4. Formation of Solar Systems

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "4. Formation of Solar Systems"

Transcription

1 Astronomy 110: SURVEY OF ASTRONOMY 4. Formation of Solar Systems 1. A Survey of the Solar System 2. The Solar System s Early History 3. Other Planetary Systems

2 The solar system s rich and varied structure points to its formation from a gas cloud collapsing due to selfgravity some 4.5 billion years ago. In this proto-solar system, small grains of solid matter clumped together, eventually producing the planets we see today. Other stars with planets have now been observed; a wide variety of planetary systems can arise when stars form.

3 1. A SURVEY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM a. Overview of the solar system b. A brief tour of the premises c. Clues to its formation

4 Overview: Structure 100 AU S 5 AU 20,000 AU Inner system: terrestrial planets, asteroids. Outer system: giant planets and moons, KBOs. Oort Cloud: comets.

5 Overview: Motion All planets move in the same direction in nearly circular orbits; most rotate in the same direction as they orbit.

6 Overview: Planetary Types rocky & metallic terrestrial planets (inner system) hydrogen-rich jovian planets (outer system)

7 A Brief Tour: The Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Largely H and He

8 A Brief Tour: Mercury Large iron core and desolate rock crust

9 A Brief Tour: Venus Earth s twisted sister Extreme greenhouse effect

10 A Brief Tour: Earth Liquid surface water! Complex and dynamic atmosphere Remarkably large moon

11 A Brief Tour: Mars Cold & dry, but water flowed long ago Complex and interesting topography

12 A Brief Tour: Jupiter Largest gas-giant planet no solid surface! Many different moons, some as big as planets

13 A Brief Tour: Saturn Spectacular ring system Titan, a moon with atmosphere

14 A Brief Tour: Uranus Water and other hydrogen compounds Extreme axis tilt

15 A Brief Tour: Neptune Most distant major planet Large moon with backwards orbit

16 A Brief Tour: Pluto and Other Icy Dwarfs Tiny compared to other planets Ices of H2O & other H compounds Many still to be discovered!

17 XXX (g/cm 3 )

18 Clues to Formation: Motion All planets and most moons orbit in the same direction and stay close to the same plane. The sun and most planets also rotate in that direction.

19 Conservation Laws: Angular Momentum An object with mass m moving in a circle of radius r with velocity v has angular momentum mvr. If there is no torque (roughly speaking, twisting force) on the object, its angular momentum is conserved. Wikipedia: Kepler s Laws

20 Clues to Formation: Two Types of Planets Terrestrial Planets Jovian Planets small size & mass large size & mass high density low density rock & metal H, He, H2O, CH4, NH3,... solid surface no solid surface few moons, no rings many moons & rings close to sun, warm far from sun, cold

21 Clues to Formation: Small Objects Asteroids: small (< 1000 km) rock & metal (?) inner system Dwarf planets: small (~ 1000 km) ice & rock Kuiper belt Comets: small (~ 10 km) ice & rock Kuiper belt & Oort cloud

22 Clues to Formation: Exceptions to the Rules Rotation of Venus: Reverse direction Extremely slow Rotation of Uranus: Axis tipped 98 Earth s Moon: Very large for our planet Iron deficiency Neptune s moon Triton: Reverse orbit direction

23 A SURVEY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: REVIEW 1. Ordered motion of Solar System Orbits & spins are fossils of motion in early Solar System. 2. Two types of planets Terrestrial planets near Sun, jovian planets further away. 3. Numerous small objects Asteroids in the inner system, icy dwarfs & comets further out. 4. Exceptions to the rules Earth s big Moon, and unusual spins and orbits of some objects.

24 2. THE SOLAR SYSTEM S EARLY HISTORY a. Collapse of the solar nebula b. Planet formation: the frost line c. The age of the solar system

25 The Nebular Theory

26 Collapse: Galactic Recycling Our solar system formed from gas which had already been cycled through many generations of stars. Each cycle increased the amount of heavy elements.

27 Collapse: Birthplace of the Solar System Hubble s sharpest image of the Orion Nebula

28 Hubble s sharpest image of the Orion Nebula

29 Collapse: From Cloud to Disk 1. A gas cloud starts to collapse due to its own gravity. 2. It spins faster and heats up as it collapses. 3. Vertical motions die out, leaving a spinning disk. 4. The solar system still spins in the same direction.

