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1 Biology 1 of 40

2 2 of 40

3 The Skeleton (All organisms need structural support. Unicellular organisms have a cytoskeleton. Multicellular animals have either an exoskeleton (arthropods) or an endoskeleton (vertebrates).) 3 of 40

4 The Skeleton (The human skeleton is composed of bone. Bones and other connective tissues, such as cartilage and ligaments, form the skeletal system). 4 of 40

5 The Skeleton What are the functions of the skeletal system? 5 of 40

6 The Skeleton A. The skeleton: 1. supports the body. 2. protects internal organs. 3. provides for movement. 4. stores mineral reserves. 5. provides a site for blood cell formation. Osteo=bone 6 of 40

7 The Skeleton B. axial skeleton: (blue) supports central axis of body. Skull Sternum Ribs Vertebral column Axial Skeleton 7 of 40

8 The Skeleton C. Appendicular Skeleton (grey): bones of arms and shoulder area; pelvis and legs Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Pelvis Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Appendicular Skeleton Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges 8 of 40

9 Structure of Bones Structure of Bones What is the structure of a typical bone? 9 of 40

10 Structure of Bones D. Bone Structure: 1. solid network of living cells 2. protein fibers surrounded by deposits of calcium salts. 10 of 40

11 Structure of Bones Spongy bone Haversian canal Compact bone Compact bone Periosteum Spongy bone Bone marrow Osteocyte Artery Vein Periosteum 11 of 40

12 Structure of Bones (The bone is surrounded by a tough layer of connective tissue called the periosteum. Blood vessels in the periosteum carry oxygen and nutrients to the bone. ) 12 of 40

13 Structure of Bones (Beneath the periosteum is a thick layer of compact bone. Running through compact bone is a network of tubes called Haversian canals that contain blood vessels and nerves.) 13 of 40

14 Structure of Bones (Spongy bone is found inside the outer layer of compact bone. Spongy bone is also found in the ends of long bones and in the middle of short, flat bones. Spongy bone adds strength without adding mass.) 14 of 40

15 Structure of Bones (Osteocytes, or mature bone cells, are embedded in the bone matrix. Other bone cells osteoclasts and osteoblasts line the Haversian canals and the surfaces of compact and spongy bone. Osteoclasts break down bone. Osteoblasts produce bone.) 15 of 40

16 Structure of Bones E. Bone marrow: soft tissue inside the cavities of bones. F. 2 types of bone marrow: 1. Yellow marrow is made up of fat cells. 2. Red marrow produces red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells, and platelets. 16 of 40

17 Development of Bones G. Development of Bones 1. skeleton of an embryo is composed of cartilage. 2. Cartilage: * strong connective tissue that supports the body * softer and more flexible than bone. 17 of 40

18 Development of Bones H. Ossification: Cartilage is replaced by bone (Bone tissue forms as osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits. When the osteoblasts become surrounded by bone tissue, they mature into osteocytes.) 18 of 40

19 Development of Bones I. Growth plates: area at either end of long bone that cartilage grows. (Growth of cartilage at these plates causes bones to lengthen. Gradually, this cartilage is replaced by bone tissue. By early adulthood, cartilage in the growth plates is replaced by bone, the bones become ossified, and growth stops.) 19 of 40

20 Types of Joints J. Types of Joints 1.Joint: place where one bone attaches to another bone * permit bones to move without damaging each other. 20 of 40

21 Types of Joints What are the three different kinds of joints? 21 of 40

22 Types of Joints K. 3 kinds of joints: (Classified depending on type of movement) 22 of 40

23 Types of Joints 1. Immovable Joints a. allow no movement. b. bones are interlocked and held together by connective tissue, or they are fused together. c. example: skull bones. 23 of 40

24 Types of Joints 2. Slightly Movable Joints a. small amount of restricted movement. b. example: adjacent vertebrae. 24 of 40

25 Types of Joints 3. Freely Movable Joints a. movement in 1 or more directions. b. 4 types freely movable joints: 1. ball-and-socket joints 2. hinge joints 3. pivot joints 4. saddle joints 25 of 40

26 Types of Joints Ball-and-socket joints permit movement in many directions. 26 of 40

27 Types of Joints Hinge joints permit back-and-forth motion. 27 of 40

28 Types of Joints Pivot joints allow one bone to rotate around another. 28 of 40

29 Types of Joints Saddle joints permit one bone to slide in two directions. 29 of 40

30 Structure of Joints (Structure of Joints In freely movable joints, cartilage covers the surfaces where two bones come together. Joints are also surrounded by a fibrous capsule that holds the bones together while still allowing them to move.) 30 of 40

31 Structure of Joints Knee Joint Muscle Tendon Femur Patella Bursa Ligament Synovial fluid Cartilage Fat Fibula Tibia 31 of 40

32 Structure of Joints C. ligaments: hold bones together in joints (Synovial fluid forms a thin lubricating film over the surface of the joint. Synovial fluid enables the bones to slide past each other more smoothly.) 32 of 40

33 Structure of Joints (In some freely movable joints small sacs of synovial fluid called bursae form. A bursa reduces the friction between bones of a joint and also acts as a shock absorber.) 33 of 40

34 Skeletal System Disorders 4. Skeletal System Disorders A.Excessive strain on a joint may produce inflammation, (in which excess fluid causes swelling, pain, heat, and redness.) B. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa C. Arthritis: Inflammation of the joint D. Osteoporosis: is caused by a loss of calcium in the bone. 34 of 40

35 36 1 Continue to: - or - Click to Launch: 35 of 40

36 36 1 Red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells, and platelets are produced by a. red marrow. b. cartilage. c. yellow marrow. d. osteocytes. 36 of 40

37 36 1 Mature bone cells are called a. periosteum. b. osteocytes. c. bone marrow. d. Haversian canals. 37 of 40

38 36 1 In freely movable joints, what covers the surfaces where the two bones come together? a. ligaments b. cartilage c. bursae d. tendons 38 of 40

39 36 1 During ossification, cartilage is replaced by a. bone. b. ligament. c. marrow. d. tendon. 39 of 40

40 36 1 The shoulder joint is an example of a a. ball-and-socket joint. b. hinge joint. c. pivot joint. d. saddle joint. 40 of 40

41 END OF SECTION

To retain their shapes, all organisms need some type of structural

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