Small Bodies of the Solar System

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Small Bodies of the Solar System"

Transcription

1 Small Bodies of the Solar System

2 Part I: Asteroids & Meteorites

3 A Missing Planet? By the 1700 s, it became clear to astronomers that there was something peculiar about the layout of the Solar System. The orbits of the terrestrial planets appear to form a pattern, but there was something missing: Mercury 0.4 AU Venus 0.7 AU (0.3 AU farther out) Earth 1.0 AU (0.3 AU farther out) Mars 1.5 AU (0.5 AU farther out)??? 2.0 AU (0.5 AU farther out)

4 A Missing Planet? Working in from the jovian planets suggested another pattern with the same sort of problem: Uranus 19.2 AU Saturn 9.5 AU (half of 19.2 = 9.6 ~ 9.5) Jupiter 5.2 AU (half of 9.5 = 4.75 ~ 5.2)??? 2.6 AU (half of 5.2 = 2.6) There was no planet at a distance of AU. Was a new planet waiting to be discovered?

5 A New Family of Objects In , Ceres and Pallas were discovered at an average distance of 2.8 AU from the Sun. This led to some confusion why were there two planets orbiting the Sun at the same distance? Over the next few years, it became clear that there was a large family of objects orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. Eventually, it became clear that these objects were much smaller and orbited the Sun together. They became known as the asteroids.

6 Asteroid Families Today, nearly 500,000 asteroids have been found. They fall into several different families according to their orbits. Main belt: orbits outside Mars orbit and inside Jupiter s orbit (vast majority of asteroids) Trojans: orbit same as Jupiter, but lead or trail Jupiter by 60 degrees (~2000 members) Atens, Apollos, Amors: orbits that are similar to, or cross Earth s or Mars orbit (~3500 members) About 13,000 asteroids have names, the rest have serial numbers.

7 Asteroid Families Members of the main belt are shown in white. The Trojan asteroids are shown in green. Other smaller families are in orange, red, green, and blue. Earth Jupiter

8 A Failed Planet If you lumped all the asteroids together into 1 body the total mass is about 4% of the Moon s mass. The young Jupiter stirred up the planetesimals in this region of the Solar System, spurring collisions and preventing a single object from forming outside the orbit of Mars. Over the history of the Solar System, those objects that did form were ejected by Jupiter or sent on orbits that eventually collided with the Sun or a planet. Not much is left in the asteroid belt

9 Flying Mountains The asteroids are generally rocky in composition, but some appear to contain some water ice. Small asteroids never got hot enough to melt and never differentiated. They are mixtures of rock and metal and other compounds throughout. Large asteroids retained enough heat to melt. They have metal cores and rocky exteriors just like the much larger terrestrial planets.

10 Not Really Crowded Typical distances between asteroids is millions of kilometers. Unlike what is portrayed in sci-fi films, the asteroid belt in our Solar System is not a navigational hazard. In fact, spacecraft have to be carefully directed to fly close enough to an asteroid to get a decent picture. Otherwise, the tiny asteroid just looks like a point of light (aster + oid = Latin star-like).

11 A Near-Earth Asteroid In 2000, the NASA spacecraft NEAR orbited the asteroid Eros. This asteroid crosses Mars orbit but is not a direct threat to Earth. NEAR orbited Eros for one Earth year and then softlanded on the surface in Images sent back revealed a body that is heavily cratered and probably fractured in its interior.

12 A Rubble Pile In 2005, the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa returned images of the asteroid Itokawa. This asteroid has the most rubbly surface yet seen. Impacts blasted the asteroid apart and its weak gravity slowly pulled it back together. In June 2010, dust from Itokawa was brought to Earth.

13 Dawn: A Mission to the Big Ones In 2007, the NASA spacecraft Dawn was launched to orbit and explore the two largest members of the Main Belt. Dawn will orbit Vesta in and then orbit Ceres in 2015-?.

14 Dawn: A Mission to the Big Ones Vesta is much bigger than all previously-visited asteroids. Geology should be quite different!

15 Dawn: A Mission to the Big Ones Dawn arrived in orbit around Vesta in July 2011 and began mapping. Further information at

16 Meteoroids, meteors, meteorites Three names for the same object: In space, it s a meteoroid. In the atmosphere, it s a meteor. On the ground, it s a meteorite. These names apply to Earth or any other world.

