Pangandaran Tourism Management Plan. Pangandaran Tourism Management Plan

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2 Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS has been developed by parcipatory approach; facilitated by Local Working Group (LWG), Indecon, Local Government of Kabupaten CIamis, Local Government of West Java, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and UNWTO Herewith, we adopt as our commitment to develop beer tourism in Pangandaran as well as to conserve marine and land natural resources Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS has been developed by parcipatory approach; facilitated by Local Working Group (LWG), Indecon, Local Government of Kabupaten CIamis, Local Government of West Java, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and UNWTO We, local stakeholders in Pangandaran, both represenng organizaon and individuals, herewith adopt as our commitment to develop beer tourism in Pangandaran as well as to conserve marine and land natural resources

3 Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS

4 Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS

5 Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS

6 Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS Adopon Form MINISTRY OF CULTURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LOCAL WORKING GROUP AND TOURISM WEST JAVA KABUPATEN CIAMIS

7 Execuve Summary In 2006, the World Tourism Organizaon established the Consulng Unit on Biodiversity and Tourism for Tsunami affected countries, funded the federal government of Germany. The overall of this unit is to provide experse and advisory support to naonal and local government of the countries hit the tsunami, in order to assist in redeveloping their tourist infrastructure. In order to ensure the sustainability of redevelopment of tourism in the tsunami affected areas, this unit adopts broad parcipaon and involvement of stakeholders in planning and implemenng sustainable tourism and management. It is also important to consider the harmonizaon of tourism development with biodiversity conservaon as well as to increase the capacity of local community for effecve management. In Indonesia, tourism development supporng biodiversity conservaon project is implemented in Pangandaran, Kabupaten Ciamis, West Java. This project aims to develop a Tourism Management Plan of Pangandaran through parcipatory processes, to implement capacity building program, and to improve tourism services. This project is implemented in collaboraon with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism; supported by Provincial government of West Java and Kabupaten Ciamis local government. UNWTO together with Indecon (Indonesia Ecotourism Network) implement this project by adopng the UNEP Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development of the Convenon on Biological Diversity. The guideline emphasizes 8(eight) steps to develop a sustainable tourism management plan. First step is iniaon; second step is idenfying and working with key stakeholders; third step is collecng baseline informaon; fourth step is developing vision and goals; fih step is objecves and work plan; sixth step is impact assessment and management; seventh step is monitoring and review; and the final step is adopon and implementaon. All steps are conducted in parcipatory processes. In order to facilitate good parcipatory approach, some mechanism to ensure communicaon at local, kabupaten, provincial, and naonal level were developed. At local level, tourism Local Working Group (LWG) was established. It consists of 15 people from various organizaons in Pangandaran and legimized by Bupa decree of Kabupaten Ciamis. At Kabupaten level, a working group was specially established to facilitate the project and consists of representaves from related agencies. To facilitate local stakeholders, UNWTO and Indecon established a technical assistant team, which comprises of technical experts in tourism, biology and environment, socio-culture, economy, and informaon technology. A Community Involvement Plan (CIP) was also developed to ensure acve parcipaon of wider stakeholders. The plan was connuously implemented throughout 12 months process to develop Pangandaran Tourism Management Plan. Tourism Management Plan consists of general introducon about the project site, baseline informaon, tourism profile, economic profile, relaon of tourism and environment, and review of regulaon on tourism and biodiversity. Analysis crically studied the strategic issues, strengthweakness-opportunity-threat, spaal zone, vision, objecves, acvity plan, as well as implementaon and monitoring indicators for the next 10 years of tourism development in Pangandaran. Tourism in Pangandaran so far has developed spontaneously, because its rich natural resources are