Turbine Selection Criteria for Small Hydropower Development The River Ethiope Experience.

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2 Volume 02 - Issue 05 May 2016 PP Figure 1 Typical Flow Ranges for Various Turbines [3]. 2.0 Types of Turbines A common turbine has vanes, blades or buckets that rotate about an axis by the action of the water. The runner refers to the rotating part of the turbine or water wheel and it drives the electrical generators that is coupled to the turbine. This in turn generates electrical energy that could drive other rotating machinery. Turbines can be either reaction or impulse types. The turbines type indicates the manner in which the water causes the turbine runner to rotate. Reaction turbine operates with their runners fully flooded and develops torque because of the reaction of water pressure against runner blades[4]. They are classified as Francis (mixed flow) or axial flow. Axial flow turbines are available with both fixed blades (Propeller) and variable pitch blades (Kaplan). Impulse turbines on the other hand operates with their runner in air and convert the water s pressure energy into kinetic energy of a jet that impinges onto the runner buckets to develop torque[4]. Typical examples of impulse turbines are the Pelton, Turgo and the Cross Flow. 2.1 Volumetric Flow Rate. The volumetric flow rate of River Ethiope has been well investigated by Otuagoma et al [5]. The volumetric flow rate using the Current Meter Method of measuring flow places the discharge of River Ethiope at m 3 /s as presented in Table 2. Table 2 Results of Current Meter Measurement of Discharge of River Ethiopeat Abraka, Delta State [5]. Velocity (m/s) Mean At in point Vertical Distance from initial point (m) Actual Depth (m) Depth of observed (h) No. of Revolutions. Time (secs) Rev/sec = n Area (m 2 ) Discharge (m 3 /s) Page

3 Volume 02 - Issue 05 May 2016 PP Total Discharge, Q = m 3 /s 2.2 Flow Duration Curve A flow duration curve is a graph of the historical flow at the site ordered from maximum to minimum flow. It is used to access the availability of flow overtime and the power and energy at the site [6]. Normally, to avoid a section of the watercourse from being depleted, a small portion of the flow is reserved for environmental reasons [7]. The monthly flow data of the River Ethiope for a period of six years is presented in Table 3 Table 3 Monthly Flow Data (m 3 /s) [8]. Year Jan. Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Avg The data was used to plot the flow duration curve for the River Ethiope. The flow duration curve for the river normally help in determining the maximum water flow capacity of the turbine [9]. 2.3 Head Measurement The gross head (H g ) is the vertical distance between the upper and lower water surface level at the intake and at the tailrace [3, 9, 10]. Estimation of the gross head was extensively discussed by Otuagoma et al [2] were field measurement was carried out using Dumpy levels and Theodolite method. Here the authors ascertained the gross head of River Ethiope to be 18.5 m and system losses was calculated to be 9.3 m thereby placing net head at 9.2 m [2]. 2.4 RETScreen Software The RETScreen small hydropower project software provides a means to calculate the available energy at a potential small hydropower site that could be connected to a central grid or to isolated loads and to evaluate the financial viability of the project by estimating the cost of the project. The software also has in its data bank standard turbine efficiency curves that have been developed for Kaplan, Francis, Propeller, Pelton, Turgo and Cross flow turbine types. The type of turbine is entered by the user based on its suitability to the available head and flow conditions. The turbine efficiency curve calculation is based on rated head (design gross head less maximum hydraulic losses), runner diameter (calculated), turbine specific speed (calculated for reaction turbines) and the turbine manufacture/design co-efficient. The efficiency equations were derived from a large 36 Page

4 Delivered Annual Energy (MWh) International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology (IJLRET) Volume 02 - Issue 05 May 2016 PP number of manufacture efficiency curves for different turbine types and head and flow conditions [6].The turbine efficiency equations and the number of turbine are used to calculate plant turbine efficiency from 0% to 100% of design flow of 5% interval. 3.0 Results and Discussion The estimated parameters for River Ethiope are: gross head (H g ) is 18.5 m, hydraulic losses h f is 9.3 m, net head H net is 9.2 m and the design flow is m 3 /s. It was observed from Table 1 and Figure 1 that the type of turbines that fits the site conditions are the Kaplan and Propeller turbines since the net head of 9.2 m and a design flow of m 3 /s fall within the operational envelope [7] of axial turbines. The data in Table 3 was fed into the RETScreen software and through successive runs of the RETScreen software with variable design flows, the outputs of the RETScreensoftware for three Kaplan and three Propeller turbines is presented in Table 4. Table 4 Comparison of Different Turbines Performances Q design 3 Kaplan Turbines 3Propeller Turbines m 3 /s E delivered (MWh) E delivered (MWh) ,878 19, ,696 19, ,491 19, ,259 19, ,965 18, ,651 18, ,317 18, ,962 18, ,577 18, ,161 17, ,716 17, ,243 17,240 It can be observed from Table 4 that, the total energy delivered by three Kaplan turbines at various design flow is more than that delivered by three Propeller turbines. The implication of this observation shows that Kaplan turbine is well suited for this site. Based on this, a further work was carried out on Kaplan to determine effect of numbers of turbine, plant rated power output and turbine efficiency curve and the results are as presented Series1 Series Q (m 3 /s) Figure 2 Effect of Number of Turbine on Delivered Energy. 37 Page