17 Types of Meteorites Meteorites are separated into three classes: Stones, composed mostly of silicate rock are further divided into two more groups Chondrites, very primitive unmelted mixtures, very old (dating back to birth of Solar System) Achondrites, rocky material from the crust of a differentiated world (asteroid or larger) Irons, nearly pure iron-nickel metal, pieces of the core of a shattered asteroid Stony-Irons, unusual mixtures of metal and rocky glass, possibly from mantle-core boundary?

18 Allende Meteorite In 1969, several thousand small stony meteorites landed on and around the small town of Allende, in northern Mexico. Analysis of the meteorite showed it was primitive, having formed before the planets! The small spheres inside were once liquid drops of rock. The parent asteroid never differentiated, so Allende is a fossil from the earliest days of the Solar System.

19 Meteors and Meteorites On an average dark night, you can see a few meteors every hour. These are due to random bits of interplanetary dust that strike the top of Earth s atmosphere. The flash is caused by frictional heating of air. Most meteors do not reach the ground. They burn up high in the atmosphere. An object that does reaches the ground is a meteorite.

20 Heads Up! And just to round out the discussion of meteorites, here are a few spectacular examples of falls. The Peekskill meteor was witnessed by thousands on the evening of October 9, The meteorite was found under the car it had struck.

21 Heads Up! Part II September 15, 2007: A multi-ton meteorite fell near Carancas, Peru creating a large impact crater in the mud. Pieces found by local villagers are of an ordinary stony meteorite.

22 Heads Up! Part III October 6, 2008: Richard Kowalski of Tucson, AZ discovers a small meteoroid approaching Earth. Later observations shows it will impact Earth over Sudan two days later. This is the first time an object was seen before it impacted Earth. December 6, 2008: Peter Jenniskens team find fragments of the object. Here s fragment #15

23 Part II: Comets

24 Comets: Cosmic Show-offs Even the largest asteroids are difficult to see in the night sky. Comets, on the other hand, are show-offs.

25 Anatomy of a Comet Comet means hairy star. The heart of a comet is its nucleus, a dusty ball of ice km across. The visible part of the comet is dust and gas that sublimates from the heated ices of the nucleus. The head of the comet is known as the coma. Comas can be larger than 100,000 km across. The tail or tails can stretch for millions of kilometers. Comet Hyakutake in 1996

26 Comets have two tails: Comet Tails The plasma tail is gas that points straight out from the Sun, blown by the solar wind. The blue glow is due to light emitted by carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The dust tail is also pushed out the comet s nucleus, by pressure of sunlight. It is white-yellow due to reflected sunlight. Comet Hale-Bopp in 1996

27 The Nucleus of Comet Halley Like asteroids, comets have only recently been seen up close. The Giotto mission (1986) snapped the first images of Comet Halley s nucleus. Streams of gas and dust flowing off the nucleus. The nucleus is 16 km long.

28 The Nucleus of Comet Hartley Most recently (November 2010), the EPOXI craft flew past the nucleus of Comet Hartley. Streams of gas and dust flowing off the nucleus. The nucleus is 2 km long.

29 Comet Orbits Comets have very elliptical orbits. This takes them close to the Sun and then far away. Ices and dust evaporate from the nucleus to form the coma and tails during times of strong solar heating. At other times, the nucleus is cold and quiet and there is no coma or tail.

30 Two populations : Kuiper Belt Formed in place; Fragments from collisions Oort Cloud Icy planetesimals thrown outward during formation of jovian planets Comet Reservoirs

31 Frozen History Comets have never felt very high temperatures so the ices and rock that formed them are mostly unchanged from the earliest days of the Solar System. Like meteorites, understanding comets and collecting samples of comet dust provides a window on the formation of the Solar System. Preliminary results from several recent comet missions (Stardust, Deep Impact) make it clear that planet formation was a very messy process.

