ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP 18, February 1989) 3845 Buffalo Rd., Auburn, CA SECULARISM: A MISSING FORCE IN MIDDLE EASTERN AFFAIRS. Elias H.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP 18, February 1989) 3845 Buffalo Rd., Auburn, CA SECULARISM: A MISSING FORCE IN MIDDLE EASTERN AFFAIRS. Elias H."

Transcription

1 ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP 18, February 1989) 3845 Buffalo Rd., Auburn, CA SECULARISM: A MISSING FORCE IN MIDDLE EASTERN AFFAIRS Elias H. Tuma The Middle East has been known for its religions, strong religious belief of the people, and confessionalism or theocratic character of the states in the region. However, it is little admitted or recognized that confessionalism and state theocracy have been obstacles in the way of economic development, stability, and modernism. To pretend that confessionalism, as opposed to state secularism or separation of church from state, can be reconciled with the objectives and expectations of the people in the Middle East region has no doubt been self deceiving. Confessionalism has never been easy to reconcile with strong nationalism, national unity, a unified market, political stability, efficient or rapid economic development, or peace and security, which are the main objectives of the Middle East countries. Observations of the last few decades suggest that most of these objectives remain unfulfilled. It is true that other obstacles have stood in the way, but confessionalism cannot be ruled out as one of the major obstacles to the realization of these objectives. Confessionalism at the level of the community or the nation means applying one's religious beliefs to all aspects of society and failure to separate "church from state". In this sense confessionalism dictates separatism between one religious group and another within the same country or nation. It also infringes on the ability of the segmented society to fulfill goals that require national unity and cooperation. Even a cursory look at the prevailing conditions in 1

2 the Middle East should be sufficient to illustrate the harm that confessionalism has inflicted on groups and nations of the region. National unity demands cooperation of all the citizens in the name of the nation and willingness to sacrifice personal goals for collective ones. The adoption and enforcement of a state religion have tended to obstruct the development of a strong nationalist and unified state. Protecting a minority religion in a confessional state has rarely succeeded in reconciling nationalism with confessionalism. Egypt, among the Middle Eastern states, has probably been the most successful but still not successful enough to remove conflict between its different religious communities, the Christian Coptic minority and the Muslim majority, and thereby solidify national sentiments. In fact, solidarity is not evident within the Muslim community itself, given the various sections, interpretations, and degrees of fundamentalism within Islam in Egypt and elsewhere. Worse situations exist in Sudan, Lebanon, Iran, and Israel. The Sudan has lost hundreds of thousands of people killed by civil war and starvation, and is now threatened with partition between north and south because of confessionalism. The adoption of Islam as state religion and the Shari'a law as state law by the North is in contradiction with the rights of citizens to freedom of belief and expression, rights expected by the Christian minority in the South. Lebanon has been shattered: Christians fight Christians, Muslims fight Muslims, and factions within each denomination or sect fight each other. Few people retain hope that Lebanon can be put together again, at least in part because of the predominance of confessionalism in the life of the Lebanese. Iran has just concluded a war that had resulted from the revived confessionalism and the fundamentalism of its leaders. 2

3 Israel at one time seemed immune to factionalism within the Jewish community, but it never was immune to the conflict implicit in the confessionalism of Arabs and Jews. Unity within the Jewish community has now been shattered: the attempt to promote freedom of religion and apply secularism to the affairs of state has been undermined by increasing Orthodoxy and fundamentalism among the Jews within and outside the country. It is possible in all these cases to blame the schism on political aspirations, foreign intervention, poverty and inequality of income and wealth distribution. Yet, even when all these factors have been accounted for, confessionalism as an holistic concept of faith that applies to all aspects of life stands out as the most serious obstacle to nationalism, national unity, and solidarity in the region. The resulting political instability and disunity have left their impact on the societies, the economies, the international relations, and the futures of the individual countries in the Middle East, as well as on the region as a whole. Social relations have been undermined because of discrimination against or in favor of religious minorities. Claims to the contrary notwithstanding, it is easy to show that religious minorities enjoy certain benefits in some countries and disbenefits in others, whether in holding public office, representation in government, or access to domestic and international economic opportunities. Social disunity has been accompanied by market and economic disunity which have negatively affected the process of economic development within the individual countries and in the region at large. The inequality of development in Lebanon since independence can easily be identified with religious divisions within the country. The inequality of development between Lebanon and other Arab countries has often been associated with differences in religious affiliation. 3

