Advanced Computer Programming

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1 Hazırlayan Yrd. Doç. Dr. Mehmet Fidan

2 COURSE POLICY Grading: Midtem1-2 : %15 Projects : %15 Quiz : %15 Final : %40

3 SYLLABUS Introduction to Programming Introduction to Microsoft Visual Studio Data types and expressions Conditions and loops Arrays and Collections Classes and Functions File I/O operations BOOK: C# 2010 for programmers (Fourth Edition) Paul Deitel and Harvey Ditel

4 COMPUTER A computer is a complex system consisting of many different components. But at the heart or the brain, if you want of the computer is a single component that does the actual computing. This is the Central Processing Unit, or CPU. A program is simply a list of unambiguous instructions meant to be followed mechanically by a computer. A computer is built to carry out instructions that are written in a very simple type of language called machine language. Each type of computer has its own machine language, and the computer can directly execute a program only if the program is expressed in that language. When the CPU executes a program, that program is stored in the computer s main memory (also called the RAM or random access memory). In addition to the program, memory can also hold data that is being used or processed by the program.

5 COMPUTER Machine language consists of very simple instructions that can be executed directly by the CPU of a computer. Almost all programs, though, are written in high-level programming languages such as Java, Pascal, or C++. A program written in a highlevel language cannot be run directly on any computer. First, it has to be translated into machine language. This translation can be done by a program called a compiler. A compiler takes a high-level-language program and translates it into an executable machine-language program. A compiler takes a high-level-language program and translates it into an executable machine-language program. Once the translation is done, the machine-language program can be run any number of times, but of course it can only be run on one type of computer (since each type of computer has its own individual machine language).

6 CPU and MAIN MEMORY Secondary Memory Devices

7 BINARY NUMBERS Once information has been digitized, it is represented and stored in memory using the binary number system A single binary digit (0 or 1) is called a bit(unit symbol is b) A byte is 8 bits (unit symbol is B) Devices that store and move information are cheaper and more reliable if they have to represent only two states A single bit can represent two possible states, like a light bulb that is either on (1) or off (0) Permutations of bits are used to store values

8 BINARY NUMBERS 1 bit 2 bits 3 bits 4 bits

9 BINARY NUMBERS In decimal numbers we use 10 digits (0-9) base 10. Each digit used in a number has a place value Example: 8427 = 8* * * *10 0 = = 8427 In binary numbers we use 2 digits (0-1). Each digit in a binary number has a place value but the base is now 2 Example: 1101=1*2 3 +1*2 2 +0*2 1 +1*2 0 = = 13 Using the above definition you convert from binary to decimal.

10 BINARY NUMBERS

11 BINARY NUMBERS

12 BINARY NUMBERS Storing Information

13 Computer Architecture COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

14 OVERVIEW Coding - Programming Coding is what makes it possible for us to create computer software, apps and websites. Programming is a core activity in the process of performing tasks or solving problems with the aid of a computer. An idealized picture is: [problem or task specification] - COMPUTER - [solution or completed task] A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer to do various things; sometimes the instruction it has to perform depends on what happened when it performed a previous instruction. Programming isn't something that you can learn in an hour. But you can begin to appreciate it.

15 OVERVIEW C, C++, Objective-C and Java The C programming language was developed in the early 1970s. C first gained widespread recognition as the development language of the UNIX operating system. C is a hardwareindependent language, and, with careful design, it s possible to write C programs that are portable to most computers. C++, developed in the early 1980s, provides several features that spruce up the C language, and, more importantly, capabilities for object-oriented programming (OOP). The Objective-C programming language, also developed in the early 1980s, added capabilities for object-oriented programming (OOP) to the C programming language. It eventually became the software development language for Apple s Macintosh. Microprocessors are having a profound impact in intelligent consumer electronic devices. Recognizing this, Sun Microsystems in 1991 funded an internal corporate research project that resulted in the development of a C++-based language, which Sun eventually called Java.