32 Part III: Kuiper Belt Objects

33 Pluto and the Kuiper Belt Pluto was discovered in It was found during a search for Planet X, so it came to be called a planet. (The asteroid story repeating itself ) It wasn t until 1992 that the second small, icy world orbiting beyond Neptune was found : 1992 QB1. Today, astronomers have found more than 1000 small, icy worlds orbiting beyond Neptune. These objects are commonly called Kuiper Belt objects or KBOs. In 2005, Eris was found. Eris is about the size of Pluto. Other large KBOs are likely out there, too.

34 The Kuiper Belt and Others

35 The Kuiper Belt and Others The largest objects beyond Neptune...

36 What is Pluto Like? Pluto is the last major piece of the Solar System that has not been explored, so we don t really know much about it. But we can make some educated guesses with the help of telescope observations. Triton, moon of Neptune, is most likely a captured Kuiper Belt object. So Pluto may have a similar surface.

37 What is Pluto Like? We won t really know what the surface of Pluto is like until the arrival of New Horizons. Launched in January 2006, this small spacecraft will reach Pluto in After the flyby through the Pluto system, the spacecraft will be sent to a 2 nd KBO if one can be found in the direction of New Horizon s motion.

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts What are asteroids like? 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning:! What are asteroids like?! Why is there

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17 Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative

More information

A: Planets. Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets?

A: Planets. Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? A: Planets Q: What can we learn by studying small bodies of the solar system? A: We can

More information

143,000 km Key to Sorting the Solar System Cards Object Description Size (km) Picture Credits Barringer Crater Ceres Earth Earth's moon Eris Eros Gaspra Hale-Bopp Hoba Iapetus Ida and Dactyl Itokawa

More information

Solar System Fact Sheet

Solar System Fact Sheet Solar System Fact Sheet (Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov; http://solarviews.com) The Solar System Categories Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Rocky or Gas Rocky Rocky Rocky Rocky

More information

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. The largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km. There are 150,000

More information

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin What does our solar system look like? The planets are tiny compared to the distances between them (a million times smaller than shown here), but they exhibit

More information

Other Citizens of the Solar System

Other Citizens of the Solar System Other Citizens of the Solar System Astronomers study the stars in the sky. They try to find new things. In 1913, Percival Lowell found a new dot of light. It was very far away. It was tiny. It was hard

More information

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

More information

Today. Events. The Little Things. Asteroids & Comets. Dwarf Planets. Homework 5. Due in 1 week

Today. Events. The Little Things. Asteroids & Comets. Dwarf Planets. Homework 5. Due in 1 week Today The Little Things Asteroids & Comets Dwarf Planets Events Homework 5 Due in 1 week Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts What are asteroids like? Asteroid traversing

More information

Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

More information

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary

More information

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.

More information

Name: Date: Goals: to discuss the composition, components, and types of comets; to build a comet and test its strength and reaction to light

Name: Date: Goals: to discuss the composition, components, and types of comets; to build a comet and test its strength and reaction to light Name: Date: 17 Building a Comet 17.1 Introduction Comets represent some of the earliest material left over from the formation of the solar system, and are therefore of great interest to planetary astronomers.

More information

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Formation of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpOKztEiMqo&feature =related Formation of our Solar System Conservation of Angular Momentum Why are the larger,

More information

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to

More information

Asteroids, Meteorites, and Comets

Asteroids, Meteorites, and Comets Asteroids, Meteorites, and Comets The Search for the Missing Planet Bode s Law relates the sizes of planetary orbits Astronomers noticed a missing planet if this rule of thumb was correct. Body Actual

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

Copyright 2006, Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Copyright 2006, Astronomical Society of the Pacific 2 1 3 4 Diameter: 590 miles (950 km) Distance to Sun: 257 million miles (414 million km) Orbits: # 18 Composition: Outer layer probably ice and frozen ammonia, no Diameter: 750 miles (1200 km) Distance

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK Brought to you by: THE SUN Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. 1 Temperature: 27,000,000 F in the center, 10,000 F at the surface. So that s REALLY hot anywhere on the

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics Chapter 7 Our Planetary System Agenda Pass back & discuss Test 2 Where we are (at) Ch. 7 Our Planetary System Finish Einstein s Big Idea Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft A. General Basics Intro

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius Chapter 7 Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning:! What does the solar system look like?! What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?! What are the major