30 Collapse: Angular Momentum and Energy 1. Angular momentum conservation causes the cloud to spin faster as it contracts: (rotation speed) 1 (cloud diameter) Collapse stops when the cloud spins at orbital speed. 2. Energy conservation causes the cloud to heat up: potential energy kinetic energy thermal energy gravitational collapse gas shocks

31 1. What would have happened if the gas cloud had been rotating a little faster to begin with? A. The cloud would collapse even more before reaching orbital speed. B. The cloud would collapse a little less before reaching orbital speed. C. The cloud would fly apart instead of collapsing. D. The cloud would fall straight inward and never form a disk.

32 2. If the cloud collapsed further before forming a disk, would it be hotter or colder? A. Hotter, because more gravitational energy would be released. B. Colder, because less gravitational energy would be released. C. Neither hotter nor colder.

33 Collapse: Disks Around Other Stars We can see disks around other stars, as expected if these stars formed from collapsing gas clouds.

34 Planet Formation At the end of the collapse phase, the solar nebula was a uniform mixture of different materials. Some of these materials began condensing out of the gas.

35 Planet Formation: The Frost Line The disk was hot at the center, and cool further out. Inside the frost line, only rocks & metals can condense. Outside, hydrogen compounds can also condense. The frost line was between the present orbits of Mars and Jupiter roughly 4 AU from the Sun.

36 Planet Formation: Terrestrial Planets 1. Within the frost line, bits of rock and metal clumped together to make planetesimals. 2. As the planetesimals grew, they became large enough to attract each other. 3. Finally, only a few planets were left.

37 Planet Formation: Jovian Planets 1. Outside the frost line, icy planetesimals were very common, forming planets about 10 times the mass of Earth. 2. These planets attracted nearby gas, building up giant planets composed mostly of H and He. 3. The disks around these planets produced moons.

38 Planet Formation: Asteroids and Comets Leftovers from early stages of planet formation Asteroids form inside frost line, comets outside Scattered by jovian planets into present orbits

39 Planet Formation: Explaining the Exceptions 1. Giant impacts in early solar system: explain rotation of Venus, Uranus form Moon from collision debris 2. Satellite capture after near-miss: moons of Mars captured from asteroid belt Triton captured from Kuiper belt

40 3. How would the solar system be different if the nebula had been cooler? A. Jovian planets would form closer to the Sun. B. There would be no asteroids. C. There would be no comets. D. Terrestrial planets would be larger.

41 4. Which of these facts is not explained by the nebular theory? A. There are two kinds of planets: terrestrial and jovian. B. All planets orbit in the same direction. C. Asteroids and comets are common. D. There are four terrestrial and four jovian planets.

42 The Age of the Solar System Radioactive elements decay into stable ones; e.g., 40 K 40 Ar + e + (Potassium-40) (Argon-40) (positron) The rate of decay is fixed by the element s half-life, the time for 50% to decay; for 40 K, this time is 1.25 Gyr (1 Gyr = 1 billion years). Rocks contain no 40 Ar when they form; by measuring the ratio of 40 Ar to 40 K, the rock s age can be found.

43 5. If a mineral has Ar atoms for every 40 K atom, how old is it? A. about 3 Gyr B. about 4 Gyr C. about 5 Gyr D. about 6 Gyr E. about 7 Gyr

44 The Age of the Solar System: Dating Rocks The oldest Earth minerals are 4.4 Gyr old. The oldest Moon rocks are also 4.4 Gyr old. The Cartoon History of the Universe The oldest meteorites are 4.55 Gyr old; this is how long ago minerals started condensing in the disk.

45 THE SOLAR SYSTEM S EARLY HISTORY: SUMMARY a. Collapse of the solar nebula b. Planet formation: the frost line c. The age of the solar system

46 3. OTHER PLANETARY SYSTEMS a. How to find em b. What we find c. What it means

47 How To Find Other Planetary Systems 1. The Doppler Technique measure effect of planet on motion of star can detect systems with multiple planets 2. Transits and Eclipses measure dimming of star s light by planet can be done using small telescopes 3. Direct Detection seeing is believing, but hard to do need for accurate analysis of planetary surfaces

48 The Doppler Method: Gravitational Tug-Of-War As a planet orbits, the star must move slightly in response (Newton s 3 rd law). The combined effect of eight planets (mostly J. & S. ) makes the Sun dance around. These motions are small how can we detect them?

49 The Doppler Shift Doppler Effect Doppler Effect A stationary source sends out waves of the same wavelength in all directions. If the source is moving, the waves bunch up ahead of its motion, and spread out behind.

50 The Doppler Shift: Light We get a similar effect with light. The change in wavelength λ depends on the source s velocity v toward or away from us: red-shift blue-shift λshift - λrest λrest = v c where λshift is the observed (shifted) wavelength, λrest is the wavelength with the source at rest, and c is the speed of light.

