# PHY222 Lab 7 - Magnetic Fields and Right Hand Rules Magnetic forces on wires, electron beams, coils; direction of magnetic field in a coil

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2 0. Introduction Electromagnetism is one of the most interesting and intriguing areas of physics to study. Certain kinds of objects are able to exert forces over distance for some reason. Charged rods attract or repel depending on their composition and the material they were rubbed with; magnets attract or repel depending on which poles are brought near to each other. A magnet will always attract a ferrous metal (steel, iron, etc) but has no effect on metals like aluminum or copper; or do they? You will investigate electromagnetic interactions using simple materials like batteries, wires, magnets, and more complex devices like a galvanometer. You will even build a simple motor. Once you understand how this motor works, you will, in principle, understand how all electric motors work. Do not bring your magnet near a computer monitor. You could crack the glass screen with these powerful magnets. The following sections in this Introduction cover the concepts and rules you need to complete the activities of this lab on magnetism. There are no formulae. In these lab activities you will be concerned with the directions of currents, magnetic fields, and magnetic forces but not with the magnitudes of the currents, fields, or forces. The summary here is complete but very terse. For more expansive explanations with examples and diagrams, refer to the general physics text citations given in each section below. 0.1 The nature of electric current Text Reference Knight, 2nd edition Ch. 33 Electric current always flows in closed loops. The conventional electric current in a circuit connected to a battery is always from the plus terminal of a battery toward the negative terminal. You should think of electric current as positive charges moving from the plus terminal of a battery to the negative terminal (even though in wires current is really negative electrons moving from the negative terminal to the positive terminal). 0.2 The nature of magnetic fields The lines of the magnetic field always form closed loops. 0.3 The nature of permanent magnets and their magnetic fields Text Reference Knight, 2 nd edition Ch. 33 Permanent magnets always have two poles, called N and S for North and South. Opposite magnetic poles attract, and like magnetic poles repel. Page 2

3 The magnetic field lines in the space outside a permanent magnet always have a direction that points away from N poles and towards S poles. Inside the permanent magnet, they point from S to N, thus completing continuous closed loops. They leave the permanent magnet at or near the N pole, re-enter the permanent magnet at or near the S pole, and continue through the permanent magnet back to the N pole. See the diagram to the right. F 0.4 Compass conventions Compass Lines of B The lines indicate the magnetic field, and the arrowheads show its direction. On the compass, the arrowhead is the red end of the pointer needle. Figure 1 How to use a compass to determine the direction of a magnetic field Each compass used in this lab has a pointer needle. One end of the pointer needle is painted red, and the other is white. Figure 1 shows how to use a compass to determine the direction of a magnetic field. The red end of the pointer needle points in the direction of the magnetic field. 0.5 Right Hand Rule #1: Direction of magnetic forces on charges moving in magnetic fields Text Reference Knight, 2 nd ed. Ch. 33 see for example, p If a charged particle in a magnetic field has velocity zero m/s, the magnetic field exerts zero force on the particle. If a charged particle with positive charge, such as a proton, is moving in a magnetic field, the relation between the direction of the particle's velocity, the direction of the magnetic field, and the direction of the magnetic force on the particle is given by the Right Hand Rule. See the references for the statement of the Right Hand Rule. If a charged particle with negative charge, such as an electron, is moving in a magnetic field, the magnetic force is in a direction opposite to the direction given by the Right Hand Rule. Page 3

5 2. Activity #2: Lab instructor presents the e/m apparatus to each group As each group of lab partners completes their review of the pre-lab questions, the instructor shows the group the e/m apparatus. The purpose is to ensure that everybody knows what they are seeing when the look at the e/m apparatus. Outer coils produce a magnetic field parallel to the floor High-quality vacuum inside the glass bulb Electron gun (hot cathode boils electrons out of the wire, accelerating potential) Electrons move in a circle due to the magnetic field Electron trajectory is visible because the low pressure gas inside the tube glows due to electron impacts with gas molecules 3. Activity #3: Force on a current carrying wire. Equipment: Bar magnet (Alnico preferred; N and S taped over with masking tape; ends randomly re-labeled A and B) Suspension Loop as in Figure 2. (Bare 22 gauge wire suspended by two lengths of 30 gauge wire. Short lengths of insulated 22 gauge wire connected to the 30 gauge wire for making the connection to the battery. Wire-to-wire connections are soldered.) D-cell in a D-cell holder Banana wires (one pair) Battery + - Table top Tape here Copper wire Figure 2 The Suspension Loop when connected to the battery Do not connect the Suspension Loop to the battery at this time. The lab instructors do not take off points for wrong answers to the questions in Activity #3. Page 5

6 Q 1 If the Suspension Loop were connected to the battery and the N pole of a vertical bar magnet were placed directly below the short horizontal wire at the bottom of the loop, which way would the Suspension Loop deflect? Toward the table or away from the table? Explain your answer using Right Hand Rule #1 (the rule which gives the direction of the magnetic force on a moving positive charge). Q 2 The same question as the previous question, but this time the S pole of a vertical bar magnet is directly below the Suspension Loop. 3.1 When performing the following steps, try to have the suspension loop (see Figure 2) connected to the battery for as little time as possible. This is to keep the battery from running down too soon. 3.2 Without using excess time, but still being careful, do the following Use alligator clips to clamp the Suspension Loop leads to the posts on the battery holder With your bar magnet oriented vertically and having the pole labeled A up, slowly bring the A pole up under the Suspension Loop and observe which way the Suspension Loop deflects. Q 3 Which way did the Suspension Loop deflect? Toward the table or away from the table? Q 4 Based on the answer to Q 3, is the A end of the bar magnet an N pole or a S pole? Repeat but with the B end of the bar magnet up Disconnect the Suspension Loop from the battery. Page 6