able to aract tourists. Biodiversity, landscape, long and wide beach have become magnet for visitors. Tourism has long developed but no effecve planning has been implemented. From 2000 to 2004, Pangandaran received 900,000 domesc tourists and got about 1.9 billion to 2.7 billion Rupiahs. The figures had significantly decreased aer tsunami 2006 to only 271,842 domesc tourists in 2006 and 253,207 domesc tourists in 2007; recorded only 700 million Rupiahs income. Now in 2008, the figure has increased to 465,955 domesc tourists. Survey ~ xii ~ shows that Bandung contributed 34% of total visitors or about 160 thousand people to Pangandaran, cies around Pangandaran (Ciamis, Tasik, and kota Banjar) contributed 28.2% or about 133 thousand people, cies in Central Java (Cilacap, Purwokerto, dan DIY) contributed 7.6% or about 36 thousand people, and followed by Jakarta of 4.8% or about 22.5 thousand people. Internaonal tourists only counted 1% of total visitor to Pangandaran or at least to the project site. Survey and observaon show that most internaonal tourists come from Netherlands and Germany. Tourists come to Pangandaran and stay for 2-4 days (59%) or have a day trip (33%). Usually they spend me for swimming, vising Pananjung Nature Recreaon Park, boang, and enjoying seafood. Besides Pangandaran beach and White Sand beach at Nature Reserve, many tourists also go to green canyon. In order to increase security and comfort, a beach lifeguard (Balawista foundaon) was established in 2002 and has successfully save 165 lives from accidents. In a workshop, tourism stakeholders in Pangandaran have idenfied more than 50(fiy) tourism aracon in Pangandaran. More than 60% of the idenfied tourism aracons are nature based aracon (geophysics, landscape, ecology, and biology) while the rest are culture and history based aracons. It indicates strong relaon and dependency of tourism development to natural conservaon. The condion of land ecosystem is sll relavely good, especially at some locaons; but marine ecosystem such as coral reef and mangrove has experienced serious degradaon and require immediate rehabilitaon. Data of Gross Regional Domesc Product of two kecamatan at the project site shows that the tourism (trade, hotel, and restaurant sector) is the the first contributor to economy (42.3%) in Kecamatan Pangandaran followed by agriculture (23.3%). While in Kecamatan Sidamulih, it is the second contributor (27.4%) aer agriculture (37.5%). It shows that tourism plays important role in local economy development. Even aer the tsunami, accommodaon sll employs many local populaon; counng 643 full me employee at 98 hotels surveyed during data collecon. About 64,2% respondent during our resident survey claimed having income for tourism, either as main income or secondary income. Therefore it is not surprising that local populaon has posive atude towards tourism acvies in Pangandaran. In general, SWOT analysis shows that tourism in Pangandaran has great potenals due to availability of access, availability of great variety of tourism services, and commitment of local stakeholders to improve tourism. Nevertheless, weak management, overlapping authority, dualism management of Nature Recreaon Park, low capacity of local community, and increasing natural degradaon due to tourism or other economic acvies have hindered sustainable tourism development. Its strategic locaon at Java overland route, paradigm shi to ecotourism, recovering number of visits doe to strong natural image, support from provincial local government; as well as interpretaon plan at Pananjung Nature Recreaon Park and opmizaon of Nusa Wiru airport are the opportunies for Pangandaran. Yet, threats also face it, for example its locaon at tsunami hazard zone, poor tourism management, natural degradaon, and negave image. Through a long process, local stakeholders in Pangandaran have developed vision for tourism development in Pangandaran for the next 10 years, which is: Pangandaran as Globally Known Natural and Cultural Based Tourism Desnaon; as well as a Comfortable Home Based on Religious Value. The vision was further developed into 5(five) goals and a 10 year work plan. Considering SWOT analysis and actual development in Pangandaran, it is necessary to develop an innovave mechanism to achieve sustainable tourism development supporng biodiversity conservaon. One of the mechanisms is establish a Collaborave Management for Tourism in Pangandaran (CMTB) legalized at kabupaten level or provincial level, which involve mul stakeholders in Pangandaran. This collaborave instuon will direct the implementaon of work plan. It is also essenal to develop funding mechanism based on effecve management; in order to generate funding from operaon which can be directly reallocated to resolve tourism and biodiversity issues at local level. ~ xiii ~

