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1 An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate Is a passive house sensible solution for Greenland? Petra Vladyková Ph.D. Defense 3 rd of June 2011 Supervisors: Carsten Rode Toke Rammer Nielsen Søren Pedersen 1 Content Background, research questions and objective The European Passive house and the Arctic Methods for optimization Analyses and results Conclusion and further work 2

2 Thesis Summary of thesis Conference and ISI papers with several co-authors Passive houses for the Arctic climates The potential and need for energy savings in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland The Low-energy house in the Arctic climate 5 years of experiences Passive houses in the Arctic. Measures and alternative The energy potential from the building design s differences between Europe and Arctic What is an appropriate and reasonable building solution for the Arctic climates based on a passive house idea? 3 Background Energy use worldwide High energy consumption in buildings in the Arctic Buildings in the Arctic dependent on non-renewable natural resources Insufficient indoor air quality, high indoor temperatures, poor thermal comfort, lack of air tightness 4

3 Research questions 1. Can the European definition of a passive house make use and be applied in the Arctic countries? 2. How will a European passive house perform in Greenland (Arctic)? 3. Could a passive house from the Arctic stimulate the development of low-energy building technology in other climates? 4. What would be an energy efficient building for Arctic climates? 5 Objectives Passive house and the potential usability in the Arctic Different and difficult environmental conditions Building technologies and techniques Lifestyle (expectation, moisture and indoor temperature) Potential of solar, passive and internal gains Full utilization of renewable resources Focus on U-values, energy, not economy Cost versus environmental impact versus energy savings Energy efficient buildings in the Arctic 6

4 The passive house Passive without a hydronic Definition and requirements Principle Super-insulated and airtight building envelope Heat recovery system providing fresh air and heating Energy efficient building equipments Renewable energy and systems Passive house principles Other rules 7 The European passive house Characteristics Supplementary heat generation Biomass combustion unit, compact burner Implementation Central Europe 40-60º latitude Nordic regions > 60º lat. Mediterranean < 40º lat. Passive house qualities definition and requirements for European conditions 8

5 The Arctic Definition Geographical, climatological and climate Population 60-66º (15,000,000), 66-70º (3,600,000), above 70º (400,000), Discontinuous permafrost, Arctic Circle, 10ºC July isotherm, tree line Climate Long, cold winters and short, cool summers, strong winds and storms Solar distribution and low sun elevation (Polar days and nights) 9 Residential buildings in the Arctic Building structures Lightweight Medium weight Heating degree day method Space heating demand Domestic hot water consumption Electricity consumption Example of double stud walls 10

6 Energy systems and challenges in the Arctic Systems in buildings Boiler with a hydronic heating system covering heating and hot water consumption Challenges Hybrid (combined) system System control Maintenance and reliability Transport Renewable sources and technology Low-energy house in Sisimiut, Built in Methods for optimisation Optimization method General optimization methods a single objective method A multi-criteria method A qualitative method Optimisation problem as a function 12

7 Optimisation methods for a passive house for the Arctic climate Objectives Measurable and qualitative Constraints Limitations Decision variables Performance decisive-parameters Boundary conditions Input and constant values 13 Optimisation methods for a passive house for the Arctic climate Models Kranichstein, Typehouse 18D, Apisseq and Low-energy house Focus on residential houses PHPP and BSim Uncertainties Conclusion of methods Analyses focused on energy performance and heat load of a passive house Focus on combination of measurable and qualitative parameters Finding optimal solution in reasonable and practical way Target is a passive house, means are the advanced building materials characteristics Energy efficient solution within the constraints in the Arctic regions 14

8 Energy balance of a passive house in Darmstadt, Germany Latitude 50º Average annual temperature 7-9ºC Passive house Kranichstein Solar radiation distributed over the year Solar radiation available on the design days Internal gains 2.1 W/m 2 Heat recovery η = 80% Utilisation of the gains of 90-95% Example of energy balance of a passive house from PHPP 15 Coastal and inland cities with main characteristics for space heating calculation c 16

9 Relocated passive house heating demand Coastal and inland location Greater temperature difference = higher transmission heat losses Smaller amount of potential solar gains through windows Different solar pattern Utilisation of the solar gains up to 100% Low angle sun and overheating in summer Potential in internal gains Space heating 17 Coastal and inland cities with main characteristics for heating load calculation 18

10 Relocated passive house heating load Two designs days Poor availability of reliable weather data No solar gains on the design days Design heating load influenced by the transmission, ventilation and infiltration heat losses and internal gains are subtracted (internal gains 1.6 W/m 2 by PHI) Heating load 19 Passive house in the Arctic using fundamental values 20

11 Fundamental and national values Internal gains: W/m 2, for Greenland 5 W/m 2 Ventilation air change rate h -1 Building design: window/floor area <22%, lightweight timber structure with insulation and elevated foundation Example of internal heat gain for Germany and Greenland including the effect of people, cooking, lighting and household appliances 21 Passive house in the Arctic using Greenlandic values 22