4 Confessionalism and adoption of a state religion have also been costly in countries which are homogeneous in belief but exclusive toward other religions. The Arabian Peninsula countries, which had excluded non-muslims for many years, may have delayed their own development because of their dependence on the expertise and human capital of non-muslim outsiders. Even today, such exclusion is practiced widely though in a modified form. Another serious negative effect of confessionalism may be observed in the contradiction which arises from attempts to advance science, technology, and economic development. Religious and religiously-oriented systems of education tend to be traditional, conformist, and little conducive to creativity and independent thinking. The Shari'a rules on finance, investment, inheritance, and public trusts were most helpful when all parties with whom Muslims transacted behaved according to those same rules and principles. However, times have changed, expectations have changed, and the business parties have changed. Most of these changes have been in favor of secularism or the separation of religion from the affairs of state and the economy. Yet the Middle East countries continue to practice confessionalism in an old-fashioned way. It is evident, also, that the secular countries, whether in the East or the West, have been more successful in advancing science and technology and developing their economies than the confessional countries have been; the gap between the two seems to be growing rather than contracting. Secular countries have produced many more serious thinkers, inventors, and innovators than non-secular countries. They have elevated the quality of life for their people far above the levels achieved by the confessional countries. It is ironic that confessional countries which enjoy relatively high standards of living 4

5 have achieved those standards by depending on knowledge, capital, and expertise imported from secular countries. Probably the most serious economic cost of confessionalism is the loss of efficiency in the use of resources for economic development. This loss may be observed in at least three different areas: wasteful expenditure on confessionally induced wars, civil or otherwise; destruction of human and material capital because of conflict; and exclusion of or discrimination against certain groups from efficient use of their abilities in the economy. Women, for example, who form more than half of the population and of the potential labor force in many of these countries have faced serious handicaps in realizing their potential. They have been excluded or discriminated against in the name of religion and tradition, which reinforce each other. The cost to the national economy because of this exclusion has not been measured but it is undoubtedly immense. These observations and arguments strongly suggest the need for the countries of the Middle East to reconsider their commitment to confessionalism in light of their own objectives and expectations. Reconsideration of confessionalism and emphasis on secularism at the national and community levels do not mean a compromise of religion or faith. On the contrary, reassessment may lead to a deeper religious commitment by the individual as a personal experience and by free choice. Such renewed commitment would be a relationship between the individual and the deity. All other matters, however, would then be conducted according to secular rules, reason, efficiency, and in cooperation with others in the nation, regardless of religious faith or denomination. Both theory and history suggest that secularism may be an indispensable bridge in the affairs of the Middle East. Secularism would eliminate or at least 5

6 reduce most of the sources of internal and intraregional conflict, smooth the way for better relations with countries outside the region, and facilitate more efficient use of the human and material resources the countries of the Middle East have at their disposal. Elias H. Tuma is a professor at the University of California, Davis. These views are those of the author and do not implicate the University in any way. AVP is a non-profit, non-partisan monthly forum for constructive ideas, published by Elias H.Tuma. Original contributions and commentary are welcome. AVP may be reproduced and distributed freely; mention of AVP would be appreciated. Lori Aoun and John Tuma are Assistant Editors. 6

What do we know about American s views on the US-Israel relationship? Results from a 5 year panel of US voters

What do we know about American s views on the US-Israel relationship? Results from a 5 year panel of US voters What do we know about American s views on the US-Israel relationship? Results from a 5 year panel of US voters Question: How did economic hard times effect US attitudes? 6000 person survey conducted on

More information

Community Dialogue Participant s Guide. Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World

Community Dialogue Participant s Guide. Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World Community Dialogue Participant s Guide Many Religions, One Community: Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World Many Religions, One Community Guidelines for Interfaith Dialogues Remember the goals of

More information

The Plight of Christians in the Middle East. Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil

The Plight of Christians in the Middle East. Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil AP PHOTO/HUSSEIN MALLA The Plight of Christians in the Middle East Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil By Brian Katulis, Rudy deleon, and John Craig March 2015

More information

COMMITTEE ON CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

COMMITTEE ON CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION Updated 24 June 2009 COMMITTEE ON CULTURE, SCIENCE AND EDUCATION Hearing on Islam, Islamism and Islamophobia in Europe Rapporteur: Mr Mogens Jensen, Denmark, Socialist Group Copenhagen, Tuesday, 8 September

More information

A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion

A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion For 40 years, public opinion has consistently favored Israel over the Palestinians by Robert Ruby, Senior Editor, Pew Forum on Religion & Public

More information

Volunteering and the Relationship between the Public Sector and NGOs

Volunteering and the Relationship between the Public Sector and NGOs Volunteering and the Relationship between the Public Sector and NGOs N. Kanaan, IYV 2001 National Committee Lebanon Volunteering and the Relationship between the Public Sector and NGOs 1. The Evolution

More information

UNITED NATIONS LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE

UNITED NATIONS LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE UNITED NATIONS LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE The urgency of realizing a two-state solution Montevideo, 29 and 30 March 2011 CHECK AGAINST DELIVERY OPENING

