SKELETAL SYSTEM S U P P O R T A N D M O V E M E N T. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 1 of 18)

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1 SKELETAL SYSTEM S U P P O R T A N D M O V E M E N T The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 1 of 18)

2 Human Biology Support and Movement The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 2 of 18)

3 Introduction: Have you ever seen a house or a skyscraper being built? What is the function of the metal or wooden frame of the building? It supports the walls and roof of the building As humans we have a frame, which is our Skeletal system. Just like a frame inside a building, our skeleton is inside our body which is called an endoskeleton (internal skeleton) The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 3 of 18)

4 The Skeletal System Your skeletal system is made mostly of bone. Bone is a very hard tissue, which is also a little flexible. Your skeleton also contains cartilage, which is tough, flexible tissue. Examples: ears & end of your nose The ends of some bone contain cartilage, which protects the ends of bone from rubbing against each other. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 4 of 18)

5 The Skeletal System cont. Human skeleton is divided into 2 main parts: Axial skeleton: skull, rib cage, backbone Appendicular skeleton: shoulder, hip, pelvis, arms, legs The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 5 of 18)

6 What are the functions of your skeletal system? Supports your body and gives it shape Covers and protects certain body organs Many bones of the skeleton work with muscles to make movement possible Some bones make blood cells Bones store minerals such as calcium and phosphorus that the body needs The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 6 of 18)

7 Bones Your body has 206 bones. Bones range in various sizes. Example: some are long, short, and flat The three bones in your ear (incus, stapes, malleus) are the smallest bones in the body. The largest bone is the femur (thigh bone). The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 7 of 18)

8 Structure of Bones Bones are unusual because they are made up of living and non-living material. A bone is covered with a thin, tough membrane called the periosteum. The periosteum has many blood vessels that supply bone cells with blood. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 8 of 18)

9 Structure of Bones cont. The hardest part of the bone is called the compact bone, which is made up of living bone cells, tough protein fibers, and mineral deposits. Calcium is the mineral that makes bone hard and gives bone its strength. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 9 of 18)

10 Structure of Bones cont. The ends of bones are made up of spongy bone, which have many spaces like a sponge. Its structure adds strength to bone without adding much weight. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 10 of 18)

11 Structure of Bones cont. The space in the spongy bone are filled with bone marrow, which is a soft tissue. New blood cells are made in red marrow which can be found in spongy bone. The center, or shaft, of long bones contain yellow marrow, which is made mostly of fat cells. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 11 of 18)

12 Joints Movement can only occur where bones meet. The place where 2 or more bones meet is called a joint. What holds your bones together? Ligaments: bands of tough tissue What happens to your ligament when you get a sprained ankle or finger? Ligaments connected to that bone stretch too far The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 12 of 18)

13 Hinge Joint Ball-and-Socket Joint Pivotal Joint Gliding Joint Types of Joints The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 13 of 18)

14 Hinge Joints A hinge joint allows bones to move backward and forward in only one direction. Example: knee and elbow The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 14 of 18)

15 Ball-and-Socket Joints Ball-and-socket joints permits movement in all directions, which allows the widest range of movement of any kind of joint. Example: hip and shoulder The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 15 of 18)

16 Pivotal Joints Pivotal joint allows both side-to-side and up-anddown movements. Example: place where the skull joins the 1 st vertebra The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 16 of 18)

17 Gliding Joints Gliding Joint allows some movement in all directions, where by the bones slide along each other. Examples: wrist, ankle, vertebrae The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 17 of 18)

18 Questions Compiled by: M. Swanton Learning Specialist Edited by: D. Leonard Learning Specialist The Academic Support Daytona State College The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 18 of 18)

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