1 Staying Safe from Bloodborne Pathogens In Health-Care Settings
2 What are bloodborne pathogens? They re disease causing organisms, including viruses and bacteria, that may be present in human blood, blood components or blood products. Bloodborne pathogens can make you very ill. Some can even kill.
3 Which ones are most common in health-care settings? The pathogens of greatest concern for most health-care workers are: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the virus that causes AIDS HBV (hepatitis B virus), a virus that can cause serious liver damage HCV (hepatitis C virus), another virus that can cause liver disease
4 Are there others I should know about? Yes. Many other bloodborne diseases pose a threat to people in both health-care and home-care settings. Examples include: Hepatitis D Ebola Diphtheria Syphilis (viral hemorrhagic fever) malaria herpes
5 Other body substances may also spread bloodborne pathogens. These include: blood products (such as plasma) semen vaginal secretions fluid in the uterus of a pregnant woman fluids surrounding the brain, spine, heart and joints fluids in the chest and abdomen Some bloodborne pathogens are deadly.
6 Who s at greatest risk? Anyone who works in or visits a health-care facility can become infected with a bloodborne pathogen. But some people face a higher risk.
7 Certain health-care staff Have more risk of exposure to blood or other body substances in health-care settings: Examples include: physicians nurses lab workers housekeepers emergency medical service providers home health-care workers dentists and members of their staff workers who handle regulated wastes
8 Patients who are ill, injured or otherwise weakened. may be especially vulnerable to infection. Taking steps to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens helps keep patients, their families and other visitors out of harm s way.
9 How are bloodborne pathogens transmitted? Infections are most likely to occur when contaminated blood or other body substances come in contact with a person s : broken skin examples include skin that s been jabbed with a needle or cut with a sharp object, or skin with an existing cut, rash or burn mucous membranes - splashing or spraying blood can cause infection through the delicate tissues of the eyes, nose and mouth.
10 Standard Precautions are CDC infection control recommendations. Lourdes uses Standard Precautions, because they: 1. Combine the main ideas from Universal Precautions and Body Substance Isolation Standard Precautions require health-care workers to treat all human blood and any body fluid, secretion, excretion or discharge (except sweat), whether or not it contains visible blood as if it is infected with a bloodborne pathogen.
11 Standard Precautions are CDC infection control recommendations. Lourdes uses Standard Precautions, because they: 2. Apply to a host of situations Standard Precautions are required during any procedure where there s a chance of: exposure to blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions (except sweat) contact with broken skin or mucous membranes
12 Standard Precautions are CDC infection control recommendations. Lourdes uses Standard Precautions, because they: 3. Cover all types of patients Standard Precautions apply to the care of all patients (including those receiving home care), whether or not they have a confirmed or suspected infection.
13 A close look at three bloodborne pathogens
14 1. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) attacks the liver. HBV can cause: active hepatitis B a flu-like illness that can last for months A chronic carrier state the person may have no symptoms, but can pass HBV to others Cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Fortunately, vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection. 2. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) also attacks the liver. Symptoms of active infection are milder than those of HBV or may not even be present. But, HCV is more likely to cause: a chronic carrier state cirrhosis, liver cancer and death turn page for #3
15 3. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. HIV attacks the immune system, making the body less able to fight off infections. In most cases, these infections eventually prove fatal.
16 These pathogens can be spread when infected fluids enter the body through: needle-stick injuries cuts, scrapes and other breaks in the skin splashes into the mouth, nose or eyes oral, vaginal or anal sex using infected drug needles Pregnant women who are infected with these pathogens can pass them to their babies.
17 There are other bloodborne pathogens. that cause diseases such as syphilis and malaria. But your greatest risks are from HBV, HCV and HIV.
18 Protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens. Use required equipment and labels for your job. These may include: Autoclaves - for sterilizing equipment. Biological safety cabinets - which help protect lab workers from airborne particles. Special tools - such as needles designed to help prevent needle-stick injuries.
19 Special containers for potentially contaminated materials. These include: used sharps (needles, broken glass or any object that can pierce the skin) other regulated wastes (gloves contaminated with blood or other body substances, used dressings, etc.) contaminated laundry. Biohazard labels - which display the biohazard symbol with the word BIOHAZARD. (Red bags or containers may be used in place of labels.)