More information

JERUSALEM: FROM CONFLICT TO COMPROMISE? An Abstract by Moshe Ma oz

JERUSALEM: FROM CONFLICT TO COMPROMISE? An Abstract by Moshe Ma oz JERUSALEM: FROM CONFLICT TO COMPROMISE? An Abstract by Moshe Ma oz The Old City of Jerusalem, about one square kilometer in size, is the only site in the universe that has always been sacred to all three

More information

Turning insult into opportunity: Anti-Shari ah sentiments in America and their implications for American Muslims Celene Ayat Lizzio

Turning insult into opportunity: Anti-Shari ah sentiments in America and their implications for American Muslims Celene Ayat Lizzio Turning insult into opportunity: Anti-Shari ah sentiments in America and their implications for American Muslims Celene Ayat Lizzio By many measures, Muslims in the U.S. are thriving, satisfied, and optimistic,

More information

QATAR 2014 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT

QATAR 2014 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT 2014 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT Executive Summary The constitution stipulates that Islam is the state religion, and national law incorporates both secular legal traditions and sharia. The law

More information

Religious education. Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 4. (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007)

Religious education. Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 4. (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Religious education Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 4 and years 12 and 13 (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority

More information

STATEMENT OF THE HOLY SEE AT THE EIGTHEENTH MINISTERIAL COUNCIL OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE) DELIVERED BY

STATEMENT OF THE HOLY SEE AT THE EIGTHEENTH MINISTERIAL COUNCIL OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE) DELIVERED BY MC.DEL/8/11 6 December 2011 ENGLISH only STATEMENT OF THE HOLY SEE AT THE EIGTHEENTH MINISTERIAL COUNCIL OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE) DELIVERED BY HIS EXCELLENCY ARCHBISHOP

More information

LIBYA. There were no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious affiliation, belief, or practice.

LIBYA. There were no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious affiliation, belief, or practice. LIBYA The country does not have a constitution, and there is no explicit legal protection for religious freedom. Although the Great Green Charter on Human Rights of the Jamahiriya Era provides for some

More information

Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard

Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard In early November, Mondial interviewed Ziad Abdel Samad, Executive Director of the Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND, based in Beirut). ANND is a regional

More information

Testimony of Anne Davis, MD, MPH. Medical Director. September 12, 2008

Testimony of Anne Davis, MD, MPH. Medical Director. September 12, 2008 Testimony of Anne Davis, MD, MPH Medical Director Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health Before the President s Council on Bioethics September 12, 2008 My name is Dr. Anne Davis, and I am an Associate

More information

Course Description. Course objectives

Course Description. Course objectives POSC 277: Religion in Politics: Conflict or Dialogue? Winter 2016 Class Hours: MW 1:50PM- 3:00AM, F 2:20PM-3:20AM Classroom: Willis 211 Professor: Mihaela Czobor-Lupp Office: Willis 418 Office Hours: M:

More information

59 th UIA CONGRESS Valencia / Spain October 28 November 1, 2015 FAMILY LAW COMMISSION

59 th UIA CONGRESS Valencia / Spain October 28 November 1, 2015 FAMILY LAW COMMISSION 59 th UIA CONGRESS Valencia / Spain October 28 November 1, 2015 FAMILY LAW COMMISSION Thursday, 29 October, 2015 FAMILY LAW AND RELIGION Simon Bruce, Caroline Holley and Flora Harragin Farrer & Co LLP

More information

JUDAISM PRE-TEST. 1. After World War II, Jews from all over the world moved to the state of.

JUDAISM PRE-TEST. 1. After World War II, Jews from all over the world moved to the state of. 1 PRE-TEST Directions: Fill in the blank with the correct answer: 1. After World War II, Jews from all over the world moved to the state of. 2. The is made up of the first five books of the Old Testament.

More information

The contribution of religious education and collective worship to community cohesion

The contribution of religious education and collective worship to community cohesion The contribution of religious education and collective worship to community cohesion Background In July 2007 the DCSF published its guidance on the duty to promote community cohesion in regard to the statutory

More information

The Arab Awakening and Peace in the Middle East : Muslim and Christian Perspectives

The Arab Awakening and Peace in the Middle East : Muslim and Christian Perspectives The Arab Awakening and Peace in the Middle East : Muslim and Christian Perspectives International Conference Istanbul, September 7-8, 2012 Address of Rev. Father Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot Secretary Pontifical

More information

M.A. in Middle Eastern Cultures and Religions

M.A. in Middle Eastern Cultures and Religions M.A. in Middle Eastern Cultures and Religions Purpose and Objectives The Department of Middle Eastern Cultures and Religions offers students the opportunity to learn about the peoples, societies and cultures

More information

Community A company or fellowship of people A group of people who have something in common A religious family or group

Community A company or fellowship of people A group of people who have something in common A religious family or group Unit 4 Authority Religion & State Christianity & Islam Key concepts Laws Rules and agreed limits to behaviour and action Written statements that define acceptable behaviour Duties and expectations of people

More information

Signposts of Democracy (adapted from Signposts of Democracy, Streetlaw, Inc.