8 TABLE OF CONTENT ADOPTION FORM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... i Table of Content... iii List of Image... v List of Table... vii List of Map and Diagram... viii 1. BACKGROUND Introducon Biodiversity and Tourism Development Planning Process GENERAL INTRODUCTION Locaon and Site Boundaries History of the Area Natural Resources and Landscape Socio-Economic Condion and Tourism Development Socio-Economic Status of Local People Role of Tourism in Local Development BASELINE INFORMATION Natural Features Ecosystem Flora and Fauna Protected Area: Condion and Management Socio-Economic Features Exisng Economic Acvies of Local Community Related Tourism Dependency of Local Economy to Tourism Development Socio-Economic Features Ethnicity and Social Group Selement Paern Cultural Heritage and Tradion Tourism Tourism Aracon Accessibility Tourism Services Tourism Demand Current and Planned Tourism Development and Acvies Instuonal Aspects of Tourism Management Local Communies Atude Towards Tourism Contribuon of Tourism Sector to Biodiversity Conservaon ~ xiv ~ 3.5. Legal Framework Policy Policy Related to Tourism Development Policy Related to Natural Environment Direcon Direcons in Tourism Direcons in Environment STRENGTH, WEAKNESS, OPPORTUNITY, AND THREAT Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat Strategy DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Development Concept Zoning and Management Guideline Based on Recreaon Opportunity Spectrum Instuonal Management VISION AND GOALS Vision Goals OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT MONITORING AND REVIEW Monitoring Indicator Annual Review Progress Towards Objecves Five Year Review of the Management Plan ANNEXES Annex 1. List of Local Economic Acvies Related to Tourism Annex 2. Art and Cultural Aracon in Pangandaran Annex 3. List of Art Groups or Cultural Groups at the Project Site Annex 4. List of Local and Tradional Games in Pangandaran Annex 5. List of Tradional Food in Pangandaran Annex 6. Tourism Stakeholders in Pangandaran REFERRENCES ~ xv ~

9 LIST OF IMAGE Image 1.1 Some of the media ulized to involve local community: Newsleer, Banner, Focussed Group Discussion... 5 Image 1.2 Parcipatory Method to Collect Baseline Informaon... 5 Image 1.3 Local Stakeholders Develop Vision and Goals Together... 6 Image 3.1 Coral Reef in Pangandaran Image 3.2 Mangrove Rehabilitaon in Bojong Salawe Image 3.3 Vegetaon at Beach Forest (Pananjung NRP) and West Beach Image 3.4 Low land forest at Pananjung Nature Reserve Image 3.5 Plantaon Forest at Pananjung Nature Recreaon Park Image 3.6 Panggung Cave at Nature Recreaon Park Image 3.7 Rice fields, Medicinal Garden at House Yards, at Coconut Plantaon Image 3.8 Epiphyte, Rafflesia Flower, and Fig Tree Image 3.9 Deer, Macaque, and Leaf-Monkey in Pangandaran Image 3.10 Hornbill Bird Image 3.11 Various Problems Due to Weak Management at NRP: Animal Changing Behavior, Vandalism, and Insufficient Interpretaon Image 3.12 Ulizaon of Coastal Setback for Trading, renng Swimming Devices, and Boat Parking Image 3.13 Various Local Economic Facilies Related to Tourism (clockwise) : Renng ATV, horse carriage, souvenir shops, renng safety jacket, renng swimming tube, and becak Image 3.14 Various Local Economic Acvies Based on Home Industry Image 3.15 Various Local Economic Acvies Related to Tourism: toilet, food stalls at the beach, and souvenir shops Image 3.16 Packaging of Village Tourism by Involving Home Industry: Making Palm Sugar, Peeling Off Coconut, and Iron Monger Image 3.17 Shells Collector, Bagang, and Bakul Image 3.18 Agriculture and Selement at the Villages Image 3.19 Residenal Areas at Main Tourism Areas Image 3.20 Hajat Bumi and Hajat Laut Image 3.21 Botran at Pangandaran West Beach Image 3.22 Tradional Music: Calung, Gamelan, and Kentongan Image 3.23 Tradional Dance: Ronggeng, Tari Topeng Kelana, and Tari Merak ~ xvi ~ Image 3.24 Leather Puppet and Wooden Puppet Image 3.25 Various Tradional Games : Bebecakan, dam-daman and lompat tali Image 3.26 Tradional Food: Pindang Gunung, Tumis Pakis, Peyeum, Empog, and Calang Aren Image 3.27 Ani-ani, Parang and Heler Image 3.28 Some Tourism Aracons in Pangandaran Image 3.29 Road and Intercity Terminal in Pangandaran Image 3.30 Accommodaon in Pangandaran Image 3.31 Variety of Restaurants in Pangandaran Image 3.32 Some Aracons Have Been Packaged for Tourists, Many Not Yet Image 3.33 Balawisata Image 5.1 Development Scenarios for Pangandaran ~ xvii ~

