Structural Support and Movement. Chapter 36 Part 1

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1 Structural Support and Movement Chapter 36 Part 1

2 Impacts, Issues Pumping Up Muscles Increasing muscle size and strength with drugs such as andro has unwanted side effects and can damage other organ systems

3 36.1 Invertebrate Skeletons Hydrostatic skeleton An enclosed fluid that contracting muscles act upon (as in sea anemones, earthworms) Exoskeleton A hardened external skeleton found in some mollusks and all arthropods Endoskeleton An internal skeleton, as in echinoderms

4 Hydrostatic Skeleton: Sea Anemone

5 mouth gastrovascular cavity; the mouth can close and trap fluid inside this cavity Fig. 36-2a, p. 618

6 Animation: Hydrostatic skeleton

7 Hydrostatic Skeleton: Earthworm

8 Exoskeleton: Fly

9 thorax longitudinal muscle contracts longitudinal muscle relaxes vertical muscle relaxes A Wings pivot down as the relaxation of vertical muscle and the contraction of longitudinal muscle pulls in sides of thorax. vertical muscle contracts B Wings pivot up when the contraction of vertical muscle and relaxation of longitudinal muscle flattens the thorax. Fig. 36-4, p. 619

10 Animation: Fly wing action

11 Exoskeleton: Spider

12 36.1 Key Concepts Invertebrate Skeletons Contractile force exerted against a skeleton moves animal bodies In many invertebrates a fluid-filled body cavity is a hydrostatic skeleton Others have an exoskeleton of hard structures at the body surface Still others have a hard internal skeleton, or endoskeleton

13 36.2 The Vertebrate Endoskeleton All vertebrates have an endoskeleton Usually consists primarily of bones Supports the body, site of muscle attachment Protects the spinal cord The vertebral column (backbone) is made up of individual vertebrae separated by intervertebral disks made of cartilage

14 Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Axial skeleton Skull Vertebral column Ribs Appendicular skeleton Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle Limbs

15 Skeletal Elements: Fish and Reptile

16 vertebral column pectoral girdle pelvic girdle Fig. 36-7a, p. 620

17 pelvic girdle rib cage vertebral column skull bones pectoral girdle Fig. 36-7b, p. 620

18 The Human Skeleton Some features of the human skeleton are adaptations to upright posture and walking Foramen magnum at the base of the skull allows brain and spinal cord to connect Vertebrae stacked one above the other in an S curve

19 Bones of the Human Skeleton

20 A Skull bones CRANIAL BONES FACIAL BONES B Rib cage STERNUM (breastbone) RIBS (twelve pairs) C Vertebral column, or backbone D Pectoral girdle and upper limb bones CLAVICLE (collarbone) SCAPULA (shoulder blade) HUMERUS (upper arm bone) RADIUS (forearm bone) ULNA (forearm bone) CARPALS (wrist bones) VERTEBRAE INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS METACARPALS (palm bones) PHALANGES (thumb, finger bones) E Pelvic girdle and lower limb bones PELVIC GIRDLE (six fused bones) FEMUR (thighbone) ligament bridging a knee joint, side view, midsection PATELLA (kneebone) TIBIA (lower leg bone) FIBULA (lower leg bone) TARSALS (ankle bones) METATARSALS (sole bones) PHALANGES (toe bones) Fig. 36-8, p. 621

21 Animation: Human skeletal system

22 36.3 Bone Structure and Function Bones have a variety of shapes and sizes Long bones (arms and legs) Flat bones (skull, ribs) Short bones (carpals) The human skeleton has 206 bones ranging from tiny ear bones to the massive femur

23 Bone Anatomy Bones consist of three types of living cells in a secreted extracellular matrix Osteoblasts build bones Osteocytes are mature osteoblasts Osteoclasts break down bone matrix Bone cavities contain bone marrow Red marrow in spongy bone forms blood cells Yellow marrow in long bones is mostly fat

24 Bone Anatomy: Long Bone

25 Fig. 36-9a, p. 622

26 nutrient canal location of yellow marrow compact bone tissue spongy bone tissue space occupied by living bone cell blood vessel 55 µm Fig. 36-9a, p. 622

27 Fig. 36-9b, p. 622

28 spongy bone tissue compact bone tissue blood vessel outer layer of dense connective tissue Fig. 36-9b, p. 622

29 Animation: Structure of a femur

30 Bone Functions

31 Bone Formation and Remodeling The embryonic skeleton consists of cartilage which is modeled into bone, grows until early adulthood, and is constantly remodeled Bones and teeth store the body s calcium Calcitonin slows release of calcium from bones Parathyroid hormone releases bone calcium Sex hormones encourage bone building Cortisol slows bone building