Signposts of Democracy (adapted from Signposts of Democracy, Streetlaw, Inc. Signposts of Democracy (adapted from Signposts of Democracy, Streetlaw, Inc. http://www.streetlaw.org/democlesson.html) Introduction: Freedom House, an international organization that monitors political

More information

More than nine-in-ten Hispanics identify with a specific religion. That, along with several other measures

More than nine-in-ten Hispanics identify with a specific religion. That, along with several other measures Chapter 2 Religious Practices and Beliefs More than nine-in-ten Hispanics identify with a specific religion. That, along with several other measures of belief and behavior, means that Hispanics as a group

More information

Religious education. Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 3. (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007)

Religious education. Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 3. (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Religious education Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 3 and attainment targets (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority

More information

Silver School of Social Work

Silver School of Social Work Silver School of Social Work UNDSW US 67 Social Justice and Peacemaking (4 CLI UG.1444, Lyrics on Lockdown (4 S99.2111, Ending Poverty: Models for Social Change and Social Action (4 TBD, Tweeting for the

More information

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. [on the report of the Third Committee (A/53/625/Add.2)]

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. [on the report of the Third Committee (A/53/625/Add.2)] UNITED NATIONS A General Assembly Distr. GENERAL A/RES/53/144 8 March 1999 Fifty-third session Agenda item 110 (b) RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY [on the report of the Third Committee (A/53/625/Add.2)]

More information

NIGERIA: FROM SHARI A MOVEMENT TO BOKO HARAM

NIGERIA: FROM SHARI A MOVEMENT TO BOKO HARAM DRAFT: JUNE 2012 NIGERIA: FROM SHARI A MOVEMENT TO BOKO HARAM By Ali A. Mazrui Director, Institute of Global Cultural Studies and Albert Schweitzer Professor in the Humanities Binghamton University State

More information

Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies

Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies Some athletes in the U.S. combine sport participation and religion in ways that are rare in other societies. Chapter 15 Sports and Religion: Is It a Promising

More information

Political Science. 222 2014-2016 Haigazian University

Political Science. 222 2014-2016 Haigazian University Political Science Coordinator: Maximilian Felsch, Ph.D. The Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences offers the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Political Science. On completion of the degree in Political

More information

Muslims of Europe Charter

Muslims of Europe Charter Muslims of Europe Charter Since early 2000, the Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe (FIOE) debated the establishment of a charter for the Muslims of Europe, setting out the general principles

More information

Understanding Secularism. Chapter 2

Understanding Secularism. Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Understanding Secularism Imagine yourself as a Hindu or Muslim living in a part of the United States of America where Christian fundamentalism is very powerful. Suppose that despite being a US

More information

An extensive new survey by the Pew Forum on Religion

An extensive new survey by the Pew Forum on Religion An extensive new survey by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life details the religious affiliation of the American public and explores the shifts taking place in the U.S. religious landscape. Based on

More information

Values in NSW public schools

Values in NSW public schools Values in NSW public schools A Ministerial Statement by Hon Andrew Refshauge, MP, Deputy Premier Minister for Education and Training and Minister for Aboriginal Affairs March 2004 A Ministerial Statement

More information

CHILD PLACING AGENCY RELIG. CONFLICT H.B. 4188 (H-2), 4189, & 4190: ANALYSIS AS REPORTED FROM COMMITTEE

CHILD PLACING AGENCY RELIG. CONFLICT H.B. 4188 (H-2), 4189, & 4190: ANALYSIS AS REPORTED FROM COMMITTEE CHILD PLACING AGENCY RELIG. CONFLICT H.B. 4188 (H-2), 4189, & 4190: ANALYSIS AS REPORTED FROM COMMITTEE House Bill 4188 (Substitute H-2 as reported without amendment) House Bills 4189 and 4190 (as reported

More information

Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East

Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East Dates of Independence for Nations of SW Asia/Middle East Nationalistic issues of Palestinian Arabs remain unresolved Ottoman Empire Falls Ottoman empire begins

More information

Section 1: You should only answer all the questions on the topic you have studied.

Section 1: You should only answer all the questions on the topic you have studied. X265/12/01 NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS 2015 FRIDAY, 8 MAY 1.00 PM 2.45 PM RELIGIOUS, MORAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES HIGHER Paper 1 There are two Sections in this paper: Section 1 Morality in the Modern World

More information

The Cairo Declaration

The Cairo Declaration The Cairo Declaration We, people with disabilities and disabled people s organizations (DPOs) representing 66 countries from around the world, have participated in the international conference titled United

More information

Religious Differences or Religious Similarities? History teaches us that religion plays a major role in society worldwide.