12 Passive house in the Arctic using Greenlandic values in other latitudes Lat. 66.6º Lat. 71.2º Lat. 74.4º 23 Insulation in the building Equivalent effect Equivalent effect of insulation value for locations in Darmstadt and Sisimiut Equivalent effect for improvements to a passive house and energy improvements from current state to passive house standards 24

13 Window s properties Window in passive house in Sisimiut Kranichstein model: U glazing 0.3 W/(m 2 K) U window 0.5 W/(m 2 K) g-value % of window/floor area 25 Windows area Glazed area facing south in the temperate climate Glazed area facing south in the cold climate 26

14 Air tightness Infiltration heat loss up to kwh/(m 2 a) for old and not airtight building in Germany passive house: 1.3 kwh/(m 2 a) in a temperate climate 2.3 kwh/(m 2 a) in Sisimiut (66.6º) 3.2 kwh/(m 2 a) in Barrow (71.2º) 3.7 kwh/(m 2 a) in Resolute (74.4º) Problems Blower-door test and conversion methods to neutral pressure Translation needs to take into account the effects of various climatedependent factors (wind, high temperature difference, stack effect) and the quality of building construction Major attention should be put to the airtight layer in houses in the Arctic 27 Heating load and heat exchanger efficiency Heating load of 10 W/m 2 in a cold climate Ventilation heat loss is important Need for after heating if the efficiency is below average Basic rules Prime criteria Heat exchanger efficiency and space heating in different climates 28

15 Thermal comfort and interior temperature Even interior temperature around 20ºC In the Arctic, 24-26ºC with additional energy kwh/(m 2 a) From 20ºC to 23ºC with additional energy 5 kwh/(m 2 a) Thermal comfort No draft, no vertical air temperature differences, thermally good insulated building envelope areas 29 Sustainable value Payback time for an upgrade passive house in a temperate climate 5-10 years In the cold climate: transport, monopoly, non skilled labour, high prices for new technologies, low prices for non-renewable energies Sustainable value as the impact of materials expressed in savings in heating consumption and materials to built the house (insulation and transport) years of payback for insulation 30

16 Temperature stability and temperature drop Passive survivability Passive house stability Temperature drop in a normal house in the Arctic Temperature drop in a passive house of lightweight structure 31 Socio-economic conditions, culture gap and energy supply Socio-economic conditions and culture gap Cultural differences, dependency on the knowledge, different lifestyles based on survival, food consumption based on availability, use of non-renewable sources Living preferences: open floor plans without corridors and integrated kitchen, one-storey building connected to the ground, large enclosed porches for storage, a cold entrance Energy supply Remote, small and isolated dependent on supplies Need to prevail in extreme periods, back-up system and heat storage Passive house in the Arctic needs to be independent on the resources 32

17 Adaptation and optimisation of a passive house in the Arctic Based on performed analysis considering technical performance of building elements, weather characterisations, resources availability and other special conditions in the Arctic Recommendations based on a study of relevant literature, own investigations and implementation of thoughts about a passive house in the Arctic Argumentation based on a subjective argument What a passive house can offer? 33 Optimal energy efficient house based on a passive house idea in Sisimiut (66º lat) Optimisation 5 W/m 2, 0.5 h -1, η = 85%, n infiltration h -1 Reasonable values U walls W/(m 2 K), U floor,ceiling W/(m 2 K), U glazing 0.7 W/(m 2 K), g-value 0.6, window/floor area < 22% 15 kwh/(m 2 a), heating load 13.1 W/m 2 and source 3-5 kw 34

18 Optimal energy efficient house based on a passive house idea in other latitudes Concept for locations above 66º latitude Other locations too demanding, need to alter more Or use energy from 120 kwh/(m 2 a) 35 Recommendations for energy efficient buildings in the Arctic Design Minimize heat loss and maximize exposure to sun with shading Exterior wind barrier and interior airtight vapour barrier Mainly south orientated windows for net energy gain, east and west could be zero energy gain System Average η = 85-95%, large amount of condensation, defrosting and after heating Based on combination of renewable and non-renewable energies Effective storage of excess energy Building commissioning and energy monitoring 36

19 Conclusion Simple adaptation of a passive house is too demanding and unrealistic and 10 W/m 2 can be achieved only with overdimensioning Practical and reasonable solution Interaction between energy demand, indoor climate, building technologies and impact on the environment Minimize the heat loss, maximize solar exposure, simple shape, limitation on windows Twice as cold : U envelope < 0.05 W/(m 2 K), U window < W/(m 2 K), g-value > 0.6, η avg > 80-90% Heating system is necessity in winter periods coupled with renewable resources or else heating storage 37 Further work Acceptance and marketing of a passive house in the Arctic Economical issues and pay back time Existing and advanced technologies Adaptation of lifestyle and adapting technology Technically skilled labour, architects and engineers Implementation and distribution of renewable resources 38

20 Thank you for your attention Questions? 39

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