20 Follow required work practices for your job For example: Cover cuts Scrapes, hangnails, rashes, etc. Handle sharps carefully - never bend, break or recap needles. (Gloves will not keep you from being stuck.) Minimize splashing of fluids. For example, cover a specimen tube with gauze before pulling out the stopper. Keep food and beverages where they belong not in refrigerators, freezers or cabinets used for infectious materials. Don t eat, drink or smoke in work areas where bloodborne pathogens may be present. Don t handle contact lenses or apply cosmetics or lip balm in these areas. Wash your skin immediately after contact with body substances or objects that might be contaminated. If soap and running water not available: Use antiseptic hand cleaners Wash with soap and running water as soon as you can. Then, report the incident
21 Use required personal protective equipment (PPE). Wear gloves if contact with blood, other body substances or contaminated objects is possible. * Never reuse disposable latex or nylon gloves. Wash your hands before putting on and after removing gloves. Examine gloves for tears, cracks and tiny holes before and during use. Replace damaged gloves as soon as possible. Remove gloves so that the glove s outer surface never touches your skin. 1. Grasp the outside of a glove near the wrist 2. Pull down until the glove comes off inside-out 3. Cup this glove in the palm of your gloved hand. Then, insert 2 fingers of your bare hand inside the cuff of the remaining glove. 4. Pull down so this glove also comes off inside-out -- with the first glove tucked inside.
22 Wear other PPEs as needed: Wear a mask and eye protection, or a full face shield, if fluids could splash or spray into your eyes, nose or mouth. Wear an apron or a gown if fluids could splash or drip onto your clothing. If fluid penetrates the apron or gown, change it as soon as possible. Wear other PPE, such as a cap, a hood and shoe coverings, when exposure to a lot of fluids is possible (such as during surgery, autopsy or embalming). Use a resuscitation device or pocket resuscitation mask when providing rescue breathing. Remove contaminated PPE and other contaminated clothing carefully while wearing gloves. Remember to wash your hands after removing PPE.
24 Eliminate hazards with proper housekeeping. Don t touch broken glass - Pick it up with tongs, or use a broom and dustpan. Dispose of sharps in a covered, puncture-resistant, leakproof container that is red or labeled with the biohazard symbol. Place other contaminated wastes (linens, gloves, etc.) in a leakproof container or bag that is red or labeled with the biohazard symbol. (Bag linens where they were used.) If the outside of the container or bag becomes contaminated, place it in a second container or bag. Never reach into trash to retrieve an object. Report full sharps containers and waste containers - see that they re covered, removed and replaced. Clean equipment and work surfaces at the end of your shift, as well as when visibly contaminated. Wear gloves. Use approved disinfectant towelettes.
25 Consider the hepatitis B vaccine. It s your best protection against hepatitis B! The vaccine is given in a series of doses (usually 3 shots over 6 months). You must get each dose for the vaccine to work. You may need a booster shot later on. Ask your personal health-care provider is there is any reason you should not have the vaccine. (For example, people allergic to yeast should not have it.) Tell your health-care provider if you are pregnant.
26 What if I m exposed to blood or other body substances? Wash the exposed area immediately with soap and running water. Scrub vigorously with lots of lather. Try to save the sharp or other contaminated object for testing. Report the incident promptly using the appropriate reporting system Get medical help and counseling. Report to your Supervisor or Instructor. Ask about current treatments your personal physician will recommend appropriate treatment options and/or the policy will be followed according to your clinical site for treatment recommendations.
27 Test your knowledge about staying safe around bloodborne pathogens by marking true or false. 1. Infection control procedures only apply to blood exposure True or False 2. Contaminated sharps (needles, broken glass, etc.) must be placed in a covered, punctureresistant, leakproof container that is red or has a biohazard symbol. True or False
28 3. Latex gloves will keep you from being stuck by sharps. True or False 4. You should wear a mask and eye protection if fluids could splash or spray into your eyes, nose or mouth. True or False
29 5. HIV, HBV and HCV are the bloodborne pathogens which poses the greatest risk to health-care workers. True or False 6. There is no vaccine for the hepatitis B virus (HBV). True or False
30 7. If you come in contact with blood or other body substances, you should wash your skin immediately. True or False 8. Bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted through mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth, as well as through broken skin. True or False
31 9. Incident Reporting is required whenever an employee has been exposed to blood or other body fluids. True or False 10. The Bloodborne Pathogens Standard applies only to health-care workers. True or False
32 Answers 1.F 2.T 3.F 4.T 5.T 6.F 7.T 8.T 9.T 10.F
33 Please sign and print out this page and turn it into your instructor. I have completed the above Bloodborne Pathogen instructional session on. I understand the regulatory text (Title 29 CFR ) and West Kentucky Community and Technical College OSHA Infection Control Compliance Plan is available in the West Kentucky Community and Technical College Policy Manual and also in the following areas; Maintenance and Operations, Personnel, Dean of Academic Affairs Office, Library, and the Nursing Coordinator s Office. I understand the symptoms of bloodborne diseases and the modes of transmission of bloodborne pathogens. An explanation was given on the exposure control plan and appropriate engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment I need on my job or in the instructional area. I understand how to locate, use, remove, decontaminate and/or dispose of appropriate personal protective equipment for the tasks that I do. I have received information on the hepatitis B vaccine and understand my options for taking the vaccine. I understand the signs and labels used to identify biohazardous materials. Name Date