10 LIST OF TABLE Table 2.1 Number of Populaon of Project Site in Table 2.2 Income Generang Acvies of Populaon of Project Site in Table 2.3 Respondents by Ethnicity Table 2.4 GRDP of Sub-District Pangandaran and Sidamulih in 2007 (million Rupiah) Table 2.5 Development by Sector of Ciamis Regency in (constant price) Table 3.1 Type of Entertainment in Pangandaran Table 3.2 Geophysical or Landscape Tourism Aracon Table 3.3 Ecological or Biological Tourism Aracon Table 3.4 Historical and Cultural Tourism Aracon Table 3.5 Route, Capacity and Load Factor of Bus Outside Pangandaran in February Table 3.6 Number of Accommodaon Business in Study Area Table 3.7 Number of Pangandaran Swimming Visitors Table 3.8 Local percepon towards Pangandaran Tourism Table 3.9 Local Percepon on Reasons of Tourist to Visit Pangandaran Table 3.10 Local Percepon on Benefits from Nature Reserve (Terrestrial) Table 3.11 Local Percepon about Benefits from Nature Reserve (Marine) Table 3.12 Local percepon on Tourism Problems in Pangandaran Table 3.13 Local Percepon on Priority of Problem Solving Table 3.14 Fund Allocaon of BKSDA West Java II for Pangandaran NRP Table 3.15 Stasc of Visitors to Pangandaran NRP in Table 3.16 Non Tax State Revenue from Pangandaran NRP based on Number of Visitors Table 3.17 Number of Visitor and Realisaon of Revenue from Entrance Fee to Pangandaran Table 3.18 List of Program of Related Agencies Related to Tourism Object and Natural Conservaon Table 4.1 Strategy Strength Opportunity Table 4.2 Strategy Strength Threat Table 4.3 Strategy Weakness Opportunity Table 4.4 Strategy Weakness Threat Table 5.1 Descripon of Zone for Recreaonal Opportunity Spectrum Table 5.2 Guideline for Management of Recreaonal Opportunity Zone Table Table 8.1 Impact Assessment and Management Table 9.1 Indicators for Monitoring Success in Achieving Objecve ~ xviii ~ LIST OF MAP AND DIAGRAM Map 2.1 Project Site in Kabupaten Ciamis... 7 Map 2.2 Project Site in Pangandaran... 8 Map 2.3 Geological Map of Project Site in Pangandaran Map 3.1 Conservaon Areas in Pangandaran Map 3.2 Distribuon o Tourism Aracon in Pangandaran Map 3.3 Map of Public Transportaon (Bus) and Its Load Factor Map 3.4 Trail at Pananjung Nature Recreaon Park Map 3.5 Trail at Pananjung Nature Recreaon Park and Nature Reserve Map 3.6 Tourism Route of Pangandaran and Surroundings Map 3.7 Potenal Demand for Pangandaran Map 5.1. Zone of Recreaonal Opportunity Spectrum at Project Site Diagram 3.1 Capacies of Hotel and Overnight Tourist in Diagram 3.2 Number of Visitors to Pangandaran Diagram 3.3 Knowledge of Local Residents about Nature Reserve and Nature Recreaon Park Diagram 3.4 Revenue from Entrance Fee to Pangandaran NRP Based on Number of Visitors Diagram 5.1 Organizaonal Chart of Collaborave Management ~ xix ~

