Bloodborne Pathogens and Universal Precautions

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1 Bloodborne Pathogens and Universal Precautions Parkway School District Revised 7/30/2009

2 What Are Bloodborne Pathogens(BBPs) Bloodborne pathogens (BBPs) are disease causing microorganisms carried by human blood and other bodily fluids. The three most common BBPs are: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

3 What are Universal Precautions (UP)? Universal precautions are measures taken to prevent the transmission of BBPs and other disease conditions. They are standard precautions that should be used in every workplace because: You cannot necessarily tell if someone has a BBP. Many people carry a virus for years without visible symptoms. Because you never know who might be carrying a BBP, you should treat any exposure to blood or other bodily fluids as a serious matter. You should also be aware that you might be a carrier of a BBP without your knowing it. Prevention measures also protect your students from exposure.

4 Why Learn About BBPs and UP? It is extremely important to understand how to protect yourself and your students from exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBP). Taking proper precautions, by using universal precautions (UP) you can prevent disease and save lives.

5 Your Responsibilities As a vital member of the school district, your role is to: Minimize the risk of BBP exposure for the students, your coworkers, and yourself Take proper precautions at all times Respond quickly and correctly if an incident occurs

6 Important! Your exact duties will depend on your role at your school or in the district. Check with your principal or supervisor if you are unclear about your responsibilities.

7 Confidentiality Everyone has the right to choose to keep facts about their health private. It is critical that you respect this confidentiality and do not disclose facts about anyone s health conditions. Failure to maintain confidentiality could result in fines or imprisonment.

8 Risk of Exposure BBPs are most commonly spread through high risk activities like unprotected sex and sharing drug needles. At school sites your risk of exposure is low. Potential risks include: Infected blood or other bodily fluid that contacts your mouth, eyes, or nose Infected blood or other bodily fluid that contacts broken areas of skin, even tiny breaks you can t see Accidental injury with a sharp object like a needle, broken glass, or anything else that can pierce your skin

9 What Is An Exposure Risk Determination? Reasonably anticipated exposure to skin, eye, mucous membrane or blood exposure during the course of employee s duties without regard to whether the employee is using personal protective equipment

10 How We Protect Employees: Education of employees Bloodborne pathogens Minimizing exposure Enforce use of universal precautions Provide hand washing facilities and supplies Provide personal protective equipment (ppe) as appropriate to job

11 How We Protect Employees (continued) Provide for appropriate sharps and waste disposal Establish appropriate housekeeping procedures Use of bio-hazard labeling Hepatitis B vaccine, when indicated Plan for follow up in event of exposure

12 Training Objectives The employee will be able to: List the common blood-borne pathogens and other infectious agents Describe the modes of transmission of various agents Demonstrate the principles of universal precautions and use of personal protective equipment (ppe) Describe the appropriate action in the event of an exposure incident

13 The 3 Most Common BBPs Disease Characteristics Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. HBV can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, or death HBV can be transmitted indirectly. There is a vaccine. Most people recover. Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. HCV can lead to chronic liver disease and death. People can carry the virus for years without visible symptoms. HIV attacks the immune system. People can carry the virus for years without visible symptoms In some cases HIV develops into AIDS.

14 Other Hepatitis Viruses Hepatitis A is not a bloodborne disease Hepatitis D occurs only in individuals with HBV - transmitted through blood and sexual contact. Hepatitis G identified in 1996 is transmitted through blood and sexual contact Best protection is avoiding exposure Hep B and C (acute and chronic) account for 4 of the 10 most common infections in Missouri

15 Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Spread by direct contact with infected body fluids (blood, semen, saliva), most commonly by sexual contact, needle sharing or needle stick injury Virus can survive on surfaces for more than 7 days so transmission can occur through contact with contaminated objects/surfaces (including dried blood)

16 Hepatitis B Vaccine Is a three dose immunizations, spaced over 6 months Protection lasts at least 13 years, but no booster is recommended at this time Some contraindications to vaccine Very safe, given in upper deltoid muscle Employee must sign statement if declining vaccine, if recommended for job Very few side effects to this vaccine

17 HBV (continued) Not spread by casual contact so exclusion from school or work is not indicated Passive immunization (Hepatitis B immune globulin) can be administered upon exposure, if person is not vaccinated for HBV Vaccine is available for any school employees and his/her family over the age of 18 at a cost (see your school nurse)

18 HBV (continued) May appear as a mild flu-like illness, or be more severe, requiring hospitalization Symptoms may appear from days after exposure Vaccine now given to all babies at birth and to adolescents Potential for occupational exposure