51 The Doppler Shift: Astronomy Applications 1. All lines in a spectrum shift by same amount: Hydrogen lines in lab (no shift). Shift to red star receding. Shift to blue star approaching. 2. No shift from sideways motion.

52 The Doppler Method A planet orbiting a star induces alternating red and blue shifts in the star s spectrum (unless orbit is face-on). 51 Pegasi These tiny shifts can be used to find the planet s mass and the properties of its orbit.

53 Transits and Eclipses A star with a planet in an edge-on orbit dims slightly every time the planet crosses (transits) its face. HD Pegasi Half an orbit later, there s a slight drop in the combined brightness as the star hides (eclipses) the planet.

54 Direct Detection Hubble Directly Observes Planet Orbiting Fomalhult

55 What We Find: Orbits Many planets found so far orbit very close to their central stars. Some orbit in only a few days! Many have very elliptical orbits. These systems are very different from our solar system!

56 What We Find: Masses and Orbital Periods Most planets found Hot Jupiters so far are even more massive than Jupiter. Transit and doppler methods tend to find planets near stars. M (MJ) Systems like ours are hard to detect direct detection doppler method transit method P (yr) Wikipedia: Extrasolar planet

57 What We Find: Hot Jupiters Many known because they are easy to find they may not be especially common.

58 What it Means 1. Are Earth-like planets rare or common? hot (or warm) jupiters would disrupt Earth s orbit many stars do not have hot (or warm) jupiters not yet possible to detect Earth-like planets 2. Do Hot Jupiters imply the Nebular theory is wrong? jovian planets cannot form inside frost line planetary migration may explain this puzzle

59 Planet Migration A planet embedded in a disk around a star can excite spiral waves this process robs the planet of angular momentum, causing it to spiral inward.

60 Planet Migration 1. Can explain hot jupiters and eccentric orbits migration can move planets very close to star encounters between planets disturb orbits 2. Why didn t this happen in our solar system? disk cleared by Sun s wind or external effects some migration may be needed to form Oort cloud

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin What does our solar system look like? The planets are tiny compared to the distances between them (a million times smaller than shown here), but they exhibit

More information

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Announce: Mercury Transit Part 2 of Projects due next Thursday Ch. 8 Formation of the Solar System Philip on The Physics of Star Trek Radiometric Dating Lab

More information

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary

More information

The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit in same direction and plane 2. Existence of

More information

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System 8.1 The Search for Origins What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? What properties

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System 15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System Planets orbiting other stars are called extrasolar planets. Until 1995, whether or not extrasolar planets existed was unknown. Since then more than 300 have been discovered.

More information

L3: The formation of the Solar System

L3: The formation of the Solar System credit: NASA L3: The formation of the Solar System UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann A stable home The presence of life forms elsewhere in the Universe requires a stable environment where

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to

More information

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets Let s first consider the large gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Planets to scale with Sun in background 67 62 14 The many moons of the outer planets.. Most of the moons are very small 1

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius Chapter 7 Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning:! What does the solar system look like?! What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?! What are the major

More information

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Stephen Kane ASTR 115: The Second Mid-Term Exam What will be covered? - Everything from chapters 6-10 of the textbook. What will be the format of the exam? - It will

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Homework #3 Solutions

Homework #3 Solutions Chap. 7, #40 Homework #3 Solutions ASTR100: Introduction to Astronomy Fall 2009: Dr. Stacy McGaugh Which of the following is a strong greenhouse gas? A) Nitrogen. B) Water Vapor. C) Oxygen) The correct

More information

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances? CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics Chapter 7 Our Planetary System Agenda Pass back & discuss Test 2 Where we are (at) Ch. 7 Our Planetary System Finish Einstein s Big Idea Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft A. General Basics Intro

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets come from the clouds of gas and dust that

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning What are asteroids like? Why is there an asteroid belt? Where do meteorites

More information

Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?

More information

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Formation of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpOKztEiMqo&feature =related Formation of our Solar System Conservation of Angular Momentum Why are the larger,

More information

Other Planetary Systems

Other Planetary Systems Other Planetary Systems Other Planetary Systems Learning goals How do we detect planets around other stars? What have other planetary systems taught us about our own? Extrasolar planet search

More information

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts What are asteroids like? 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning:! What are asteroids like?! Why is there

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

Solar Nebula Theory. Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained:

Solar Nebula Theory. Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained: Solar Nebula Theory Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained: 1. All planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun s rotation 2. All planetary orbits are confined to the

More information

Planets beyond the solar system

Planets beyond the solar system Planets beyond the solar system Review of our solar system Why search How to search Eclipses Motion of parent star Doppler Effect Extrasolar planet discoveries A star is 5 parsecs away, what is its parallax?