11 List of Abbreviaons ATV BAPPEDA BKSDA CBD CIP CMTP DMO FGD GEO GRDP HPI LAC LP3 LWG MoCT NR NRP Perhutani ROS SWOT TA TMP UNEP UNESCO UNWTO All Terrain Vehicle Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Regional Development Plan Board Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Conservaon and Nature Resource Agency Convenon on Biological Diversity Community Involvement Plan Collaborave Management for Tourism in Pangandaran Desnaon Management Organizaon Focus Group Discussion Global Environment Outlook Gross Regional Domesc Product Himpunan Pramuwisata Indonesia Tour Guide Associaon Limit of Acceptable Change Lembaga Pengelola Pariwisata Pangandaran Pangandaran Tourism Management Board (PTMB) Local Working Group Ministry of Culture and Tourism Nature Reserve Nature Recreaon Park Perusahaan Umum Kehutanan Negara Owned State Forestry Company Recreaon Opportunity Spectrum Strength, Weakness, Opportunies, Threats Technical Assistant Tourism Management Plan United Naon Environment Program United Naon Educaonal, Scienfic and Cultural Organizaon United Naon World Tourism Organizaon ~ xx ~

12 Chapter 1. Background 1.1. Introducon Tourism involves various stakeholders in its implementaon. Although it offers opportunies for economic, social, ecological development it should also carefully consider the risks and the benefits to be opmized and sustainable. Tourism is one of the industries that keep growing each year. As stated in the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer Report in January 2009, internaonal tourist arrivals increased by 2% in 2008 reaching 924 million, exceeding 2007 by 16 million arrivals. However, this indicates a slower growth rate since in 2007 internaonal tourist arrivals increased by 7%. The current economic trouble is expected to influence internaonal tourist arrivals, therefore the figure will either stagnate or decrease. Out of total tourist arrivals, the Asia Pacific region marked 20% or about 188 million tourist arrivals, with a growth rate of 2%. Indonesia has great potenal as a global tourist aracon due to a large number of natural resources, a rich natural and cultural heritage; yet these have not been fully opmized due to fluctuaons of Indonesian tourism. In , tourism contributed the second largest amount to state income aer oil and gas. Despite the downfall to the 6th rank in , tourism raised to third posion aer oil, gas, and palm oil in Through the Visit Indonesia Year 2008, Indonesian tourism increased significantly, receiving 6.4 million internaonal tourist arrivals an increase of 13.14% over Nevertheless, Indonesia sll ranks 81 in the compeveness index, far below Singapore (16), Malaysia (32) and Thailand (42). One posive trend is the increasing number of domesc tourists, which reached 224 million tourists in 2008 up from million in 2007 and from million in It is supported by an increasing number of flight operators, thus a higher travel frequency and affordable prices allow people to travel and visit tourism desnaons within the country. This figure could be further increased through improving accessibility, infrastructure and tourism desnaon management. On the other hand, global market trends show a paradigm shi in holiday making. The awareness raising campaign on climate change due to global warming and the increasing advocacy calling for parcipaon of all people to slow down climate change by geng more environmentally friendly has influenced tourists in the way they spend their holidays. Tourism acvies, which offer chances to contribute to conservaon, allow for community parcipaon, and provide original experiences have successfully aracted the interests of tourists. This trend is also true for domesc tourists who have started to spend their holidays at natural desnaons or to favor outdoor acvies. Accommodaon services with environmentally friendly management are now preferred by tourists who are aware of the importance of global parcipaon to slow down global warming. Climate change, natural disaster, and environmental degradaon causing biodiversity exncon have encouraged internaonal agencies like UNEP, UNWTO, and UNESCO, to acvely create mechanisms and guidelines for sustainable development. Based on the Convenon on Biological Diversity (CBD) and to follow up the Quebec Declaraon at Ecotourism Summit Conference, UNEP has developed the Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development as recommendaons for countries with rich biodiversity such as Indonesia to adopt sustainable tourism principles. The tsunami and its severe impact on tourism facilies and the decreasing number of tourists have encouraged UNWTO to support the countries that were affected by the tsunami, parcularly in ~ 1 ~

