Safely Stored and Burned. Abundant. Efficient. Disadvantages: Non-Renewable. Extraction Leaves Craters. Gas itself is volatile, and thus, Dangerous. Difficult to Detect. Unpleasant Odor. Contains CO. Expensive to Transport.
10 Biomass Biomass, as an energy source, consists of burning biologically produced substances (wood, ethanol, methane) to create heat which is then used to power an engine to produce mechanical energy. This heat energy can also alternatively be used to power turbines to create electric energy. Advantages: Renewable, Environmentally Friendly, Aids in Solid Waste Management. Disadvantages: Expensive, Produces Air Pollutants, Not as Efficient as Fossil Fuels.
11 Energy Density The efficiency of a fuel. How much energy (in joules) can be extracted from the mass of fuel. The units used to measure Energy Density are MJ/Kg. The Energy Density of a fuel is a measure of the fuel s maximum possible efficiency and thus is a major factor in deciding which fuel(s) to use as an energy source. MJ/Kg
12 Renewable Energy Renewable energy is defined as energy that is derived from natural energy resources that are present on the earth. A renewable resource must be present in a quantity which is greater than its consumption rate on a global scale. It must be able to be replenished in a human timeframe. Wind Solar Geothermal Hydroelectric
13 Non-Renewable Energy A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil Fuels Coal Petroleum Uranium
19 History Of Fossil Fuel Use
20 2000 B.C Chinese used coal as a fuel to cook and keep warm. 1 st Century AD the Chinese are the first to refine crude oil for practical purposes, using the products for lubricants, lamp fuel, and medicine. 200 B.C. Using bamboo pipes, Chinese harnessed natural gas as an energy source for gas fired evaporators.
21 1700 s Coal begins to displace use other sources of energy. Used primarily in steam engines s Coal replaces wood as the primary fuel source of locomotives in the U.S The birth of the oil revolution, when the Spindeltop Oil field is discovered in Texas.
22 1908: Model T. put into production, fueled by ethanol and gasoline. 1950: Petroleum becomes most used fuel in U.S M. King Hubbard Develops the "Hubberts Peak Theory" for Measuring Oil Supply; Peak of US Oil Production Correctly Predicted
23 1960: Organization of Petroleum exporting Countries (OPEC) formed. Apr. 18, 1977 President Carter Delivers Famous Energy Speech Arguing for Conservation and Alternative Fuels 1994 United States begins importing more oil than it produces.
24 Geographic Factors for Fossil Fuel use
25 Formation of Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are formed by the anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) decomposition of ancient organisms. The ancient atmosphere of earth (millions of years ago) had very little oxygen in it. By decomposing in an anaerobic environment, the carbon that was locked up in the organic matter could not be released as carbon dioxide but instead remained en masse inside the now-dead plants. The organism gradually became buried under hundreds if not thousands of feet of sediment, and over millions of years they are slowly cooked at high pressure. If the organisms lived entirely under water (such as plants or animals in the ocean or in rivers) they had the potential to form oil or natural gas, depending on how deep they were buried, and how high of a temperature they were cooked at. Coal, however, is formed by plants that lived in forests or swamps.
26 Geographic Distribution Due to the process by which fossil fuels are formed, they are distributed inconsistently over the earth, with some reserves buried miles underground. As a result, some countries have far more fossil fuels than others. For example, one fourth of all the known coal on earth is located in the United States. Because of this, the United states produces around half of it s power from coal burning. The more available a fossil fuel is to one certain country/community, the more prevalent its use will be. This is why China also uses large amounts of coal.
27 Oil and Liquid Fuel Transportation Oil and Liquid Fuels such as Gasoline and Ethanol are easy to transport through pipelines. After the initial cost of construction, transportation is as easy as flowing the fuel from storage locations to combustion facilities. Leaks in pipelines can be extremely hazardous, therefore frequent, and costly, maintenance is required. These pipelines are expensive to repair and maintain, especially when they are in remote areas.
28 Coal Transportation Coal is relatively easy to transport. Because of its solid and stable nature, it can be transported by truck, train, and boat to nearly anywhere. It is abundant, but due to excessively high coal demands, power plants require constant train shipments to keep meet local energy needs.
29 Natural Gas Transportation Natural Gas is most easily transported through pipelines, similar to Oil and Petroleum Products. Because most Natural Gasses are difficult to detect (They are often colorless and odorless) Special Chemicals, which produce a powerful odor, are added to make leaks more noticeable.
30 Power Plant Efficiency Typically Defined as the Amount of Heat Content per Amount of Electric Energy out, and Commonly Called a Heat Rate. The Unit Used to Measure Power Plant Efficiency is Btu/kWh or British Thermo Units per Kilowatt Hours.
31 Histogram representation of the distribution of Heat Rates for coal fired plants in the U.S. in (In Btu/kWh) Newer more efficient power plants have higher heat rates.
32 Data Table Representation of the Efficiency of Energy Sources (In BTU/kWh) by Year Petroleum Maintains the Highest Rating due to its High Initial Energy Density and its Ease of Processing
33 Sankey Diagrams Directional flowchart that typically depicts energy flow Width of arrows is proportional to quantity of the flow Flows can be combined, split, and traced through a series of events or stages Useful visual aid for quickly accessing energy flow in a system sample Sankey diagram
34 Energy flow of typical filament light bulb Low light energy output compared to electrical energy input High heat energy output (degradation)
35 Typical energy efficient light bulb Compared to filament light bulb, produces much more light energy for the same amount of electrical energy. This is visually evident by the width of the arrows. Note that both bulbs are not 100% efficient (always degradations)
36 Sankey Diagrams and Power Stations Concept of constant degradation also applies to power stations Sankey diagrams can be especially helpful in complex systems such as combustion engines and power stations
37 Thickness of yellow region represents input energy supplied by combustion A combined 75% of the initial energy is lost due to heat radiation and friction (red arrows) Of the the energy put into the engine, only 25% of that energy
38 Final energy output is 13,153 MJ; 32.7%of the total energy produced in the production of electricity Green region represents the 40,180 MJ of energy produced by primary energy sources for the global production of electricity More than half of that energy is lost when converting heat energy to mechanical energy via thermal radiation Thinner red arrows represent further degradation of potential electrical energy due to transmission, distribution, etc. (relatively small when compared to loss of energy due to thermal radiation)
39 Environmental Problems
40 The extraction of fossil fuels can be extremely disruptive to natural ecosystems. Incidents such as the Exxon Valdez and the BP Oil Spill can have a large and lasting effect on the environment. Use of Fossil Fuels in Power Stations releases pollutants such as CO 2 and Methane into the atmosphere. Carbon emissions are believed to be a significant factor in Global Climate Change. Oil Drilling leaves the land around it destroyed and harms both the geology of the landscape as well as local ecosystems.
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