16 OVERVIEW C# In 2000, Microsoft announced the C# (pronounced C-Sharp ) programming language created specifically for the.net platform. C# has roots in C, C++ and Java. Like Visual Basic, C# is object oriented and has access to the powerful.net Framework Class Library a vast collection of prebuilt components, enabling you to develop applications quickly. C# (pronounced "C sharp") is a simple, modern, object-oriented, and type-safe programming language. It will immediately be familiar to C and C++ programmers. C# combines the high productivity of Rapid Application Development (RAD) languages and the raw power of C++. In 2000, Microsoft announced its.net initiative ( a broad new vision for using the Internet and the web in the development, engineering, distribution and use of software. Rather than forcing developers to use a single programming language, the.net initiative permits developers to create.net applications in any.net- compatible language (such as C#, Visual Basic, and others). Part of the initiative includes Microsoft s ASP.NET technology, which allows you to create web applications. The.NET Framework is at the heart of Microsoft s.net strategy. This framework executes applications, includes the.net Framework Class Library and provides many other programming capabilities that you ll use to build C# applications.

17 PROGRAMMING Problem determination Analysis Algorithm Writing code Testing

18 PROBLEM DETERMINATION Define what to do Field investigation Other arguments

19 ANALYSIS Program inputs and outputs Variables that are going to be in the program Data flow within the program

20 ALGORITHM Defines how to do a job Automates jobs

21 CODING Converting the algorithm to a programming language Realization of the program Fixing coding errors and bugs

22 TESTING Checking whether program produces expected outputs to given inputs. Fixing logical errors Step-by-step investigation of program execution with using a special program Debugger

23 EXAMPLE Make an Omelet

24 PROBLEM DETERMINATION Determine the phases to make an omelet. What kind of problems that we may encounter. What kind of help could we get.

25 ANALYSIS Inputs Egg, oil, salt, spices Variables Oven, pan, fork, plate

26 ALGORITHM Turn on oven Put the pan to the oven Pour some oil to the pan Break eggs in to the pan Add salt Mix Add spices Mix

27 CODING

28 C# - C++ - Java Defining variables C#: int x = 0; C++ : int x = 0; Java : int x = 0; For Loop C#: for(int i = 0;i<10;i++) console.writeline( {0},i); C++ : for(int i = 0;i<10;i++) printf( %d,i); Java : for(int i = 0;i<10;i++) system.out.println(i); if-else C#: if(ncount<max) ncount++; else total += ncount; C++ : if(ncount<max) ncount++; else total += ncount; Java : if(ncount<max) ncount++; else total += ncount;

29 TODAY VS.Net 2012 First project MSDN Library

30 VS.Net 2012 A Microsoft product IDE (Integrated Development Environment) Editor + Compiler + Debugger A program which creates other programs

31 C# (C Sharp) A compiler turns the program that you write into an executable that your computer can actually understand and run. A C# program is a collection of commands, which tell the computer to do "something". This collection of commands is usually called C# source code, source code or just code. Every program in C# has one function, always named main, that is always called when your program first executes. From main, you can also call other functions whether they are written by us or, as mentioned earlier, provided by the compiler. Following the include is the statement, "using namespace std;". This line tells the compiler to use a group of functions that are part of the standard library (std). The next important line is int main(). This line tells the compiler that there is a function named main, and that the function returns an integer, hence int. The "curly braces" ({ and }) signal the beginning and end of functions and other code blocks. You can think of them as meaning BEGIN and END.

32 How to start VS.Net 2012

33 Start page VS.Net 2012 Creating a new project Program window Previously created projects

34 VS.Net 2012 Programming Language Project Type Name of the program Directory in which our project will be created

35 First Program Each program requires three important steps to do work. It is Input, Process and Output. It is the basic concept of almost all the programming language. It is also known as I-P-O cycle. The program requires some input from the user. Next, the program processes the input with programming language and finally shows the output.

36 First Program References It is used for including C# class library. C# has huge collection of classes and objects. If you want to use those classes then you will have to include their library name in your program.

37 First Program References Namespace

38 First Program References Namespace Class

39 First Program static void Main(string[] args) { //... } or static int Main(string[] args) { //... return 0; } References Namespace Class Main A C# console application must contain a Main method, in which control starts and ends. The Main method is where you create objects and execute other methods.

40 First Program We write our codes within these brackets Every opening bracket should have an closing one.

41 First Program Main Print to screen ; Semicolon: end of statement Comments Print current date and time to screen

42 Building the Project Build menu item Hint: Just press F6 key to build a project.

43 Executing the Program Run menu item Hint: Just press F5 key to execute a program.

44 Program Output

45

46 LINKS aspx Smartphone Application: Learn C# (by Sololearn Inc.) (Available for both Android and Apple)

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