FLOW ANALYSIS IN DIFFERENT PELTON BUCKET SECTION USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY (PIV) 7 April 2013

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2 FLOW ANALYSIS IN DIFFERENT PELTON BUCKET SECTION USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY (PIV) Supervisors: Prof Dr. Bhola Thapa Dr. Hari Prasad Neopane Department of Mechanical Engineering Kathmandu University Presented by: Supriya Koirala 7 April 2013 Background Pelton Turbine is mostly used hydraulic turbine for high head site condition (2000 m) Improvement in efficiency is hardly achieved in Impulse turbine Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to assess the efficiency and performance prior to model testing Validation required for development achieved by non intrusive optical flow techniques Turbine Testing Lab established to build competence and R&D of hydraulic turbine Korea Maritime University (KMU) contributed a set of PIV equipment at TTL Four different bucket section with varying curvature to determine flow

3 Objective Aim: To explore the possibility of using an optical flow technique in measuring fluid flow velocity. To predict the velocity distribution of four different bucket section experimentally i.e. PIV To analyze the velocity distribution of four different bucket section numerically i.e. CFD Compare the results of experimental and numerical analysis and find out the best bucket profile Research Methodology Design, Fabrication and Experimental Process Using PIV Equipment Numerical Simulation by CFD Comparative Analysis of Results

4 C The Experimental Process Lens plane CMOS Camera Computer for Processing Pressure Gauge Nozzle Bucket Specimen Major Pipeline Laser Light source Main tank Measuring Tank Test rig for PIV experiment Valve Pump Schematic Diagram of PIV process PIV Equipment at TTL Component Detail Description -Laser source and laser bracket: GL532H-1000, 0.5W Powerful light source (laser) output power -Laser Source Power supply: DPSSLDRIVER, 110/220VAC -Laser Lens: Plano concave cylindrical lens, different focal length Shaping optics light sheet -PIV Particle: JUNSEI Chemicals Co., Vinyl Chloride Polymer (500 gm) -High Speed Camera with lens: Fastcam X1280, Photron (body) and Nikkon 50mm 1.4f-D (lens) -Data acquisition software: FASTCAM, Photron official software inbuilt -Data analysis software: CACTUS 3.3, Korean Built software Seeding material Camera(s) recording particle images Software to control acquisition and post-processing

5 The Experimental Process Recording of Image and Image processing CMOS camera set up for experiment Flow in Pelton Turbine FASTCAM viewer for image processing The Experimental Process Post processing of Images Preprocessing: creating background image, selecting threshold angle of rotation, selection of coordinate and obstacle setting Identification: setting up frame for x axis vector and y axis vector relatively; Images correlated using direct cross correlation Post processing: converting idg files into MKCs, auto error removing, manual error removing, allocation to new grid, time smoothed vector field Averaging vector field Extracting the u, v components Kinetic energy Turbulence

6 The Numerical Process (CFD) 3D design of experimental bucket section Workflow in CFD Generating Mesh Result Solver report in CFD Preprocessing in ANSYS CFX 3D design of experimental bucket section Bucket 1 Bucket 2 Nozzle Bucket 3 Bucket 4

7 Generating Mesh Bucket No Number of Nodes Number of Elements Tetrahedral Mesh generated in each four bucket section Preprocessing in ANSYS CFX Turbulence Model Component type Shear Stress Transport Stationary Domain created in ANSYS CFX Particular Inlet Condition Absolute Velocity Outlet condition Static Pressure Specification 0.2m/s 1 atm Material Vinyl Poly chloride Morphology Particle Transport Fluid Specified Diameter 110micron [27] Reference Pressure 1 atm Particle Position Uniform Injection Number of Position 500 Particle mass flow 1gm/s

8 CFD Results Bucket 2 particle volume fraction Water vf for velocity above 0.5m/s bucket 4 Bucket 1 water/air Bucket 1 water/particle Bucket 2 water/air Bucket 2 water/particle

9 Bucket 3 water/air Bucket 3 water/particle Bucket 4 water/air Bucket 4 water/particle PIV Results Bucket 1 section PIV velocity vector bucket 1 Bucket 3 section PIV velocity vector bucket 3 Bucket 2 section PIV velocity vector bucket 2 Bucket 4 section PIV velocity vector bucket 4

10 Result and Discussion Velocity Distribution (m/s) CFD vs PIV Bucket 1 Bucket 2 Bucket 3 Bucket 4 Bucket no CFD PIV Velocity Distribution (m/s) Water-air vs water-particle Bucket 1 Bucket 2 Bucket 3 Bucket 4 Velocity water/air Velocity water/particle Result and Discussion PIV provides 2D instantaneous planar velocity field, CFD predictions are based on the time averaged flow fields Variation of approximately 27-30% in velocity comparing the CFD and PIV result Minimum velocity at the outlet of bucket is attained by B1 with and without particle B2 has irregular bucket profile; high velocity vector at the exit of bucket section Decrease in velocity is due of the increase in density of water/particle mixture in B1 and B2 Smaller particles flow in the direction of fluid and hits the edge near the outlet Minimum velocity(m/s) 2.50E E E E E E+00 Minimum velocity Plot Bucket Number water/air water/particle

11 Conclusion & Recommendation PIV equipment successfully installed and used in flow visualization Deviation in CFD and PIV due to various experimental error and input parameters in CFD Recommendation Possibility of 3D velocity measurement using two more powerful cameras The nozzle tip made transparent to avoid unwanted reflection Uncertainty test and mesh dependency test THANK YOU!!

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