5 Flow - m³/s Power - kw International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology (IJLRET) Volume 02 - Issue 05 May 2016 PP Series 1of Figure 2 represent two number of turbines while series 2 represents three number of turbines. It is observed from the Figure 2 that when the number of turbines is decreased from three to two, the energies delivered also decreased as the flow was gradually decreased from to m 3 /s. Design flow is a fundamental parameter that affects both energy and power capacity and the cost of a small hydropower project. When design flow decreases, both power capacity and initial cost values decrease [11]. In this study the design flow is selected as m 3 /s and it is gradually decreased to m 3 /s and for every design value, the software is run successively with the results presented in Table 5.The percentage of decrease in the value of installed power is almost the same as the percentage of decrease of the design flow. Since the design flow is around the neighborhood of 30% of the flow duration curve, the hydropower potential of the project would be optimally exploited if this design flow is selected. Table 5 Outputs of RETScreen Software through successive runs with variable design flow values Q design P E delivered m 3 /s % MW % GWh % When the data in Table 3 was used to run the RETScreen software, the output produces the flow, power duration curves and the turbine efficiency curves as presented in Figures 3 and 4 respectively. Flow-duration and power curves Available flow Available power 60 6, , , , , , % 25% 50% 75% 100% Percent time flow equalled or exceeded Figure 3 Flow and Power Duration Curves for River Ethiope [8] 38 Page

6 Efficiency International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology (IJLRET) Volume 02 - Issue 05 May 2016 PP Turbine efficiency % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percent of rated flow Figure 4 Turbine Efficiency Curve for Kaplan Turbine It could be observed from the Figure 3 that with three Kaplan turbine, the shape of the flow duration curve shows that the site is suitable for small hydropower development. The power at design flow of m 3 /s and net head of 9.2m is 2.5 MW which is in the neighborhood of Q 10 and Q 70 under which hydropower systems are designed to operate efficiently. From the Figure 4, it can also be seen that Kaplan turbine would operate at 90% efficiency for the design flow and head. 4.0 Conclusion Small hydropower as a sustainable and renewable resource is a major energy source of electricity generation in Nigeria. Small hydropower is a well - developed small scale renewable energy technology which can contribute to the improvement of electricity access in rural areas of the country. One of the major component of small hydropower development, is the hydraulic turbine which converts the energy of falling water to mechanical energy that drives the electric generator. The right choice of hydraulic turbine at any given site that will function optimally irrespective of the varying seasonal water flow is paramount to any small hydropower development. RETScreen small hydropower energy software was used to evaluate and compare the performance of three Kaplan and three Propeller turbines. In this study, it was established that Kaplan turbine will be best suited for small hydropower development in River Ethiope due to its higher energy output as compared to Propeller turbine. The results from the study also show that RETScreen software when successively run using the same data for various turbine type can help in validating the results from the turbine application range chart. References [1]. Brown T M (2010). Hydroelectric System Design. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, pp [2]. Otuagoma S O, Ogujor E A and Kuale P A (2016). Determination of Head for Small Hydropower Development: A Case Study of River Ethiope at Umutu. Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 35, No 1, pp [3]. European Small Hydropower Association ESHA (2004). Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydropower Plant, chapter 1 Introduction, ESHA, Brussels, Belgium. Downloaded from _EN.pdf on the 27/2/2013, pp [4]. pter-3_hydraulic_turbine_classification_and_selection.pdf, pp Downloaded on the 4 th April, [5]. Otuagoma S O, Ogujor E A and Kuale P A (2015). Comparative Measurement of Stream Flow in the Ethiope River for Small Hydropower Development. Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 34, No 1, pp [6]. RETScreen (2004a). Clean Energy Project Analysis: RETScreen Engineering and Cases Textbook. Minister of Natural Resources Canada. Pp 1-52 [7]. Adejumobi I A and Shobayo D I (2015). Optimal Selection of Hydraulic Turbines for Small Hydro Electric Power Generation A Case Study of Opeki River, South Western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 34 No 3, pp Page

7 Volume 02 - Issue 05 May 2016 PP [8]. Otuagoma S O, Ogujor E A and Kuale P A (2016). Evaluation of the Small Hydropower Potential of River Ethiope Using the RETScreen Software. International Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp [9]. Bilal A N (2013). Design of Micro-Hydro-Electric Power Station. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 5, pp [10]. British Hydropower Association BHA (2005). A Guide to United Kingdom Mini-Hydro Development, London (Version 1.2). [11]. Korkmaz O (2007). A Case Study on Feasibility Assessment of Small Hydropower Scheme. Ankara: Middle East Technical University, pp Page

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