More information

Science 9 Worksheet 13-1 The Solar System

Science 9 Worksheet 13-1 The Solar System Name Date Due Date Science 9 Read pages 264-287 of SP to help you answer the following questions: Also, go to a school computer connected to the internet. Go to Mr. Colgur s Webpage at http://sd67.bc.ca/teachers/dcolgur

More information

Solar System Overview

Solar System Overview Solar System Overview Planets: Four inner planets, Terrestrial planets Four outer planets, Jovian planets Asteroids: Minor planets (planetesimals) Meteroids: Chucks of rocks (smaller than asteroids) (Mercury,

More information

A Solar System Coloring Book

A Solar System Coloring Book A Solar System Coloring Book Courtesy of the Windows to the Universe Project http://www.windows2universe.org The Sun Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. Temperature: ~27,000,000 F in the center, ~10,000

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

The Asteroid Belt. Composition and Classification. Where Different Asteroids are Found

The Asteroid Belt. Composition and Classification. Where Different Asteroids are Found Asteroids The orbits of most of the asteroids lie between those of Mars and Jupiter Asteroid belt More than 10,000 asteroids have well-determined orbits Asteroids 2410 and 4859 are named for the two of

More information

The Earth, Sun, and Moon

The Earth, Sun, and Moon reflect The Sun and Moon are Earth s constant companions. We bask in the Sun s heat and light. It provides Earth s energy, and life could not exist without it. We rely on the Moon to light dark nights.

More information

LER 2891. Ages. Grades. Solar System. A fun game of thinking & linking!

LER 2891. Ages. Grades. Solar System. A fun game of thinking & linking! Solar System Ages 7+ LER 2891 Grades 2+ Card Game A fun game of thinking & linking! Contents 45 Picture cards 45 Word cards 8 New Link cards 2 Super Link cards Setup Shuffle the two decks together to mix

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets come from the clouds of gas and dust that

More information

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

More information

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Source: Utah State Office of Education Introduction Have you ever looked up at the night sky and wondered about all the pinpoint lights? People through the ages

More information

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29 NAME: Astronomy Study Guide asteroid chromosphere comet corona ellipse Galilean moons VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteor gravity meteorite greenhouse effect meteoroid heliocentric system

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

1. Soaring Through Our Solar System By Laura G. Smith

1. Soaring Through Our Solar System By Laura G. Smith 1. Soaring Through Our Solar System By Laura G. Smith 1 Five, four, three, two, one... BLAST OFF! Come along as we explore our solar system! If we were flying high above the Earth, what would you see?

More information

ASTEROIDS, COMETS & METEORS TEACHER S GUIDE

ASTEROIDS, COMETS & METEORS TEACHER S GUIDE 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars.com www.northern-stars.com Page 1 ASTEROIDS, COMETS & METEORS TEACHER S GUIDE This Teacher s Guide is designed to help you, the teacher, better prepare your students for

More information

Background Information Students will learn about the Solar System while practicing communication skills.

Background Information Students will learn about the Solar System while practicing communication skills. Teacher Information Background Information Students will learn about the Solar System while practicing communication skills. Materials clipboard for each student pencils copies of map and Available Destinations

More information

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets The Jovian Planets The Jovian planets are gas giants - much larger than Earth Sizes of Jovian Planets Planets get larger as they get more massive up to a point... Planets more massive than Jupiter are

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 17 The Solar System 1 17-1 What is the solar system? 2 17-2 What do we know about orbits? 3 Comparing Planetary Revolutions Enrichment

More information

Chapter 11 Jupiter. Physics 1312 Solar System Astronomy Practice Test 3

Chapter 11 Jupiter. Physics 1312 Solar System Astronomy Practice Test 3 Chapter 11 Jupiter MULTIPLE CHOICE. 1) How does the mass of Jupiter compare with that of the other planets? A) It is slightly larger and more massive than Saturn. B) It is similar to that of the Earth

More information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Imagine it a huge spiral galaxy containing hundreds of billions of stars, spiraling out from a galactic center. Nestled deep within one of the

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

More information

Group Leader: Group Members:

Group Leader: Group Members: THE SOLAR SYSTEM PROJECT: TOPIC: THE SUN Required Project Content for an Oral/Poster Presentation on THE SUN - What it s made of - Age and how it formed (provide pictures or diagrams) - What is an AU?

More information

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets?

