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1 Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep

2 Introduction to Body Structure Table of Contents Section 1 Body Organization Section 2 Skeletal System Section 3 Muscular System Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails

3 Section 1 Body Organization Objectives Identify four levels of structural organization within the human body. Analyze the four kinds of body tissues. List the body s major organ systems. Evaluate the importance of endothermy in maintaining homeostasis.

4 Section 1 Body Organization Levels of Structural Organization The body is organized into four levels: cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. A tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to perform a common function. The body has four basic kinds of tissues: epithelial, nervous, connective, and muscle tissues.

5 Section 1 Body Organization Tissue, Organ, and Organ System

6 Section 1 Body Organization Levels of Structural Organization, continued Four Kinds of Tissues Epithelial tissue lines most body surfaces and protects other tissues from damage and dehydration. Nervous tissue consists of nerve cells, which carry information throughout the body. Various kinds of connective tissue support, protect, and insulate the body. Muscle tissue enables the movement of body structures by muscle contraction.

7 Section 1 Body Organization Human Body Tissues

8 Section 1 Body Organization Body Tissues

9 Section 1 Body Organization Levels of Structural Organization, continued Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells are early, undifferentiated cells that give rise to all of the types of cells in the developing body. Embryonic stem cells will divide indefinitely. Adult stem cells are not as versatile and do not divide indefinitely.

10 Section 1 Body Organization Organ Systems Body organs are made of combinations of two or more types of tissues working together to perform a specific function. An organ system is a group of organs that work together to carry out major activities or processes. Some organs function in more than one organ system.

11 Section 1 Body Organization Major Organ Systems of the Human Body

12 Section 1 Body Organization Overview of Organ Systems

13 Section 1 Body Organization Organ Systems, continued Body Cavities The human body contains four large fluid-filled spaces, or body cavities, that house and protect the major internal organs. These body cavities are the thoracic cavity (heart and lungs), cranial cavity (brain), abdominal cavity (digestive organs), and spinal cavity (spinal cord).

14 Section 1 Body Organization Cavities of the Human Body

15 Section 1 Body Organization Inside the Human Coelom

16 Section 1 Body Organization Human Body Cavities

17 Section 1 Body Organization Organ Systems, continued Endothermy Like all mammals, humans are endotherms. Humans maintain a fairly constant internal temperature of about 37 C (98.6 F). The human body uses a great deal of energy to maintain a constant body temperature.

18 Section 1 Body Organization Advantage of Endothermy

19 Section 2 Skeletal System Objectives Distinguish between the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Analyze the structure of bone. Summarize the process of bone development. List two ways to prevent osteoporosis. Identify the three main classes of joints.

20 Section 2 Skeletal System The Skeleton The human skeleton contains 206 individual bones. The bones of the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum form the axial skeleton. The other bones, including those of the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder, form the appendicular skeleton.

21 Section 2 Skeletal System Human Skeleton

22 Section 2 Skeletal System Anatomy of a Human Skeletal System

23 Section 2 Skeletal System The Skeleton, continued Axial Skeleton The most complex part of the axial skeleton is the skull. The skull is attached to the top of the spine, or backbone, which is a flexible, curving column of vertebrae. Curving forward from the middle vertebrae are 12 pairs of ribs, which form the rib cage.

24 Section 2 Skeletal System The Skeleton, continued Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton forms the appendages, or limbs the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs. The shoulder attachment is called the pectoral girdle. The hip attachment is called the pelvic girdle.

25 Section 2 Skeletal System The Skeleton, continued Structure of Bone Bones are made of a hard outer covering of compact bone surrounding an inner core of spongy bone. Some cavities in spongy bone are filled with a soft tissue called bone marrow. Bones are surrounded and protected by a tough exterior membrane called the periosteum.

26 Section 2 Skeletal System Parts of a Human Bone 1 & 2

27 Section 2 Skeletal System Bone Marrow and Production of Red Blood Cells

28 Section 2 Skeletal System Structure of Bone

29 Section 2 Skeletal System Growth of Bones During development, a type of connective tissue called cartilage is gradually replaced by bone as minerals are deposited. In compact bone, new bone cells are added in layers around narrow, hollow channels called Haversian canals. Bone cells called osteocytes maintain the mineral content of bone.

30 Section 2 Skeletal System Compact Bone

31 Section 2 Skeletal System Human Bone Growth

32 Section 2 Skeletal System Growth of Bones, continued Osteoporosis In young adults, the density of bone usually remains constant. Severe bone loss can lead to a condition called osteoporosis. In osteoporosis, bones become brittle and are easily fractured.

33 Section 2 Skeletal System Effects of Osteoporosis

34 Section 2 Skeletal System Osteoporosis

35 Section 2 Skeletal System Joints A joint is a place where two bones meet. Pads of cartilage cushion the ends of the bones of a joint, enabling the joint to withstand great pressure and stress. The bones of a joint are held together by strong bands of connective tissue called ligaments.

36 Section 2 Skeletal System Joints in the Human Body

37 Section 2 Skeletal System Joints, continued Three Main Types of Joints Immovable joints permit little or no movement of the bones they join (ex. cranial bones). Slightly movable joints permit limited movement of the bones they join (ex. rib cage). Freely movable joints (ex. knee) permit movement. The direction of bone movement is determined by the structure of the joint.

38 Section 2 Skeletal System The Human Knee

39 Section 2 Skeletal System Types of Joints

40 Section 2 Skeletal System Joints, continued Disorders of Joints When a disease afflicts the bones, connective tissue, or lubricating tissues in a freely movable joint, the joint s ability to move may be impaired. Rheumatoid arthritis is a painful inflammation of freely movable joints. Osteoarthritis is a disorder that causes the degeneration of cartilage that covers the surfaces of bones.