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning: Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? How do we detect

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Detecting Extrasolar Planets Brightness Difference. How do we detect planets around other stars?

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Detecting Extrasolar Planets Brightness Difference. How do we detect planets around other stars? Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds Detecting Extrasolar Planets Brightness Difference A Sun-like star is about a billion times brighter than the sunlight reflected from

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System

Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System 1 Outline The Solar System:! Terrestrial planets! Jovian planets! Asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud Condensation and growth of solid bodies

More information

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets The Jovian Planets The Jovian planets are gas giants - much larger than Earth Sizes of Jovian Planets Planets get larger as they get more massive up to a point... Planets more massive than Jupiter are

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars?

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? How do we detect

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room What is the difference between dark ENERGY and dark MATTER? Is Earth unique,

More information

Assignment 5. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 5. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assignment 5 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the single most important reason that astronomers have learned more

More information

Planetary Trading Cards

Planetary Trading Cards Planetary Order: 1 st planet from the sun Planet Size: 4,880 Kilometers Rotation Time (Earth Days): 59 Orbit Time (Earth Years):.241 Orbit Time (Earth Days): 88 MERCURY 38 lbs AU s:.4 Kilometers: 60 million

More information

DE2410: Learning Objectives. SOLAR SYSTEM Formation, Evolution and Death. Solar System: To Size Scale. Learning Objectives : This Lecture

DE2410: Learning Objectives. SOLAR SYSTEM Formation, Evolution and Death. Solar System: To Size Scale. Learning Objectives : This Lecture DE2410: Learning Objectives SOLAR SYSTEM Formation, Evolution and Death To become aware of our planet, solar system, and the Universe To know about how these objects and structures were formed, are evolving

More information

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

More information

Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

More information

Solar System Overview

Solar System Overview Solar System Overview Planets: Four inner planets, Terrestrial planets Four outer planets, Jovian planets Asteroids: Minor planets (planetesimals) Meteroids: Chucks of rocks (smaller than asteroids) (Mercury,

More information

The Jovian Planets Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

The Jovian Planets Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The Jovian Planets 1 Great Exam Performance! Class average was 79.5% This is the highest average I ve ever had on any ASTR 100 exam Wonderful job! Exams will be handed back in your sections Don t let up;

More information

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

More information

Lecture 7: Formation of the Solar System

Lecture 7: Formation of the Solar System Lecture 7: Formation of the Solar System Dust and debris disk around Fomalhaut, with embedded young planet! Claire Max April 24 th, 2014 Astro 18: Planets and Planetary Systems UC Santa Cruz Solar System

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM NAME. I. Physical characteristics of the solar system

THE SOLAR SYSTEM NAME. I. Physical characteristics of the solar system NAME I. Physical characteristics of the solar system THE SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system consists of the sun and 9 planets. Table 2 lists a number of the properties and characteristics of the sun and the

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. The New Science of Distant Worlds

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. The New Science of Distant Worlds Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Brightness Difference A Sun-like star is about a billion times brighter

More information

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29 NAME: Astronomy Study Guide asteroid chromosphere comet corona ellipse Galilean moons VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteor gravity meteorite greenhouse effect meteoroid heliocentric system

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 890L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets are born from the clouds of gas and dust

More information

Our Solar System Students will travel through the solar system and learn how far apart the planets are and how they move through the solar system.

Our Solar System Students will travel through the solar system and learn how far apart the planets are and how they move through the solar system. Our Solar System Students will travel through the solar system and learn how far apart the planets are and how they move through the solar system. Grade Level: 2nd Objectives: Students will create a model

More information

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth Lecture 19 Part 2: Climates of the Past 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth 2) The evolution of Earth s atmosphere - from its origin to present-day 3)

More information

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. The largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km. There are 150,000

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 1020L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets are born from the clouds of gas and dust

More information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Imagine it a huge spiral galaxy containing hundreds of billions of stars, spiraling out from a galactic center. Nestled deep within one of the

More information

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

More information

How did the Solar System form?

How did the Solar System form? How did the Solar System form? Is our solar system unique? Are there other Earth-like planets, or are we a fluke? Under what conditions can Earth-like planets form? Is life common or rare? Ways to Find

More information

A: Planets. Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets?

A: Planets. Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? A: Planets Q: What can we learn by studying small bodies of the solar system? A: We can

More information

Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.