Religious Differences or Religious Similarities? History teaches us that religion plays a major role in society worldwide. Religious Differences or Religious Similarities? History teaches us that religion plays a major role in society worldwide. Religious differences have led to wars and violent groups. I, however, believe

More information

Mr. President, Mr. Secretary General, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen,

Mr. President, Mr. Secretary General, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, 1 Mr. Secretary General, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, I would like to congratulate His Excellency, the Foreign Minister of Gabon, upon his assumption of the Presidency of the General

More information

2015 Update in 19 Countries

2015 Update in 19 Countries 2015 Update in 19 Countries Methodology The Anti-Defamation League commissioned First International Resources to update attitudes and opinions toward Jews in 19 countries around the world. Fieldwork and

More information

chapter 4: How do religious beliefs affect politics?

chapter 4: How do religious beliefs affect politics? chapter 4: How do religious beliefs affect politics? POLS 374 foundations of global politics winter 2011 opening questions does religion matter in global politics? what do you think? what does the author

More information

MEDITATIONS FOR PENTECOST 7. Jerusalem has been around for a long time. The name of the city first appears in

MEDITATIONS FOR PENTECOST 7. Jerusalem has been around for a long time. The name of the city first appears in MEDITATIONS FOR PENTECOST 7 Isaiah 66:10-14 Jerusalem has been around for a long time. The name of the city first appears in Egyptian texts some 1900 years before the birth of Jesus. The name Jerusalem

More information

Abdy Javadzadeh. 13358 SW 28 st phone: (305) 610-8148 Miramar, FL 33027

Abdy Javadzadeh. 13358 SW 28 st phone: (305) 610-8148 Miramar, FL 33027 Abdy Javadzadeh mailing address: email: ajavadzadeh@stu.edu 13358 SW 28 st phone: (305) 610-8148 Miramar, FL 33027 EDUCATION Florida International University, Ph.D. in Sociology (2007) Florida Atlantic

More information

About the Trust Frequently Asked Questions

About the Trust Frequently Asked Questions About the Trust Frequently Asked Questions Welcome A very warm welcome from the Tauheedul Education Trust. We are an academy trust based in Blackburn, Lancashire. We run Muslim faith based and non-faith

More information

OMAN 2014 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT

OMAN 2014 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT OMAN 2014 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT Executive Summary The Basic Law prohibits discrimination based on religion and protects the right of individuals to practice religious rites on the condition

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations 2 United Nations Plaza DC New York

Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations 2 United Nations Plaza DC New York 11-33011 -1- Translated from Spanish ECR-449-2011 The Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and has the honour

More information

Profile. Jerusalem University College

Profile. Jerusalem University College Profile Jerusalem University College 6 Profile History Located on Mount Zion, adjacent to the southwest corner of the Old City wall, Jerusalem University College had its beginnings as the Institute of

More information

Erbil Declaration. Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325

Erbil Declaration. Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325 Erbil Declaration Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325 The Women s Security Forum on Resolution No 1325 for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region concluded its work in Erbil

More information

7th Grade World Civilization Objectives

7th Grade World Civilization Objectives 7th Grade World Civilization Objectives Unit One Beginning of Human Civilization Unit Students will explain the historic development and achievements of the early civilizations. Explain how geography played

More information

Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014

Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014 Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014 Should the right to marry for same-sex couples become a federal constitutional right by amendment to the United States Constitution or remain a State issue? The United

More information

WOMEN AND LAND RIGHTS: LEGAL BARRIERS IMPEDE WOMEN S ACCESS TO RESOURCES

WOMEN AND LAND RIGHTS: LEGAL BARRIERS IMPEDE WOMEN S ACCESS TO RESOURCES WOMEN AND LAND RIGHTS WOMEN AND LAND RIGHTS: LEGAL BARRIERS IMPEDE WOMEN S ACCESS TO RESOURCES SEPTEMBER 2013 CONNECT A THOMSON REUTERS FOUNDATION SERVICE WOMEN AND LAND RIGHTS: LEGAL BARRIERS IMPEDE WOMEN

More information

A report by Saied Reza Ameli and Arzu Merali for the Islamic Human Rights Commission

A report by Saied Reza Ameli and Arzu Merali for the Islamic Human Rights Commission A report by Saied Reza Ameli and Arzu Merali for the Islamic Human Rights Commission Dual Citizenship: British, Islamic or Both? Obligation, Recognition, Respect and Belonging A report by Saied Reza Ameli