41 Section 2 Skeletal System Rheumatoid Arthritis

42 Section 2 Skeletal System Osteoarthritis

43 Section 3 Muscular System Objectives Describe the action of muscle pairs in moving the body. Relate the structure of a skeletal muscle to the muscle s ability to contract. Describe how energy is supplied to muscles for contraction.

44 Section 3 Muscular System Muscles and Movement Movement requires precisely timed and controlled contractions of many skeletal muscles. Even when the body is still, many skeletal muscles remain partially contracted to maintain balance and posture.

45 Section 3 Muscular System Anatomy of the Muscular System

46 Section 3 Muscular System Muscles and Movement, continued Movement of the Skeleton Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by strips of dense connective tissue called tendons. A flexor muscle causes a joint to bend. An extensor muscle causes a joint to straighten.

47 Section 3 Muscular System Opposing Muscles in the Arm

48 Section 3 Muscular System Muscular Movement and Bones

49 Section 3 Muscular System Muscles and Movement, continued Muscle Structure Muscle contains contractile protein filaments called actin and myosin. Each skeletal muscle fiber contains small cylindrical structures called myofibrils. Sections of protein filaments that contract together are called sarcomeres.

50 Section 3 Muscular System Skeletal Muscle

51 Section 3 Muscular System Muscle Fiber

52 Section 3 Muscular System Close-Up of a Skeletal Muscle

53 Section 3 Muscular System Muscle Contraction Muscle contraction occurs in the sarcomeres of myofibrils. Myosin and actin filaments slide along one another and a sarcomere shortens, resulting in muscle contraction.

54 Section 3 Muscular System Contraction of a Muscle

55 Section 3 Muscular System Muscle Contraction

56 Section 3 Muscular System Muscle Contraction, continued Interaction of Myosin and Actin Myosin filaments have long, finger-like projections with an enlarged head at one end. Myosin heads attach to binding sites on actin filaments and then rotate, causing the actin filament to slide. Muscle contraction occurs.

57 Section 3 Muscular System Interaction of Muscle Protein Filaments

58 Section 3 Muscular System Muscle Contraction, continued Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Pathways Muscle contractions use ATP supplied by aerobic respiration. During brief, intense activities, anaerobic processes take over and ATP is produced by glycolysis. When both aerobic and anaerobic pathways become insufficient, muscles use glycogen as an energy source.

59 Section 3 Muscular System Muscle Contraction, continued Exercise and Fitness Consistent aerobic exercise makes the heart pump more efficiently. Resistance exercises, such as weight lifting, can increase muscle size and strength.

60 Section 3 Muscular System Aerobic Exercise

61 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Objectives Analyze the structure and function of the epidermis. Describe how the dermis helps the body maintain homeostasis. Summarize how hair and nails are formed. Identify various types of skin disorders.

62 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin The skin in the largest organ in the body. Along with the hair and nails, the skin forms the integumentary system. The two primary layers of skin are the epidermis and the dermis.

63 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, continued Epidermis The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. It is made of several layers of epithelial cells. Keratin is a protein that makes skin tough and waterproof. The inner layer of the epidermis contains cells that produce the pigment melanin.

64 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Structure of Skin

65 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Human Skin

66 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, continued Dermis The dermis is the functional layer of skin that lies just beneath the epidermis. The dermis contains nerve cells, blood vessels, and hair follicles.

67 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, continued Subcutaneous Tissue Subcutaneous tissue is a layer of connective tissue made mostly of fat. It lies just beneath the dermis.

68 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Parts of the Skin

69 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, continued Hair and Nails Hair and nails are derived from the epidermis. Hair follicles produce individual hairs. Nails are produced by specialized epidermal cells located at the base of each nail.

70 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Cross Section of a Fingernail

71 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin Disorders Most skin injuries heal rapidly. Burns, however, can result in permanent scarring or even death. Some skin disorders are the result of changes that occur within the body over time.

72 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin Disorders, continued Acne Oil glands in the dermis release sebum, an oily secretion that lubricates the skin. Acne is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition caused by an excessive secretion of sebum, which blocks pores with oil, dirt, and bacteria.

73 Section 4 Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin Disorders, continued Skin Cancer Skin cancer can result from genetic mutations caused by overexposure to UV radiation. Carcinomas are skin cancers that originate in cells that do not produce pigments. Cancers in pigmentproducing cells are called malignant melanomas.

74 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice Use the art below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 1 3.

75 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 1. The structure labeled X is a A. myosin filament B. muscle fiber C. myofibril D. Z line

76 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 1. The structure labeled X is a A. myosin filament B. muscle fiber C. myofibril D. Z line

77 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. When a sarcomere changes from condition A to condition B, what happens to the muscle cell that contains it? F. It relaxes. G. It rotates. H. It contracts. J. It slides.

78 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. When a sarcomere changes from condition A to condition B, what happens to the muscle cell that contains it? F. It relaxes. G. It rotates. H. It contracts. J. It slides.

79 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which sequence identifies the levels of organization found in the body? A. muscle cell muscular system muscle muscle tissue B. muscle cell muscle tissue muscle muscular system C. muscular system muscle tissue muscle cell muscle D. muscle muscle cell muscle tissue muscular system

80 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which sequence identifies the levels of organization found in the body? A. muscle cell muscular system muscle muscle tissue B. muscle cell muscle tissue muscle muscular system C. muscular system muscle tissue muscle cell muscle D. muscle muscle cell muscle tissue muscular system

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