7 Q 5 Which way did the Suspension Loop deflect? Toward the table or away from the table? Q 6 Based only on the answer to Q 5, is the B end of the bar magnet an N pole or a S pole? 3.3 Remove the masking tape from your bar magnet, and see if your identification of the polarity of the ends of the bar magnet were correct. Q 7 Did you correctly identify the polarity of the ends of your bar magnet? (Yes or No) 3.4 If you did not correctly identify the polarity of the ends of your bar magnet, please consult with your lab instructor to determine what went wrong. 4. Activity #4: Electron beam moving in a magnetic field Equipment: e/m apparatus with power supplies (one setup as a demonstration shared by everyone in the lab) Electron beam inside glass bulb. Inside the bulb is a near vacuum, containing only a low pressure gas which glows when electrons collide with these atoms.? Current carrying coils Accelerating voltage Current to coil Figure 3 Electron beam moving in the magnetic field produced by current-carrying coils of wire Page 7

8 4.1 Note the electron beam in a magnetic field prominently displayed in the lab. The direction in which the electrons are moving is as indicated in Figure 3. Q 8 The beam is composed of electrons, and the electrons are moving counterclockwise in uniform circular motion. Which direction in the beam does electric current flow? Clockwise or counterclockwise? Explain. Q 9 At the center of the electrons' orbit (where the? is) in, which direction does the magnetic field created by the moving electrons point? With respect to Figure 3, choose from (1) up, (2) left, (3) right, (4) down, (5) into the paper, or (6) out of the paper. Explain your answer using Right Hand Rule #2. Q 10 From the direction in which the electrons move, determine the direction of the magnetic field created by the coils. With respect to Figure 3, choose from (1) up, (2) left, (3) right, (4) down, (5) into the paper, or (6) out of the paper. Explain your answer using the Right Hand Rule #1. Method: You need to begin by identifying the direction of the force that the magnetic field created by the coils exerts on the electrons in the beam. From the direction of the magnetic force on the electrons and their velocity, you can determine the direction of the coil's magnetic field. Page 8

9 5. Activity #5: Predicting the magnetic field around a coil of wire Equipment: Large coil of wire D-cell battery in D-cell holder Magnetic compass Banana plug wires; two, one red and one black Alligator clips (one pair) that can plug onto banana wire plugs S F Figure 4 A compass inside a coil connected to a battery Do not connect the coil to the battery at this time. The lab instructors do not take points off for wrong answers to the questions in Activity # Carefully inspect your coil to determine which way the wire in the coil is wound. If you are not sure, ask your lab instructor to assist you. Q 11 For someone looking at your coil face-on, like Figure 4, and if the battery were connected as in Figure 4, would the current flow clockwise or counterclockwise? Q 12 If your coil were connected to the battery as in Figure 4, which way would the magnetic field inside the coil point (for a person looking at the coil face-on)? Out of the paper and toward you? Or into the paper and away from you? Use the Right Hand Rule to explain your answer. Page 9

10 Q 13 With the compass inside the coil, which way would the needle of the compass point, if the coil were connected to the battery as in Figure 4? With respect to Figure 4, out of the paper toward you, or into the paper away from you? Explain your answer in terms of the way a compass needle responds to a magnetic field. Q 14 With the compass outside the coil and on top of it, which way would the compass needle point (still pretending the coil is connected to the battery as in Figure 4)? With respect to Figure 4, out of the paper toward you, or into the paper away from you? Explain your answer in terms of the way a compass needle responds to a magnetic field. 6. Activity #6: Tracing the field of a magnet and of a coil with a compass 6.1 Without using excess time (to avoid discharging the battery), but still being careful, do the following Use banana plug wires, with an alligator clip plugged onto one end, to connect the positive terminal of the battery to the socket marked S on the coil Similarly, connect the negative terminal of the battery to the socket marked F on the coil. 6.2 Use your compass to trace the magnetic field of the coil as follows: Put the compass inside the coil, and observe the direction in which the compass needle points Put the compass outside the coil but near to the ends of the coil (the end toward you and the end away from you), and observe the direction in which the compass needle points in both cases Hold the compass above and to the sides of the coil, and again observe the direction in which the compass needle points. Page 10

11 Q 15 With a diagram, describe the field of the coil, as determined by using the compass. Q 16 Were your answers to questions Q 13 and Q 14 correct? (If they were not, please consult with your lab instructor to determine what went wrong.) 6.3 Reverse the polarity of the battery, and again trace the field of the coil with your compass. 6.4 Disconnect the coil from the battery. Q 17 Briefly describe how the magnetic field of the coil changed when the battery was reversed. 6.5 Use your compass to trace the magnetic field of your bar magnet. Do this by: Put the compass at the ends of the bar magnet, and observe the direction in which the compass needle points in both cases Hold the compass above and to the sides of the bar magnet, and again observe the direction in which the compass needle points. Q 18 With a diagram, describe the field of the bar magnet, as determined by using the compass. Q 19 Compare the magnetic fields of a coil and a bar magnet. Hint: see section When you are done... Turn in this handout, with all questions answered. Page 11

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