13 tourism areas. Together with the Government of Germany, the UNWTO has established a special unit in Bonn Germany to connue the support to these countries by planning and implemenng sustainable tourism following the Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development of the Convenon on Biological Diversity (CBD). Indonesia and Thailand were selected to implement the program Tourism Development Supporng Biodiversity Conservaon. The Indonesian Government through the Ministry of Culture and Tourism has agreed to cooperate and selected the Pangandaran tourism area as the project site. Pangandaran was hit by the tsunami in July 2006, causing more than 647 deaths and destroying many tourism facilies in Pangandaran. In addion to its wide, gentle and long beaches, Pangandaran also has a Nature Recreaon Park and a Nature Reserve as tourism aracons. However, lack of planning, poor community parcipaon in planning, and weak desnaon management, have lead to increasing negave impacts on biodiversity inside and outside the conservaon areas. Due to these reasons, the program Tourism Development Supporng Biodiversity Conservaon in Indonesia is implemented in Pangandaran, Ciamis Regency, West Java. The program s aim is to develop a Tourism Management Plan using a parcipatory approach following UNEP s Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development of the Convenon on Biological Diversity (CBD). The UNWTO expects that the program which focuses on parcipatory planning processes in Indonesia by involving the local communies, businesses, and the local government, can be developed by the Indonesian Government as a role model for developing sustainable tourism desnaons in Indonesia following a globally acknowledged development guideline Biodiversity and Tourism Development World conservaonists characterize Indonesia as a country with mega diversity, due to its biodiversity with a high number of endemic species. Millions of inhabitants sll depend on the forest for living, either by collecng forest producons or working ~ 2 ~ in the forestry sector. The Indonesian tropical forest is the home for various species of flora and fauna; unbeatable by any other country in Asia both in numbers and types. Looking at the number of species in key groups of organisms, Indonesia is the second on the world mammal list behind Brazil, with 515 species, 39% of them endemic; the fourth in reple diversity with 511 species (150 endemic); the fih in bird diversity with species (397 endemic); and the sixth in amphibian diversity with 270 species (100 endemic). It is the first in psiacine bird diversity, with 75 species (38 endemic); and globally in the top 4 for primate diversity with 35 species (8 endemic). Indonesia is also in the top 5 of plant diversity with an esmated higher plant species; leading the world list in palm diversity with 477 species (225 endemic); and over half of the 350 species of dipterocarp trees, an economically very important group (with 155 species being endemic to Borneo alone) (Miermeier, et. al, 1997). About 59% of the Indonesian terrestrial is tropical rain forest accounng for 10% of the total forest of the world (Stone, 1994). Moreover, about 110 million hectares of protected forest, 18.7 million hectares of which hve been defined as conservaon areas. Indonesia faces great challenges in order to conserve its flora and fauna from exncon. As an archipelago, Indonesia is prone to loose its endemic species. Illegal logging, land conversion for agriculture, and land clearance for palm plantaon are the biggest causes for the decreasing size of tropical rain forest in Indonesia. The rate of forest destrucon now reaches 1.08 million hectares per year, while the capacity of the government for rehabilitaon measures is only 700,000 hectares per year. Out of 120 million hectares of forest in Indonesia, about 70 million hectares has already been damaged or is in a very bad condion. So far the government has managed to rehabilitate only 4.75 million hectares from 2003 unl 2007 (Kompas, 11 September 2008). A research study conducted by LIPI claimed that the coral reef degradaon was largely caused by fish harvesng