More information

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2 Kinesthetic Solar System Kinesthetic Solar System Demonstration Materials Students Pictures or signs representing each body in the solar system, including comets, and asteroids. Large outside open area,

More information

The Origin of the Solar System

The Origin of the Solar System The Origin of the Solar System Questions: How did the various constituents of Solar System form? What were the physical processes involved? When did they form? Did they all form more-or less simultaneously?

More information

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK Brought to you by: THE SUN Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. 1 Temperature: 27,000,000 F in the center, 10,000 F at the surface. So that s REALLY hot anywhere on the

More information

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it.

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it. Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: asteroid, celestial object, comet, constellation, Doppler effect, eccentricity, eclipse, ellipse, focus, Foucault Pendulum, galaxy, geocentric model, heliocentric

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

The orbit of Halley s Comet

The orbit of Halley s Comet The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What

More information

Having completed the chapters on the planets,

Having completed the chapters on the planets, 15 The formation of our solar system was a long-ago event, with much of the matter of our primordial galactic cloud eventually either comprising the Sun and planets or ejected back into deep space. Now,

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws

Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws Astro 110-01 Lecture 10 Newton s laws Twin Sungrazing comets 9/02/09 Habbal Astro110-01 Lecture 10 1 http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/movies/soho_lasco_c2.mpg What have we learned? How do we describe

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 2 Answers

ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 2 Answers ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 2 Answers 1. Radio waves travel through space at what speed? (d) at the speed of light, 3 10 8 m/s 2. In 1675, Rømer

More information

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10

Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 Name: João Fernando Alves da Silva Class: 7-4 Number: 10 What is the constitution of the Solar System? The Solar System is constituted not only by planets, which have satellites, but also by thousands

More information

ASTR 100. Lecture 14: Formation of the Solar System and A Brief History of Space Exploration

ASTR 100. Lecture 14: Formation of the Solar System and A Brief History of Space Exploration ASTR 100 Lecture 14: Formation of the Solar System and A Brief History of Space Exploration Reading: Formation of SS (Ch. 6), The Sun (Ch. 10) Friday: Quiz and Ex. 4 due Tuesday: Feb 18 th : Midterm Done

More information

Names of Group Members:

Names of Group Members: Names of Group Members: Using telescopes and spacecraft, astronomers can collect information from objects too big or too far away to test and study in a lab. This is fortunate, because it turns out that

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17 Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative

More information

The dynamical structure of the Solar System

The dynamical structure of the Solar System The dynamical structure of the Solar System Wilhelm Kley Institut für Astronomie & Astrophysik & Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics Tübingen March 2015 8. Solar System: Organisation Lecture overview:

More information

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Modeling Galaxy Formation Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

More information

LER 2891. Ages. Grades. Solar System. A fun game of thinking & linking!

LER 2891. Ages. Grades. Solar System. A fun game of thinking & linking! Solar System Ages 7+ LER 2891 Grades 2+ Card Game A fun game of thinking & linking! Contents 45 Picture cards 45 Word cards 8 New Link cards 2 Super Link cards Setup Shuffle the two decks together to mix

More information

Pluto Data: Numbers. 14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud. Pluto Data (Table 14-5)

Pluto Data: Numbers. 14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud. Pluto Data (Table 14-5) 14b. Pluto, Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud Pluto Pluto s moons The Kuiper Belt Resonant Kuiper Belt objects Classical Kuiper Belt objects Pluto Data: Numbers Diameter: 2,290.km 0.18. Earth Mass: 1.0. 10 22 kg

More information

DESCRIPTION ACADEMIC STANDARDS INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS VOCABULARY BEFORE SHOWING. Subject Area: Science

DESCRIPTION ACADEMIC STANDARDS INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS VOCABULARY BEFORE SHOWING. Subject Area: Science DESCRIPTION Host Tom Selleck conducts a stellar tour of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto--the outer planets of Earth's solar system. Information from the Voyager space probes plus computer models

More information

Planets and Dwarf Planets by Shauna Hutton

Planets and Dwarf Planets by Shauna Hutton Name: Wow! Technology has improved so well in the last several years that we keep finding more and more objects in our solar system! Because of this, scientists have had to come up with new categories

More information

KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering misconceptions of the Universe. LAB: Comparing size and distances in space. POST:

More information

Exemplar Problems Physics

Exemplar Problems Physics Chapter Eight GRAVITATION MCQ I 8.1 The earth is an approximate sphere. If the interior contained matter which is not of the same density everywhere, then on the surface of the earth, the acceleration

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

A Solar System Coloring Book

A Solar System Coloring Book A Solar System Coloring Book Courtesy of the Windows to the Universe Project http://www.windows2universe.org The Sun Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. Temperature: ~27,000,000 F in the center, ~10,000

More information