Islam, African societies, and the European presence. Population of sub-saharan Africa: about million

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1 1 Islam, African societies, and the European presence Population of sub-saharan Africa: about million Number of Muslims : about 244 million The population of Muslims is not even, the largest concentration being in West Africa followed by North East Africa and the East African coast. There is a significant Muslim presence in Uganda southern Malawi, the Cape and KwaZulu-Natal regions of South Africa. Means through which Islam spread to sub-saharan Africa: a) mainly through trade, external and internal, b) migration into specific areas, c) missionary effort, d) in some cases, through jihads, f) colonial rule. West Africa: By the last quarter of the 8 th century CE, Islam had reached the Savannah region of West Africa through the Trans-Sahara trade, and was to spread in the broader Savannah region via internal trade, the Wangara and Djula, for example. The existence of relative peace in this area provided by large political systems, Ghana, Mali and Songhai for trade was to spread. Islam also spread to West Africa through migration the east and north-east, that is, today s northern Sudan Egypt and Libya. Islam as a critique if society: as is often the case in Islam and other religions, internal debates took place within it as to the direction it was tacking, whether or not Muslims themselves were following the tenets of the religion, and whether or not secular authority needed to be Islamic or to conform more to the ideals of the faith.

2 2 At the center of such debates were various sufi orders(mystic orders), the Qadiriyya and the less orthodox Tijaniyya, were heavily in This led to a number of major reform movements, also often referred to as jihads, in the 18th and 19th century West Africa. Of note are: a. those Upper Niger region, the Masina area (Ahmadu Ahmad) b. the Sokoto jihad led by Uthman dan Fodio, resulting in the creation of the Sokoto Caliphate, encompassing most of the area covered by today s northern Nigeria, and parts of Niger, Cameroon and Benin. c. Al-hajj Umar Taal s jihad further west which, although later centered in Segou, did not in a lasting political entity. In its own way, each jihad helped to spread Islam further, again within the savannah area. By the time Christian missionaries and European imperialism visited this part of the world, Islam was part of the everyday life of the people. North-east Africa and East Africa: Mainly because trade and its proximity to the home of Islam, the Horn of Africa became part of the Islamic world early. As commerce the between the East African coast and the Middle East and, later, the Indian sub-continent progressed in the first millennium CE, migration into the coastal region increased. Such immigrants intermarried with the indigenous people, leading to the emergence of the Swahili cultures centered in the various costal city such as Mogadishu, Lamu, Pate, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa further south states, all of which were Islamic.

3 3 They had little no meaningful contact with the interior, and Islam remained confined to the coast; what there was in the early 19th century was initiated by people such as the Kamba in central Kenya. There was one exception, however: the northern Mozambican coast through which Islam had entered the Mutapa empire in present day Zimbabwe as early as the 1600s. It did not flourish. The Busaidi dynasty and East Africa: active from the eighteenth century, moves headquarters from Oman to Zanzibar in 1840; most of the coastal states fall under its political control. With the increase of trade between the East Coast and the interior Muslims established a presence in places such Unyanyembe in northern Tanganyika, the Manyema country (eastern DRC) and Buganda ( in the1840s) in today s Uganda, where they attained major influence at the court of the Kabaka (king). This same area was soon to attract the attention of Christian missionaries and European imperial authorities. Southern Africa: Malawi: in the mid-nineteenth century, Yao of northern Mozambique who had traded in ivory as far as the Luangwa region of Zambia, began to settle in the area south of Lake Malawi. Their coastal links had introduced them to Islam, and they were to bring the faith in this land which was soon to be associated with British missionaries and the British government. South Africa: the first Muslims came from the Malay archipelago in the shape of political prisoners, and some times arrived as criminal, and that was from the

4 4 late 1650s onwards. Others were to arrive from India, Sri Lanka, and the east African coast. The fact that slave owners were Christians did not necessarily lead to conversion, mainly because change of status would have lead to change of status, equality before the Church and in any case such an owner would not have been allowed to sale the slave as his Christian religion would not have allowed him to do so. Many of the slaves would find Islam as a welcoming home, thereby spreading it. From the late 19th century onwards: European traders, Christian missionaries arrive, and soon Imperial/colonial rule imposed: In almost all cases Europeans-missionaries, traders, administrators- entered the African interior from the coast. (Islam: God reveals his will; in Christianity: God reveals himself; Christians/Jews are people of the book, have received a revelation but a lesser one, not infidels as such, and so they are dhimmi). The initial reaction of Muslims to this encounter was not uniform. Where missionaries were more understanding of Islam, the exception was on the friendly side as was the case initially in parts Sierra Leone. In West Africa traders generally had good relations with Muslims. However, conflict arose immediately when imperial powers imposed political authority over the hitherto independent peoples. Examples: in the Sokoto Caliphate, where there was resistance from the late 1900s to 1902; Samori Ture s war (early 1880s to 1898) with the French further west was more complicated. Some of the French experience from Algeria was often useful: conquer and respect the religious brotherhoods, and the marabouts (holy men); Senegal and Mauritania

5 5 is a case in point. In general there was no fixed policy; I was fluid. Ahmadu Bamba of the Muridyya is another case. The casthe Germans were to use the Muslim leaders to help administer the coastal areas. In Nyasaland (Malawi) the British fought battles with the Yao but, after defeating them, recruited them in the armed forces, and many became overseers in major government project. Uganda is a departure but only slightly: here Frederick Lugard of the British administration interfered to a point. Deep down colonial administrators, French and British, admired Islam as a monotheistic and world religion. Education: In French West Africa, schools were established, often with the cooperation of the local Islamic leadership. On the whole though, education, especially through Christian missionaries, tended to be viewed as an agent of western-christian-secular values. In British Africa, education was for a long the domain of Christian missionaries, and as the examples of the Yao and northern Nigeria shows. On the east coast it was slightly different. Missionaries had operated there from the mid 19th century, and the good relations between the Sultan of Zanzibar and the British/Europeans made it easier for them to introduce education where they had not done so yet. The main fear of most Muslims from the Cape to Kenya and from there to the Atlantic was secularization. Whereas some Muslims were prepared to use religion, that is, the Quran, the Sharia and the Hadith, to adopt and cop with change, many others used the same reason to try to recreate the ideal situation, that is go back to the ideal situation: the life and times of the Prophet, Muhammad.

6 This was a debate within Islam. In South Africa, for example, there was a sort of compromise which argued for both secular and religion education in which they also participated, of course, as long as they wore the hijab and covered their heads. This partly explains why, although there exists in South Africa very fundamentalists forms of Islam, the region also has the most westernized Muslim community in sub-saharan Africa. 6

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