using bombs. It showed that a 0.5 kilogram of explosives blown on the sea bed can kill all fish in a 10 meter radius. It would destroy not only the coral reef, but also damage fishery, nature conservaon and tourism. Indonesia has a coral reef area of 60,000 square kilometers, which supposedly can generate 4.2 billion US dollar profit from fishery and ulizaon of other economical marine biota. Yet, informaon from the Ministry of Marine and Fishery claimed on the contrary. In 2000, the economic loss due to coral reef degradaon reached 12 billion US dollar or more than 84 billion Rupiahs per year (Kompas, 12 th February 2009). It had greatly reduced the economic potenals from fishery and tourism and reduced the capacity of coral reef to funcon as a wave barrier; counng at least 70,000 US dollar per square kilometer. An intact coral reef has a value for diving from 3,000 to 500,000 US dollar per square kilometer. Besides, fringing reef - which can neutralize wind power and wave power is esmated to be able to save 25, ,000 US dollar of the cost for beach protecon from erosion. If the coral reef is damaged, the rehabilitaon is very costly and takes up to 50 years. Even then the rehabilitaon level will not be 100%... (Kompas, 12 th February 2009). UNEP s Report on the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO) stated that globally the exncon rate of biodiversity connues to increase along with habitat degradaon. The loss of important species is caused by ever increasing land conversion, climate change, polluon, unsustainable consumpon of natural resources, populaon increase including unsustainable consumpon paerns, increasing sewage producon, urban sprawl, and internaonal conflicts. In the last three decades, habitat degradaon and biodiversity exncon have become a global environmental issue. Although it has not yet been accurately confirmed, it was recorded that about 24% (or 1,130 species) of mammals and 12% (or 1,183 species) of birds are endangered. In marine areas, the use of destrucve fishing methods, such as bomb and cyanide, is the main cause of the decreasing coral reef coverage in Indonesia. Considering only their own momentary benefit, people oen ignore the adverse impacts since degradaon of coral reef causes the loss of marine biota; which in the long-term results in decreasing fish catch. Tourism and natural resources (biodiversity) are linked to each other. Biodiversity and its ecosystems are tourism aracons and key assets for tourism, thus required to be conserved and maintained in order to stay aracve. In short, tourism development needs biodiversity. Many tourists look for a good quality environment, which is clean and comfortable. Tourists with special interests usually enjoy wild animals, such as birds or marine biota. The more rare and endemic one species is, the more aracve it becomes for these tourists. Therefore, the guarantee to observe the targeted species for special interest tourists becomes very important, because it will add to the value of the trip and increase the expectaons. Informaon on the existence of parcular rare species will be distributed shortly and increases number of visitors. Another close relaon between tourism and biodiversity can be observed from bird watching tourism. This community connues to grow each year. They regularly make trips to find and observe rare and endemic birds all over the world. The community developed certain mechanisms to share informaon on good trips and good quality tour operators. In Indonesia, special interest tourism especially for bird watching has opened job opportunies for village communies. Moreover, community parcipaon in conserving local endemic birds is essenal to ensure the existence of the species, the sustainability of tourism, and the connuous generaon of income for the local populaon. Similarly, special interest divers are willing to pay high prices to find and observe the beauty of well-conserved coral reef and its biodiversity. The relaon between tourism and biodiversity as described above requires a good management scheme and stakeholder parcipaon to ensure its ~ 3 ~

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