More information

Chapter 9: Interest Groups Section 1: The Nature of Interest Groups

Chapter 9: Interest Groups Section 1: The Nature of Interest Groups Key Words: public policy, public affairs A. The Role of Interest Groups Chapter 9: Interest Groups Section 1: The Nature of Interest Groups 1. Interest groups seek to influence public policy. Public policy

More information

Citizenship. (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007

Citizenship. (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007 Citizenship Programme of study for key stage 4 (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007 Curriculum aims Learning and undertaking

More information

The survey found a majority of both Israelis and Palestinians supported the peace plan that was presented to them: don t know/refuse

The survey found a majority of both Israelis and Palestinians supported the peace plan that was presented to them: don t know/refuse 245 East 92 nd Street 1 New York, NY 10128 Tel: (212) 534-4000 Fax: (212) 360 7423 Mark Douglas Schoen Michael EXECUTIVE SUMMARY We conducted a survey on behalf of the International Crisis Group and the

More information

Written by Administrator Saturday, 09 August :49 - Last Updated Sunday, 14 November :19

Written by Administrator Saturday, 09 August :49 - Last Updated Sunday, 14 November :19 OUR MANIFESTO'S GUIDING PRINCIPLES We of the Peoples Democratic party of Nigeria, conscious of; our historic mission to build a modern democratic state founded on Justice, Equity and Fair play. Realizing

More information

The role of religious leaders in maintenance of peace and prevention of conflicts: Address by Mr. Adama Dieng, the United Nations Under-Secretary

The role of religious leaders in maintenance of peace and prevention of conflicts: Address by Mr. Adama Dieng, the United Nations Under-Secretary The role of religious leaders in maintenance of peace and prevention of conflicts: Address by Mr. Adama Dieng, the United Nations Under-Secretary General, and the UN Secretary General Special Adviser on

More information

CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SENEGAL Adopted on 7 January 2001

CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SENEGAL Adopted on 7 January 2001 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SENEGAL Adopted on 7 January 2001 The sovereign people of Senegal, PREAMBLE Deeply attached to their fundamental cultural values which constitute the cement of national

More information

The Iraqi Conflict: Its Impact on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

The Iraqi Conflict: Its Impact on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict T The Iraqi Conflict: Its Impact on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict by Eric Rouleau here is a widespread belief in the Arab world and in western pro- Palestinian circles that there is a strong Israeli

More information

How Important is Religion? The Case of the Sudan Peace Negotiations By Endre Stiansen,

How Important is Religion? The Case of the Sudan Peace Negotiations By Endre Stiansen, How Important is Religion? The Case of the Sudan Peace Negotiations By Endre Stiansen, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) Religion was a core issue in the Sudanese civil war (-00). Few

More information

Human Rights Watch Submission

Human Rights Watch Submission The Human Rights Watch Submission October 2015 Social Framework. onmental and Human Rights Watch welcomes a number of improvements over the initial draft of the framework, including regarding labor standards

More information

In Turkey, Islamists and Democracy, Yildiz Atasoy seeks to analyze the growth

In Turkey, Islamists and Democracy, Yildiz Atasoy seeks to analyze the growth Turkey, Islamists and Democracy: Transition and Globalization in a Muslim State, by Yildiz Atasoy. London, UK and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005.190pages. References to p. 214. Index to p. 227. $ In Turkey,

More information

Best Practices for Christian Ministry among Forcibly Displaced People

Best Practices for Christian Ministry among Forcibly Displaced People Best Practices for Christian Ministry among Forcibly Displaced People Refugee Highway Partnership The first draft of this document was made in November 2001 during the Global Consultation of the Refugee

More information

THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico

THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico Lopez Obrador believes in the principles of self-determination, cooperation and international peace for

More information

Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué

Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué 30.06.2012 1. On 30 June 2012, the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the League of Arab States, the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Russia, United

More information

SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY "THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES"

SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY "THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES" The Kingdom s Profile Located in the South West of the Asian Continent, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stretches more than two million Square Kilometers which

More information

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION MODIFIED LANGUAGE

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION MODIFIED LANGUAGE THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION RELIGIOUS STUDIES B (PHILOSOPHY AND/OR APPLIED ETHICS) Ethics 1 (Relationships, Medical Ethics, Poverty and Wealth) B603 * OCE / 2

More information

Pentecostal Views on Violent Crises in Plateau State: Pilot Study Report NPCRC Technical Report #N1101

Pentecostal Views on Violent Crises in Plateau State: Pilot Study Report NPCRC Technical Report #N1101 Pentecostal Views on Violent Crises in Plateau State: Pilot Study Report NPCRC Technical Report #N1101 Dr. K. A. Korb 31 January 2011 Executive Summary The primary purpose of this study was to determine