19 Hepatitis C (HCV) Usually occurs in persons with large or repeated exposure to infected blood, i.e., persons undergoing dialysis, history of blood transfusions (blood banks now test for this), exposure during tattooing and piercings, etc. No vaccine available Some treatment available

20 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) First raised awareness of critical need for good personal hygiene in schools Casual person-person contact poses no risk so exclusion not usually recommended Transmitted through blood, sexual contact Does not survive easily in environment No vaccine available; treatment is available

21 HIV (continued) Treatment continues to be effective in prolonging life May take 6-12 weeks to appear in blood 1 15 years from HIV infection to AIDS diagnosis Communicable from 6 12 weeks after exposure until death occurs Drug-resistant strains developing

22 Comparison of HBV and HIV Mode of transmission HBV HIV Blood yes yes Semen yes yes Vaginal fluids yes yes Saliva Maybe no Target in body liver immune system

23 Exposure Incident Means a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that result from the performance of an employee s duties. Does not include body-fluid clean up or exposure to blood when protected by PPE or intact skin (wearing gloves)

24 Control of Exposure Engineering Controls Isolate or remove the blood-borne pathogens from the work place, i.e., sharps disposal, auto-injection devices Work Practice Controls Reduces likelihood of exposure by altering manner in which task is performed Universal Precautions Assumes all persons might be infectious, and includes use of personal protective equipment and environmental practices

25 Engineering Controls: Biohazard Labels Red or red-orange with letters and symbols in contrasting color Disposal bags in red Items may be double-bagged, with red outer bag

26 Work Practice Controls Universal Precautions Hand washing technique and facilities Guidelines for handling body fluids in school Proper sharps use and disposal Rules for personal hygiene and eating in workplace

27 Work Practice Controls (continued) Proper equipment cleaning Appropriate carpet cleaning Appropriate handling of contaminated waste/materials Communication of hazards (labels, red containers)

28 Universal Precautions (UP) FIVE EASY STEPS Universal Precautions (UP) include FIVE EASY STEPS to be followed when there is potential body fluid contact. They are: Recognize Risk Create Barrier Contain Fluids Clean Area Wash Hands

29 Handwashing Most important technique to prevent transmission of disease Requires soap, water and vigorous scrubbing of hands - front, back and between fingers for seconds (time it takes to sing one verse of Old Macdonald, or Happy Birthday twice)

30 Handwashing (continued) Should wash hands before eating, And after: Using the toilet Diapering or assisting with personal care Any contact with blood, body fluid or soiled object, including facial tissues Removing gloves used as a barrier

31 Handwashing (continued) Use warm water and soap whenever possible Use paper towels to turn off faucets Use paper towel to open restroom door, then discard

32 Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers Have been deemed acceptable by CDC when soap and water is not available Have been shown to reduce infection Individual should use soap and water when hands are visibly soiled Should use soap and water as soon as possible after use of hand sanitizers

33 Gloves Disposable gloves cannot be washed or decontaminated Discard if torn or punctured Utility gloves may be worn for cleaning purposes, can be decontaminated if intact

34 How Do We Communicate Hazards Information and training at time of employment regarding hazardous materials, labeling, etc. Biohazard Labels: Warning labels or red containers for waste

35 Handling Exposure Incident Employee with exposure must report incident to supervisor Supervisor/nurse will document necessary information and make arrangements for medical follow-up May involve blood-testing of both employee and source individual All information kept confidential Affected employee will receive recommendations from health care provider

36 Post-Exposure Evaluation Employee is provided a medical evaluation Documentation of exposure Identification of source individual Results of blood testing of source individual Collection and testing of employee s blood Post-exposure protection when indicated Counseling Evaluation of reported illnesses Copy of medical evaluation and recommendations

37 Record Keeping All records kept confidential not released without written consent of employee Records of employee training Records of hepatitis B vaccination Record of any exposure incident, including medical evaluation, testing results and follow-up

38 Employee s Responsibility Proper hand washing Utilizing standard precautions and personal protective equipment when indicated Receiving hepatitis B vaccine unless contraindicated (according to job requirements) Proper disposal of contaminated waste/sharps/laundry Immediate reporting of an exposure incident Compliance with follow-up of exposure

39 Employer s Responsibilities Provide education to all employees re: risk of blood-borne pathogens Provide personal protective equipment per job requirement Offer hepatitis B vaccine, if indicated Provide medical follow-up in the event of exposure incident

40 Completion Certificate I have read and understood the information provided about Bloodborne Pathogens and Universal Precautions. Signature Date Please print, sign and date this certificate. When complete, give to your building nurse or supervisor

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