# 1. A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work."

## Transcription

1 Impulse Turbine 1. A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. 2. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels. 3. Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Theory of operation 1. A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). 2. The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. 3. Impulse turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet.

2 Schematic of impulse and reaction turbines, where the rotor is the rotating part, and the stator is the stationary part of the machine.

3 Calculations for work, Power, and Efficiencies Work and Power: From Newton s second law, the force F in the direction of moving blades is given by F = Rate of change of momentum = Mass flow rate of steam x Change in velocity of whirl Hence, Work kdone on the moving blades = Force x Distance moved /sec Or, Power developed, d

4 Diagram or Blade Efficiency The energy supplied per stage of an impulse turbine is equal to K.E given by and assuming that the K.E leaving the stage is wasted. Blade efficiency : Blade efficiency can also be defined as Blade efficiency will be maximum when is minimum, i.e when β = or the discharge is axial. Stage efficiency Stage is defined dfi das the combination of a fixed blades and moving blades. The energy supplied corresponding to the isentropic heat drop in the nozzles.

5 Where, is in KJ and it is equal to where is the isentropic enthalpy drop per Kg of steam in KJ/Kg. The stage efficiency becomes equal to the blade efficiency if there are no friction losses in the nozzles. Axial thrust The axial thrust on the wheel is due to the force exerted as a result of the rate of change of momentum in axial direction. Axial thrust, = Mass of flow rate x Change in axial velocity Blade velocity Coefficient (K): In an impulse turbine if the friction is neglected, the relative velocity of steam at outlet of moving blades equal to relative velocity of steam at inlet to moving blades. i.e =. Effect of friction is to reduce relative velocity of steam as it passes over the moving blades. The friction loss is 10 to 15 %. Therefore is less than.

6 Blade velocity coefficient, Blade speed ratio, (s) Condition for Maximum Discharge Efficiency for Impulse Turbine From fig Work done per Kg of steam Where, and (1) and

7 . (A) Effect of nozzle angle From equation (1) above, it is evident that the work would be maximum if Other parameters like are fixed. For maximum efficiency, differentiating the expression for efficiency given by equation (A) with respect to s and equating to zero.

8 Optimum blade speed ratio, Substituting S(optimum) in equation (A) For a De Laval turbine neglecting friction, i.e K =1 and for symmetrical blades, i.e. θ = φ, hence, C =1. Expression for maximum work becomes In case, K = 1, C = 1(Blade symmetrical) and, then

9 The algebraic sum of actual heat drops in stages i.e ( ) is called the total useful heat drop. The algebraic sum of isentropic heat drops in stages = is called the cummulative isentropic heat drop. The ratio of cummulative isentropic heat drop to the Rankine heat drop is defined as the reheat factor (R.F). Hence, Internal efficiency of turbine is defined as the ratio of total useful heat drop to the rankine heat drop. Accordingly. A Stage efficiency for each stage is the ratio of actual heat drop to the isentropic heat drop.

10 Therefore the expression for stage efficiency for various stages is as follows: Stage efficiency for first stage Similarly If the stage efficiency is same for all the stages then, Equation A can be re-written as The reheat factor depends upon turbine stage efficiency, the condition of steam at entry and the exit pressure. The value of R.F usually varies between 1.02 to 1.06.

11 Reaction Turbine 1. An impulse reaction turbine usually called as reaction turbine. 2. Uses the principle i of both the impulse and reaction turbine. 3. Due to this, the blade passages between consecutive blades are of converging types, like convergent nozzle. Degree of reaction, The term degree of reaction as applied in case of reaction turbines is a measure of the proportion of the work done by reaction effect ( due to pressure drop in moving blades and it is defined as Enthalpy drop in moving blades is equal to increase in K.E of the steam corresponding to relative velocity while the steam passes over the moving blades, Therefore

12 Enthalpy drop in fixed blade is given by Therefore, the total heat drop for the stage ( + ) is equal to work done by the steam and it equals to Hence, degree of reaction, A Velocity Diagram And

13 The velocity of flow is generally constant while the steam passes over the blade ring. ie i.e Substituting the values of,, and in Equation A Degree of reaction, (1) For 50% degree of reaction turbine, called as Parson s reaction turbine, Equation (1) can be written as

14 (2) From fig the value of can also written as.. (3). (4) Comparing the equations (2), (3), and (4) we get It follows that for a 50% reaction turbine the moving and fixed blades must be made symmetrical in shapes. Work, Power and Efficiency W.D per Kg of steam =

15 Power developed per stage Stage efficiency When is the heat drop in KJ/Kg in a stage which can be determined with the help of Mollier s diagram. Also, Blade efficiency,