More information

Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime

Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime 1 Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime The Syrian dictatorship s use of chemical weapons against its own people was terrible. But we must not let it overshadow the larger

More information

Inter-Agency EGM on Employment and Decent Work for Poverty Eradication, in Support of the Second UN Decade for the Eradication of Poverty ( )

Inter-Agency EGM on Employment and Decent Work for Poverty Eradication, in Support of the Second UN Decade for the Eradication of Poverty ( ) Inter-Agency EGM on Employment and Decent Work for Poverty Eradication, in Support of the Second UN Decade for the Eradication of Poverty (2008-2017) 4-6 May 2016; Bangkok, Thailand Review of progress

More information

Men in Charge? Gender Equality and Children s Rights in Contemporary Families

Men in Charge? Gender Equality and Children s Rights in Contemporary Families International Day of Families 2015 Observance Men in Charge? Gender Equality and Children s Rights in Contemporary Families Background Note Gender equality and children s rights in family laws Fair legal

More information

Perception of Conflict Amongst Youth and Local Leaders

Perception of Conflict Amongst Youth and Local Leaders Search for Common Ground Pakistan Perception of Conflict Amongst Youth and Local Leaders Key Findings October 2012 Executive Summary The baseline study provides an in-depth analysis of people s perception

More information

SACRED GROUND: PLURALISM, PREJUDICE, AND THE PROMISE OF AMERICA. By Eboo Patel (Beacon Press, 2012) A BOOK DISCUSSION GUIDE

SACRED GROUND: PLURALISM, PREJUDICE, AND THE PROMISE OF AMERICA. By Eboo Patel (Beacon Press, 2012) A BOOK DISCUSSION GUIDE SACRED GROUND: PLURALISM, PREJUDICE, AND THE PROMISE OF AMERICA By Eboo Patel (Beacon Press, 2012) A BOOK DISCUSSION GUIDE Created by Interfaith Youth Core PURPOSE OF THIS DISCUSSION GUIDE Interfaith cooperation

More information

Results of Palestinian Public Opinion Poll No 25 22-24 January 2006

Results of Palestinian Public Opinion Poll No 25 22-24 January 2006 An-Najah National University Center for Opinion Polls and Survey Studies Tel: (972) (9) 2345113 Fax: (972)(9) 2345982 Nablus Palestinian: P.O.Box 7, 707 Email: Polls@najah.edu hussein596@yahoo.com Results

More information

House Proposal of Amendment S. 7 An act relating to social networking privacy protection. The House proposes to the Senate to amend the bill by

House Proposal of Amendment S. 7 An act relating to social networking privacy protection. The House proposes to the Senate to amend the bill by House Proposal of Amendment S. 7 An act relating to social networking privacy protection. The House proposes to the Senate to amend the bill by striking all after the enacting clause and inserting in lieu

More information

Summary of Key Findings

Summary of Key Findings major survey by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life finds that most Americans have a A non-dogmatic approach to faith. A strong majority of those who are affiliated with a religion, including majorities

More information

41/128.Declaration on the Right to Development

41/128.Declaration on the Right to Development 41/128.Declaration on the Right to Development The General Assembly, Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations relating to the achievement of international co-operation

More information

GCSE BITESIZE Examinations. General Certificate of Secondary Education RELIGIOUS STUDIES. Specimen Paper. Time allowed: 2 hours

GCSE BITESIZE Examinations. General Certificate of Secondary Education RELIGIOUS STUDIES. Specimen Paper. Time allowed: 2 hours GCSE BITESIZE Examinations General Certificate of Secondary Education RELIGIOUS STUDIES Specimen Paper Time allowed: 2 hours Answer one question from each of Parts A to D Part A Answer one question only

More information

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK MAY 2015 Political Science Objectives 1. To study the structure and functions of government. 2. To understand political

More information

Euro-Med Information and Training Seminars for Diplomats

Euro-Med Information and Training Seminars for Diplomats 25 Euro-Med Information and Training Seminars for Diplomats 25 th Anniversary of Malta Seminars Malta 2008 Looking Ahead: Euro-Mediterranean Relations By Prof. Stephen Calleya, Director of Mediterranean

More information

Lecture Outline. Middle East & North Africa. History of Islam. Facts of Islam (p.175-6) More Facts of Islam

Lecture Outline. Middle East & North Africa. History of Islam. Facts of Islam (p.175-6) More Facts of Islam Lecture Outline Middle East & North Africa May 13, 2010 GEOG 1982 Islam History & Facts Distribution Veiling Political Islam Middle East 20 th century history Arab Israeli Conflict Northern Africa History

More information

Pew Research Center Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2006 Survey 15 Nation Survey FINAL TOPLINE

