Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Earth and Space Science Level 2. Resource title: Life in the Deep Ocean

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1 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Earth and Space Science Level 2 Resource title: Life in the Deep Ocean This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard Investigate how organisms survive in an extreme environment Student and grade boundary specific exemplar The material has been gathered from student material specific to an A or B assessment resource. Date version published by Ministry of Education December 2011 To support internal assessment from 2012 Crown 2010

2 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: Low Excellence 1. Investigate comprehensively how organisms survive in an extreme environment. selecting and processing information that provides integrated links between conditions of the extreme environment and biological adaptations or technological modifications justifying, using the processed information, how the biological adaptations or technological modifications allow the organism(s) to survive the conditions of the extreme environment. The conditions of the environment are discussed in depth. The key adaptations are discussed in depth and there is an attempt at justifying the key adaptations (not fully complete). All the adaptations for the Blood Belly Comb Jelly lead to the final grade. For example: Reproduction: These Jellies are almost all hermaphrodites The Blood Belly Comb Jelly is only able to reproduce when they have eaten a substantial amount of food (adaptation). Some adaptations chosen were not were not unique to this environment. For example: The water in the deep ocean is freezing and there is very little light present. There is also not a great amount of oxygen in the water Oxygen never runs out in the deepest parts of the ocean because there not as many species that need it. To achieve the standard securely at excellence grade the student would need to have evidence of the good explanations for conditions and resulting adaptations, and fully justified what the key adaptations were to the local environment. Crown 2010

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5 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: High Merit 2. Investigate in depth how organisms survive in an extreme environment. selecting and processing information that provides links between conditions of the extreme environment and biological adaptations or technological modifications explaining, using the processed information, how the biological adaptations or technological modifications allow the organism(s) to survive the conditions of the extreme environment. The report links the conditions in the extreme environment to the Anglerfish s adaptations. These adaptations are linked to the survival of the organism in the extreme environment..the intense pressure, changing temperatures, the scarce amount of light existing and availability food and oxygen (shows environmental conditions). This is well explained with the reference to blue light. For example: One of the many creatures is the abnormal Anglerfish with over 200 different species of Anglerfish they all have one thing in common, their ability to kill and consume prey that is much larger than themselves. However the justification for the key adaptations are lacking in the report. For example: Unlike other fish, the Anglerfish does not have a swim bladder Anglerfish have adapted a distinct body shape which is designed to prevent crushing The Anglerfish is able to survive this excessive pressure with no problems. To meet excellence this student would need to have provided good explanations for conditions and resulting adaptations, and justified what the key adaptations were. Crown 2010

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8 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: Low Merit 3. Investigate in depth how organisms survive in an extreme environment. selecting and processing information that provides links between conditions of the extreme environment and biological adaptations or technological modifications explaining, using the processed information, how the biological adaptations or technological modifications allow the organism(s) to survive the conditions of the extreme environment. This is a good explanation of the extreme environment and links to the adaptations of many creatures including the sperm whale. For example: In the deep ocean pressures increase 1 atmosphere (atm) for every 10metres To survive the extreme pressures fish found in the deep ocean are usually small and don t exceed 25cm. There is a weak link as to how these adaptations allow the sperm whale to survive at depth in the ocean. To meet the standard securely at merit grade evidence of the links between environmental conditions and the organism s adaptations must be explained. Also there needs to be an explanation as to how these adaptations lead to survival. For example: Feeding of the sperm whale The sperm whale feeds on a variety of deep ocean creatures such as giant squid One theory of catching prey is by echolocation. have a structure called monkey lips.these clicks can have a source level of 230 decibels which is the loudest sound made by an animal. Crown 2010

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11 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: High Achieved 4. Investigate in depth how organisms survive in an extreme environment. selecting and processing information that provides links between conditions of the extreme environment and biological adaptations or technological modifications explaining, using the processed information, how the biological adaptations or technological modifications allow the organism(s) to survive the conditions of the extreme environment. The conditions of the extreme environment are only briefly described and are therefore at an achievement level only eg the zones are a description only but do describe the levels in the ocean. There is limited linking as required by the first bullet point. The adaptations of the organism are well done and are at a merit level. To meet the standard securely at merit grade evidence of the links between environmental conditions and the organism s adaptations must be explained eg adaptations of the Anglerfish are a series of descriptions only but do not link to the environment or each other. Also there needs to be an explanation as to how these adaptations lead to survival. Crown 2010

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14 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: Low Achieved 5. Investigate how organisms survive in an extreme environment. selecting and processing information using the processed information: describing why the conditions of the extreme environment require special biological adaptations or technological modifications for survival describing how the biological adaptations or technological modifications allow the organism(s) to survive in the extreme environment recording sources of information used in a traceable format. There are good descriptive passages explaining biological adaptations for the tripod fish, and of the conditions of the deep ocean but there is no linking between the two. For example pressure: The pressure in the deep sea is immense, hundreds of times greater than the pressure we live in each day (not well described). The tripod fish diet: They feed on copepods and other small planktonic crustaceans uses tactile cues to identify food (only low level descriptions). To meet the standard securely at achievement grade evidence of a valid description of ocean conditions and adaptations would need to be given. Crown 2010

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17 Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.4B Earth and Space Science for Achievement Standard Grade Boundary: High Not Achieved Investigate how organisms survive in an extreme environment. selecting and processing information using the processed information: describing why the conditions of the extreme environment require special biological adaptations or technological modifications for survival describing how the biological adaptations or technological modifications allow the organism(s) to survive in the extreme environment recording sources of information used in a traceable format. There is a description of conditions in the deep oceans but only a limited description of the adaptations for the sperm whale. For example: Oxygen, extreme pressures and special adaptations are at a low level for Level 2. Some fish are bright red eg. Prawns are bright red so it s harder for them to get caught (this description has no reason why this adaptation helps survival). There is also no description of how the sperm whale survives at depth. Adaptations of the Sperm Whale The spermaceti organ the liquid substance sets to wax. This allows the whale to dive with less effort while the whale is diving the wax starts to melt and helps the whale have an easy buoyancy (contains errors of fact and does not explain the adaptations of the Sperm Whale). To meet the standard securely at achievement grade evidence of a valid description of ocean conditions and adaptations would need to be given. Crown 2010

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