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They

More information

The orbit of Halley s Comet

The orbit of Halley s Comet The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What

More information

ANSWER KEY. Chapter 22. 8. phase 9. spring 10. lunar 11. solar 12. gravity

ANSWER KEY. Chapter 22. 8. phase 9. spring 10. lunar 11. solar 12. gravity Chapter 22 Section 22-1 Review and Reinforce (p. 11) 1. winter 2. At point A the sun would be directly overhead, at point B it would be on the horizon, and at point C it would not be visible because it

More information

Astronomy Notes for Educators

Astronomy Notes for Educators Our Solar System Astronomy Notes for Educators Our Solar System 5-1 5-2 Specific Outcomes: Learning Outcome 1: Knowledge / Content and it place in the Milky Way Different types of bodies make up the Solar

More information

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

More information

L3: The formation of the Solar System

L3: The formation of the Solar System credit: NASA L3: The formation of the Solar System UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann A stable home The presence of life forms elsewhere in the Universe requires a stable environment where

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM reflect Our solar system is made up of thousands of objects, at the center of which is a star, the Sun. The objects beyond the Sun include 8 planets, at least 5 dwarf planets, and more than 170 moons.

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System 15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System Planets orbiting other stars are called extrasolar planets. Until 1995, whether or not extrasolar planets existed was unknown. Since then more than 300 have been discovered.

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit in same direction and plane 2. Existence of

More information

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth Lecture 19 Part 2: Climates of the Past 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth 2) The evolution of Earth s atmosphere - from its origin to present-day 3)

More information

http://portal.achieve3000.com/kb/lesson/do_print?lid=1...

http://portal.achieve3000.com/kb/lesson/do_print?lid=1... 1 of 11 08/02/2012 09:04 PM Article LOS ANGELES, California (Achieve3000, May 1, 2012). Vesta is stepping into the spotlight. Thanks to NASA's Dawn spacecraft, scientists now have the first close-up pictures

More information

KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering misconceptions of the Universe. LAB: Comparing size and distances in space. POST:

More information

The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

More information

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

More information

Asteroids, Comets, Meteoroids

Asteroids, Comets, Meteoroids Asteroids, Comets, Meteoroids (modified from a lesson from Spaceday.org) Activity One Read and make sure you understand the background information! Activity Two Creating Scale Model Strips Materials Ruler

More information

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System 8.1 The Search for Origins What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? What properties

More information

Solar System. Trading Cards. Solar System Trading Cards, Jr. Edition. Learn more about the solar system on these Web sites:

Solar System. Trading Cards. Solar System Trading Cards, Jr. Edition. Learn more about the solar system on these Web sites: Solar System Trading Cards, Jr. Edition To use these cards: Print out onto card stock or heavy paper. Cut out and fold in half along dotted line; glue or tape each card together. FOLD National Aeronautics

More information

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 What is the constitution of the Solar System? The Solar System is constituted not only by planets, which have satellites, but also by thousands

More information

The Inner Solar System by Leslie Cargile

The Inner Solar System by Leslie Cargile The Inner Solar System The inner solar system is the name of the terrestrial planets and asteroid belt. Terrestrial is just a fancy way of saying rocky. Like the Earth, terrestrial planets have a core

More information

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 1: Our Solar System

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 1: Our Solar System Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System Grades 5-8 Lesson 1: Our Solar System On a visit to the National Mall in Washington, DC, one can see monuments of a nation Memorials to Lincoln, Jefferson, and

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe. The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe

The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe. The Earth, Sun & Moon. The Universe Football Review- Earth, Moon, Sun 1. During a total solar eclipse, when almost all of the Sun's light traveling to the Earth is blocked by the Moon, what is the order of the Earth, Sun, and Moon? A. Moon,

More information

The Origin of the Solar System

The Origin of the Solar System The Origin of the Solar System Questions: How did the various constituents of Solar System form? What were the physical processes involved? When did they form? Did they all form more-or less simultaneously?

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

So What All Is Out There, Anyway?