16 Blade Height Now it becomes necessary to determine the height of blade required at a particular stage, Let N = Speed of turbine, rpm D = drum diameter, m h = blade height, m Vl Velocity of fflow, Mean drum diameter, Area of flow (neglecting the area of blades occupied) Volume flow rate of steam, Q = Area of flow x Velocity of flow Mass flow rate of steam, Where, v is the specific volume of steam in at the given stage Also, Blade speed,

17 Condition for Maximum Blade Efficiency in case of 50% Reaction Turbine Work done per Kg of steam From previous fig... (a) Let, the ratio of blade velocity to steam velocity called Blade velocity ratio, be represented by s, ie i.e Using definition iti of blade velocity ratio from above equation, the equation (a) becomes Then, Energy supplied /Kg of steam becomes,

18 But, from ABC, Energy supplied per Kg of steam becomes The blade efficiency for the stage. (A)

19 Therefore, becomes maximum when factor becomes maximum The required condition is I.E condition for maximum efficiency,. (B) Substituting the value of s from equation (B) in equation (A)

20 Governing of Impulse Turbines 1. The function of a governor is to control the fluctuation of speed of prime mover which the prescribed limits with the variations of load on it. 2. output according to the load on the alternator with very small fluctuations in speed called governor. The methods used for governing of impulse turbines are: 1. Throttle governing 2. Nozzles governing 3. By pass governing 4. Combined throttle and nozzle governing 5. Combined throttle and by pass governing.

21 FrancisTurbine 1. Francis Turbine is the first hydraulic turbine with radial in flow. 2. It was designed by an American scientist James Francis 3. Francis turbine is a reaction turbine as the energy available at the inlet of the turbine is a combination of kinetic and pressure energy 21

22 Side-view cutaway of a vertical Francis turbine. Here water enters horizontally in a spiral shaped pipe (penstock) wrapped around the outside of the turbine's rotating runner and exits vertically down through the centre of the turbine. 22

23 Vertical Francis turbine.

24 Main parts of Francis Turbine CASING: The runner is completely enclosed in an air-tight spiral casing. The casing and runner are always full of water. GUIDE MECHANISM: It consists it of astationary tti circular wheel on which stationary guide vanes are fixed. The guide vanes allow the water to strike the vanes of the runner without shock at inlet RUNNER: It is a circular wheel on which a series of curved radial guide vanes are fixed. DRAFT TUBE: It is used for discharging water from the outlet of the runner to the tail race. 24

25 RUNNER MOVABLE VANES GUIDE WHEEL STATIONARY GUIDE 25 VANES

26 Francis Turbine (exterior view) attached to a generator 26

27 Working Principle 1. The Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine, a category of turbine in which the working fluid comes to the turbine under immense pressure 2. At the exit, water acts on the spinning cup-shaped runner features, leaving at low velocity and low swirl with very little kinetic or potential energy left. 3. The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water flow and recover the pressure. 27

28 The velocity triangle at inlet and outlet of Francis Turbine are drawn in the same way as in case of inward flow reaction turbine. As in case of Francis turbine the discharge is radial at outlet, the velocity of whirl at outlet will be zero. Hence, the work done /sec on the runner by the water given by = ρq Q And the work done /sec/ unit weight of water striking/s Hydraulic efficiency will be given as 28

29 Applications a) Francis turbines may be designed for a wide range of heads (head range from 20 to 700 meters (100 to 2,300 feet) and flows. b) This, along with their highh efficiency, i has made them the most widely used turbine in the world. c) They may also be used for pumped storage, where a reservoir is filled by the turbine (acting as a pump) driven by the generator acting as a large electrical lmotor. 29

30 Kaplan Turbine a) Kaplan turbine is an axial flow reaction turbine. b) The water flows through the runner of the turbine in an axial direction and the energy at the inlet of the turbine is the sum of kinetic and pressure energy. c) If the vanes are adjustable then it is known as kaplan Turbine and d) if the vanes are non adjustable then it is known as Propeller Turbine. 30

31 Kaplan turbine is best suited where large quantity of low head water is available. The main parts of a kaplan Turbine are: 1. Scroll Casing 2. GuidevaneMechanism i 3. Hub with Vanes 4. Draft Tube 31

32 SHAFT VANES HUBB OR BOSS 32

33 Working Principle 1. The water enters the turbine through the guide vanes which are aligned such as to give the flow a suitable degree of swirl. 2. The flow from guide vanespass throughh the curved passage which h forces the radial flow to axial direction. 3. The scheme for production of hydroelectricity by Kaplan Turbine is same as that for Francis Turbine. 33