32 Long Bone Formation

33 Embryo: cartilage model of bone forms Fetus: blood vessel invades model; osteoblasts start producing bone tissue; marrow cavity forms Newborn: remodeling and growth continue; secondary bone-forming centers appear at knobby ends of bone Adult: mature bone Fig , p. 623

34 About Osteoporosis Osteoporosis ( porous bones ) When more calcium is removed from bone than is deposited, bone become brittle and break easily Proper diet and exercise help keep bones healthy

35 Osteoporosis

36 36.4 Skeletal Joints Where Bones Meet Joint Area of contact or near contact between bones Three types of joints Fibrous joints (teeth sockets): no movement Cartilaginous joints (vertebrae): little movement Synovial joints (knee): much movement

37 Synovial Joints In synovial joints, bones are separated by a fluidfilled cavity, padded with cartilage, and held together by dense connective tissue (ligaments) Different synovial joints have different movements Ball-and-socket joints (shoulder) Gliding joints (wrist and ankles) Hinged joints (elbows and knees)

38 Three Types of Joints

39 Three Types of Joints

40 fibrous joint attaches tooth to jawbone synovial joint (ball and socket) between humerus and scapula cartilaginous joint between rib and sternum cartilaginous joint between adjacent vertebrae synovial joint (hinge type) between humerus and radius synovial joint (ball and socket) between pelvic girdle and femur Fig a, p. 624

41 femur patella cartilage ligaments menisci tibia fibula Fig b, p. 624

42 36.5 Those Aching Joints We ask a lot of our joints when we engage in sports, carry out repetitive tasks, or strap on a pair of high heels

43 Joint Injuries and Diseases Common joint injuries Sprained ankle; torn cruciate ligaments in knee; torn meniscus in knee; dislocations Arthritis (chronic inflammation) Osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; gout Bursitis (inflammation of a bursa)

44 Key Concepts Vertebrate Skeletons Vertebrates have an endoskeleton of cartilage, bone, or both Bones interact with muscles to move the body; they also protect and support organs, and store minerals Blood cells form in some bones A joint is a place where bones meet; there are several kinds

45 36.6 Skeletal Muscular Systems Muscle fibers Long, cylindrical cells with multiple nuclei that hold contractile filaments Tendons attach skeletal muscle to bone Muscle contraction transmits force to bone and makes it move Muscles and bones interact as a lever system Many skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs

46 Skeletal Muscular Action

47 C The first muscle group in the upper hindlimb contracts again and draws it back toward body. B An opposing muscle group attached to the limb forcefully contracts and pulls it back. The contractile force, applied against the rock, now propels the frog forward. A A muscle attached to each upper hindlimb contracts and pulls it slightly forward relative to main body axis. Fig , p. 626

48 Opposing Muscle Groups

49 Triceps relaxes. Biceps contracts at the same time, and pulls forelimb up. Triceps contracts, pulls the forelimb down. At the same time, biceps relaxes. A When the triceps relaxes and its opposing partner (biceps) contracts, the elbow joint flexes and the forearm is pulled upward. B When the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes, the forearm is extended downward. Fig , p. 626

50 Animation: Opposing muscle action

51 Muscles and Tendons

52 Muscles and Tendons

53 TRICEPS BRACHII Straightens the forearm at elbow PECTORALIS MAJOR Draws the arm forward and in toward the body SERRATUS ANTERIOR Draws shoulder blade forward, helps raise arm, assists in pushes EXTERNAL OBLIQUE Compresses the abdomen, assists in lateral rotation of the torso RECTUS ABDOMINIS Depresses the thoracic (chest) cavity, compresses the abdomen, bends the backbone ADDUCTOR LONGUS Flexes, laterally rotates, and draws the thighs toward the body SARTORIUS Bends the thigh at the hip, bends lower leg at the knee, rotates the thigh in an outward direction QUADRICEPS FEMORIS Set of four muscles that flex the thigh at the hip, extend the leg at knee TIBIALIS ANTERIOR Flexes the foot toward the shin BICEPS BRACHII Bends the forearm at the elbow DELTOID Raises the arm TRAPEZIUS Lifts the shoulder blade, braces the shoulder, draws the head back LATISSIMUS DORSI Rotates and draws the arm backward and toward the body GLUTEUS MAXIMUS Extends and rotates the thigh outward when walking, running, and climbing BICEPS FEMORIS (Hamstring muscle) Draws thigh backward, bends the knee GASTROCNEMIUS Bends the lower leg at the knee when walking, extends the foot when jumping Achilles tendon Fig a, p. 627

54 muscle tendon bursae synovial cavity Fig b, p. 627

55 Animation: Human skeletal muscles

56 36.6 Key Concepts The Muscle Bone Partnership Skeletal muscles are bundles of muscle fibers that interact with bones and with one another Some cause movements by working as pairs or groups; others oppose or reverse the action of a partner muscle Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones

57 Animation: Long bone formation

58 Animation: Vertebrate skeletons

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