Chapter 11 Learning Guide Industry

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1 Chapter 11 Learning Guide Industry Key Issue 1 Where is Industry Distributed? Pgs Define maquiladora: A manufacturing plant located in Mexico. Materials are shipped in from the US, manufactured in Mexico, then the finished product is exported back to the US. -more than 1 million Mexicans are employed in over 3,000 maquiladoras Origin of Industry 2. Regarding the Industrial Revolution: What? Where? When? WHAT a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods WHERE & WHEN Began in United Kingdom (1826); spread into West and NW Europe (by 1846) 3. Define cottage industry: Home-based manufacturing 4. How did the iron industry benefit from the steam engine? The steam engine provided a way to keep the ovens constantly heated instead of having to heat and reheat them 5. Define coke: Purified carbon, made from coal. Is more combustible so it heats easier and gives off the gases needed to smelt iron ore. 6. How is the distribution of steel and iron industry influenced by coal? Coal is a bulky and heavy product to move so early transportation limitations forced steel and iron factories to be located near coal deposits. 7. Why was development in transportation necessary? 1. To transfer resources (coal) to factory. 2. To transport finish product (iron & steel) to market. 8. What two forms of transportation grew rapidly? Canals and railroads. 9. How did the Industrial Revolution change textiles? Putters-out: individuals who would drop cotton off at homes where women and children would sort, clean, and then spin the cotton into thread. Putters-out would then pick up the cotton and pay per piece (piece rate). 10. How did the Industrial Revolution and factory system contribute to the need for food processing? The factory workers no longer lived on farms; were not growing their own food.

2 11. Using the map on page 346, shade where the first rail lines opened in the United Kingdom. 12. Using the map on page 326, shade and label the hearth region of industrialization. And, which European regions were the last to receive the benefits of industrialization?

3 Industrial Regions 13. As you read the section, make notes on the resources, advantages, conditions, and issues in each of the sub regions of industrial development discussed. Shade and label each of the regions on the maps. (Use maps on pages 347, 348 & 349 as guides) Europe United Kingdom first country to enter Industrial Revolution; now have attracted high-tech industries mostly from Japan and serves the European market Mid-Rhine French area of Alsace and Lorraine-contains Europe s largest iron ore field; German portion lacked these natural resources; Mercedes-Benz, Audi, and chemical industries located here which produce synthetic fibers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Germany is Europe s largest automobile manufacturer. Northeastern Spain fastest growing industrial area in Western Europe; Catelonia region centered on Barcelona produces textiles and automobiles (2 nd to Germany) St. Petersburg East Europe s 2 nd largest city; specializes in shipbuilding and other naval industries Urals contains over 1000 different minerals (most varied in the world); iron, steel, chemicals, machinery, and metal fabrication. Donetsk Eastern Ukraine; manganese, coal, iron ore, and natural gas deposits make this Eastern Europe s largest iron and steel producer. Rhine-Ruhr Northwestern Europe (Holland); industry dispersed through this area; iron and steel due to proximity to large coal deposits; this stimulated heavy machinery manufacturing (railroads, machinery); Rotterdam is world s largest port Po Basin In Italy, southern Europe s oldest and most important industrial area; assets included endless hydroelectricity from the Alps and a large and cheap labor supply from southern Italy; textiles. Moscow Russia s oldest industrial area and centered upon largest market of Moscow; specializes in fabrics and products which require skilled labor Volga Russia s largest petroleum and natural gas fields; motor vehicles, oil refining, chemicals, metallurgy, leather and fur Kuznetsk Russia s most important manufacturing area east of the Urals; coal and iron ore deposits spurred iron and steel manufacturing. Silesia Southern Poland and northern Czech Republic; Eastern Europe s largest industrial area outside of Russia, coal deposits and important steel producing area.

4 North America New England oldest industrial area in northeast US; industrialized in early 1800s; specialized in cotton textiles; cotton imported from southern US; textiles shipped to European market Mohawk Valley northern New York State along Hudson River to Erie Canal; steel and food manufacturing industries; inexpensive and abundant electricity from Niagara Falls; aluminum, paper, and electrochemical industries Western Great Lakes Centered on Chicago; now center of steel production; this is an area of convergence for national transportation networks so industries with a national market attracted here; machine tools, transportation equipment, clothing, furniture, agricultural machinery, and food products to interior Southeastern Ontario Canada s most important industrial area; most Canadian steel production; motorvehicles, aluminum, paper making, flour mills, textiles, and sugar refining area. Middle Atlantic largest US market; industries attracted which require large numbers of consumers; numerous large ports; financial, communications, and entertainment industries centered on New York City Pittsburgh-Lake Erie leading steel producing area of 19 th century; close proximity to Appalachian coal and iron ore; transformed to large steel producing area due to demand from urban areas of the east Southern California leading industrial area outside of the northeast; aircraft industry up to 1940s; now leader in textiles and furniture; also food producing area; much low-cost labor due to Latin American and Asian immigrants