So What All Is Out There, Anyway? So What All Is Out There, Anyway? Imagine that, like Alice in Wonderland, you have taken a magic potion that makes you grow bigger and bigger. You get so big that soon you are a giant. You can barely make

More information

Abundances of elements in solar system. Clue comes from Meteorites (p.15-21) and spectroscopic study on the Sun

Abundances of elements in solar system. Clue comes from Meteorites (p.15-21) and spectroscopic study on the Sun Abundances of elements in solar system Clue comes from Meteorites (p.15-21) and spectroscopic study on the Sun 1 Why Study Meteorites? State of early solar system Age of solar system Planetary formation

More information

What's Gravity Got To Do With It?

What's Gravity Got To Do With It? Monday, December 16 What's Gravity Got To Do With It? By Erin Horner When you woke up this morning did you fly up to the ceiling? Of course not! When you woke up this morning you put both feet on the floor

More information

Probing for Information

Probing for Information Name Class Date Inquiry Lab Probing for Information Using Scientific Methods Information about planets in our solar system has been collected by observation from Earth and from probes, or scientific instruments,

More information

Solar System Debris. Meteoroid - dust and small pieces of rocky material in space that Chapter 14 Part b. Meteoroids. Meteors.

Solar System Debris. Meteoroid - dust and small pieces of rocky material in space that Chapter 14 Part b. Meteoroids. Meteors. Meteoroid - dust and small pieces of rocky material in space that Chapter 14 Part b originated from planets, asteroids, and comets A large number of meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere each day They

More information

Planets and Dwarf Planets by Shauna Hutton

Planets and Dwarf Planets by Shauna Hutton Name: Wow! Technology has improved so well in the last several years that we keep finding more and more objects in our solar system! Because of this, scientists have had to come up with new categories

More information

Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

More information

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 1: Our Solar System

Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System. Grades 5-8. Lesson 1: Our Solar System Voyage: A Journey through our Solar System Grades 5-8 Lesson 1: Our Solar System On October 17, 2001, a one to ten billion scale model of the Solar System was permanently installed on the National Mall

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Announce: Mercury Transit Part 2 of Projects due next Thursday Ch. 8 Formation of the Solar System Philip on The Physics of Star Trek Radiometric Dating Lab

More information

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it.

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it. Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: asteroid, celestial object, comet, constellation, Doppler effect, eccentricity, eclipse, ellipse, focus, Foucault Pendulum, galaxy, geocentric model, heliocentric

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

Assignment 5. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 5. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assignment 5 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the single most important reason that astronomers have learned more

More information

Gravity. in the Solar System. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

Gravity. in the Solar System. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book FOCUS Book Design a test to find out whether Earth s gravity always pulls straight down. A pendulum is a weight that hangs from a string or rod that can swing back and forth. Use string and metal washers

More information

The Earth s magnetosphere

The Earth s magnetosphere The Earth s magnetosphere 1 Re-call: Earth s magnetosphere C. Russell, The solar wind interaction with the Earth s magnetosphere: Tutorial 2 Magnetospheres Term introduced by Thomas Gold in 1959 Not a

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto: The Small Pieces

Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto: The Small Pieces Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto: The Small Pieces from A Spin Around the Solar System Series Video Produced by... Maslowski Wildlife Productions Teacher s guide by... Lauren LaComb Published and Distributed

More information

The Solar System. Olivia Paquette

The Solar System. Olivia Paquette The Solar System Olivia Paquette Table of Contents The Sun 1 Mercury 2,3 Venus 4,5 Earth 6,7 Mars 8,9 Jupiter 10,11 Saturn 12 Uranus 13 Neptune Pluto 14 15 Glossary. 16 The Sun Although it may seem like

More information

25 MS The Solar System Chapter Outline

25 MS The Solar System Chapter Outline www.ck12.org CHAPTER 25 MS The Solar System Chapter Outline 25.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM 25.2 INNER PLANETS 25.3 OUTER PLANETS 25.4 OTHER OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 25.5 REFERENCES Earth is not

More information

1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten

1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten 1. Title: Relative Sizes and Distance in the Solar System: Introducing Powers of Ten Here we're going to learn how big the Sun is relative to the different types of planet in our Solar System and the huge

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM Syllabus

THE SOLAR SYSTEM Syllabus THE SOLAR SYSTEM Syllabus Course Title The Solar System: Earth and Space Science Course Description This course provides an overview of what we know about the Solar System: how it began and evolved, its

More information