Pew Research Center Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2006 Survey 15 Nation Survey FINAL TOPLINE Pew Research Center Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2006 Survey 15 Nation Survey FINAL TOPLINE United States May 2-14, 2006 (N=1001) Russia April 6-16, 2006 (N=1000) Nigeria April 20-29, 2006 (N=1000)

More information

Value descriptions. 1. Conservative Jewish

Value descriptions. 1. Conservative Jewish Value descriptions 1. Conservative Jewish You are committed to Halacha but at the same time you recognize its development over the generations according to the social, cultural and technological needs

More information

Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt GLOBAL JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt Nissrin Hoffmann * ABSTRACT Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African

More information

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS PAST PAPER QUESTIONS 2011-2014 PEACE AND CONFLICT UNIT 8: SECTION 3 1 2014 Question 5 (a) What does exploitation mean? (2) (b) Do you think religious organisations do enough to promote world peace? *(c)

More information

What causes gender inequality in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia? Forced to wear the burka to being subject to polygamy. Being ruled by laws that forbid

What causes gender inequality in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia? Forced to wear the burka to being subject to polygamy. Being ruled by laws that forbid What causes gender inequality in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia? Forced to wear the burka to being subject to polygamy. Being ruled by laws that forbid women to drive and work. Forbidden to leave the house

More information

We Too Want to Live in Love, Peace, Freedom and Justice

We Too Want to Live in Love, Peace, Freedom and Justice We Too Want to Live in Love, Peace, Freedom and Justice A Response to A Common Word Between Us and You Peace We appreciate how you urge in your letter the fact that this world needs peace and that members

More information

Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict I. Palestine & Israel Jewish view: God promised land to Jews (1700 BCE) Jewish Diasporas (scattering) occurred 586 BCE: Destruction of Solomon s Temple 70 CE: Destruction of the Second

More information

IMPACT OF THE CRUSADES DBQ

IMPACT OF THE CRUSADES DBQ IMPACT OF THE CRUSADES DBQ This task is based on the accompanying documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purpose of this task. This task is designed to test your ability to work with

More information

A COMPARISON OF CULTURES: THE UNITED STATES AND THE MIDDLE EAST. Bridging the Gap

A COMPARISON OF CULTURES: THE UNITED STATES AND THE MIDDLE EAST. Bridging the Gap A COMPARISON OF CULTURES: THE UNITED STATES AND THE MIDDLE EAST Bridging the Gap JULIA ROSENTHAL, LAUREN MORELAND, ASHLEY POWERS, MEGAN PACKARD, MARIKA HEINICKE, OSCAR RAMOS, GABRIEL CAMACHO, MICHAEL MATTAR,

More information

The Price of Being Middle Class The Challenges and Cost of Achieving the American Dream

The Price of Being Middle Class The Challenges and Cost of Achieving the American Dream The Price of Being Middle Class The Challenges and Cost of Achieving the American Dream Historian Andrew Wiese argued that in postwar United States, the perception of the American Dream was different for

More information

Religion and Foreign Policy Initiative. Connecting the Religious Community to CFR s Resources on International Issues

Religion and Foreign Policy Initiative. Connecting the Religious Community to CFR s Resources on International Issues Religion and Foreign Policy Initiative Connecting the Religious Community to CFR s Resources on International Issues CFR Mission The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an independent, nonpartisan membership

More information

Arab Charter on Human rights

Arab Charter on Human rights Arab Charter on Human rights Adopted in Cairo on 15 September 1994, translated from Arabic The Governments of the member States of the League of Arab States Preamble Given the Arab nation's belief in human

More information

Universal periodical Report of Islamic Republic of Iran Entrepreneurship status in Iran

Universal periodical Report of Islamic Republic of Iran Entrepreneurship status in Iran Universal periodical Report of Islamic Republic of Iran Entrepreneurship status in Iran Iranian Stable Family Association (NGO) Alireza Lashgari(00989126045986) Abstract: 1- This report has been prepared

More information

UK TRADE & INVESTMENT, DEFENCE & SECURITY ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE REPORT

UK TRADE & INVESTMENT, DEFENCE & SECURITY ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE REPORT UK TRADE & INVESTMENT, DEFENCE & SECURITY ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE REPORT CLOSE DOWN UKTI DSO OUR MISSION End the Uncivil Service The UKTI Defence & Security Organisation (UKTI DSO) is a government unit

More information

Forum for proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought

Forum for proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought Forum for proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought The World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought is the only and most welcomed Forum among Muslim Community in both Shia a and Sunni s. The

More information

SOCIAL STUDIES World History Standard: History

SOCIAL STUDIES World History Standard: History Standard: History Enlightenment Ideas A. Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments. 1. Explain how Enlightenment

More information

GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1

GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 Abstract Greece is committed to embracing all those nations who strive for democracy within their frontiers, and peaceful cooperation

More information