5 East Asia Japan originally produced high quantity, low cost products during 1950s and 1960s; became leading producer of automobiles, ships, cameras, stereos, and televisions due to low labor costs; transformed workforce into high-skilled laborers to create high quality products and stay ahead of other Asian nations using lower-costing labor China world s largest supply of low-cost labor and world s largest market for many consumer products; largest manufacturer of textiles and apparel, steel, and many household products; 1990s: China loosened restrictions and opened their market to transnationals; this encouraged more consumer buying power; 3 clusters of Chinese manufacturing: 1. Guangdong and Hong Kong in South 2. Yangtze River Valley in East central 3. Tianjin, Beijing, and Shenyang in northeast

6 Chapter 11 Learning Guide Industry Key Issue 2 Why Are Situation Factors Important? Pgs Define situation factor: Cost factor which involves transporting materials to and from a factory; goal is to minimize transportation costs of both inputs and finished goods Proximity to Inputs 2. What is a bulk-reducing industry? An industry in which inputs weigh more than the finished products 3. Make a brief flow chart to illustrate how copper is an example of a bulk-reducing industry. Mining Concentration Smelting Refining 4. How does energy play a role in the situation of copper mills? The text describes the changing location of steel mills in the U.S. Explain when and why each location was preferred. 5. Pittsburgh, southwestern Pennsylvania 6. Locations around southern shore of Lake Erie

7 7. Southern Lake Michigan (Gary, Indiana & Chicago) 8. East and West Coasts (Trenton, NJ & Los Angeles, CA) 9. Why are the newest steel mills (minimills) beginning to move closer to markets and away from inputs? 10. What is a bulk-gaining industry? 11. Give two examples of these industries, and explain how they are bulk-gaining. 12. Specialized manufacturers make products that are designed to be sold primarily to. 13. Where is their optimum location? 14. Describe one example of this phenomenon. 15. List examples of perishable products that must be located near their markets. 16. How is a newspaper highly perishable?

8 Ship, Rail, Truck, or Air? 17. Give reasons for why each of the following modes of transportation might be selected by a manufacturer to deliver their products to market. SHIP RAIL TRUCK AIR 18. What is a break-of-bulk point? 19. Give two examples of important break-of-bulk points.

9 Chapter 11 Learning Guide Industry Key Issue 3 Why Are Site Factors Important? Pgs Define site factor: 10. What are the three production cost factors associated with the site of an industry? (Memorize Them!) Labor 11. Define labor intensive industry: 12. What type of worker is required for the textile industry? 13. What country accounts for most of the world s spinning and weaving? 14. Why do MDCs play a larger role in textile assembly than LDCs? Land 15. What are several (6 to be exact) factors about a given piece of land that make it attractive to industry and manufacturing? Capital 16. Describe the relationship between capital and the computer industry in California.

10 Chapter 11 Learning Guide Industry Key Issue 4 Why Are Location Factors Changing? Pgs Attraction of New Industrial Regions 19. How are manufacturing jobs shifting in the U.S.? 20. Define right-to-work laws: 21. Why are southern right to work states attractive to companies? 22. Why has textile production moved from the northeast to the southeast? 23. What are the convergence regions? 24. What are the competitive and employment regions? 25. What makes central Europe attractive to manufacturers? 26. Where has industry shifted internationally? And, name each regions leading industrial country(s). 27. Sketch two pie graphs showing global steel for production for 1980 and 2008 shading MDCs and LDCs. (Use Fig as your guide)

11 28. Use the map on page 364 to determine the following: Which groups accounted for more than 90% of global steel production in 1980? Who had the most rapid increase from 1980 to 2008? 29. Why do transnational corporations transfer work to LDCs? 30. What is the transfer of jobs known as? 31. Define outsourcing: 32. Provide an example of an industry that outsources, and what do they outsource? Renewed Attraction of Traditional Industrial Regions 33. What factors influence industry to remain in northeast U.S. or northwest Europe? 34. Define Fordist: 35. Define Post-Fordist: 36. What benefits do the manufacturers receive from just-in-time delivery? 37. How can labor unrest disrupt reliance on just-in-time delivery?

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