34 GUIDE VANES SHAFT MOVABLE VANES HUBB OR BOSS 34

35 Draft Tube 1. The draft dattubetube is a pipe ppeof gradually gadua increasing area aeawhich connects the teoutlet of the runner with the tailrace. 2. One end of the draft tube is connected to the outlet of the runner while the other end is submerged below the level of water in the tail race. 3. It converts a large proportion of rejected kinetic energy into useful pressure energy 35

36 Governing ofturbines ub 1. It is the operation by which the speed of the turbine is kept constant under all conditions of working load. 2. This is done automatically by a governor which regulates the rate flow through the turbines according to thechangingh load conditions on the turbine. 3. Governing of a turbine is absolutely necessary if the turbine is coupled to an electric generator which is required to run at constant speed under all fluctuating load conditions. 36

### CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc. 1 Centrifugal Pump- Definition Centrifugal Pump can be defined as a mechanical device used to transfer liquid of various types. As

### ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING. Part-B (16Marks questions)

ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING Part-B (16Marks questions) 1. Drive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume ratio. (16) 2. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency

### Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori. Chapter 4

Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori Chapter 4 Note direction of α 2 FIG. 4.1. Turbine stage velocity diagrams. Assumptions: Hub to tip ratio high (close to 1) Negligible radial velocities

### FLUID MECHANICS. TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES. When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to. Solve forces due to pressure difference.

FLUID MECHANICS TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to Solve forces due to pressure difference. Solve problems due to momentum changes. Solve problems involving

### COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. Sub Code/Name: ME 1353 / Power Plant Engineering

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK Sub Code/Name: ME 1353 / Power Plant Engineering UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO POWER PLANTS AND BOILERS 1. What is the purpose of

### FLUID MECHANICS. TUTORIAL No.8A WATER TURBINES. When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to

FLUID MECHAICS TUTORIAL o.8a WATER TURBIES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to Explain the significance of specific speed to turbine selection. Explain the general principles of

### Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume

Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume Closed systems: The mass of the system remain constant during a process. Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries,

### UNIVERSITY ESSAY QUESTIONS:

UNIT I 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? 2. What is meant by air standard cycle? 3. Name the various gas power cycles". 4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis 5. Mention the various

### STEAM TURBINE 1 CONTENT. Chapter Description Page. V. Steam Process in Steam Turbine 6. VI. Exhaust Steam Conditions, Extraction and Admission 7

STEAM TURBINE 1 CONTENT Chapter Description Page I Purpose 2 II Steam Turbine Types 2 2.1. Impulse Turbine 2 2.2. Reaction Turbine 2 III Steam Turbine Operating Range 2 3.1. Curtis 2 3.2. Rateau 2 3.3.

### Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

MAE 320-Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes Objectives Develop the conservation of mass principle. Apply the conservation of mass principle to various systems including steady- and unsteady-flow

### COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE

Research Paper ISSN 2278 0149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 3, No. 4, October, 2014 2014 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE Shivakumar

### Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori. Chapter 4

Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori Chapter 4 Axial-Flow Turbines: Mean-Line Analyses and Design Power is more certainly retained by wary measures than by daring counsels. (Tacitius, Annals)

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 20 Conservation Equations in Fluid Flow Part VIII Good morning. I welcome you all

### THERMAL POWER PLANTS Vol. III - Steam Turbine Impulse and Reaction Blading - R.A. Chaplin STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING

STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING R.A. Chaplin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Canada Keywords: Steam Turbines, Turbine Blades, Velocity Diagrams, Impulse, Reaction,

### APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES INTRODUCTION This tutorial is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of thermodynamics to a more

### is the stagnation (or total) pressure, constant along a streamline.

70 Incompressible flow (page 60): Bernoulli s equation (steady, inviscid, incompressible): p 0 is the stagnation (or total) pressure, constant along a streamline. Pressure tapping in a wall parallel to

### What are the Benefits?

Micro hydro power system introduction Not everyone is lucky enough to have a source of running water near their homes. But for those with river-side homes or live-on boats, small water generators (micro-hydro

### Ideal Jet Propulsion Cycle

Ideal Jet ropulsion Cycle Gas-turbine engines are widely used to power aircrafts because of their light-weight, compactness, and high power-to-weight ratio. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle

### Performance of Gangrel Hydroelectric Power Plant A Case Study

Performance of Gangrel Hydroelectric Power Plant A Case Study Bhoumika Sahu 1, Sanjiv Kumar 2, Dhananjay Kumar Sahu 3,Brijesh patel 4,Kalpit P. Kaurase 5 1 M.Tech scholar (TurboMachinary) & Mats University,

### Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 919-9670 Web Site:

Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 919-9670 E-Mail: info@engineering-4e.com Web Site: http://www.engineering-4e.com Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application

### ME 239: Rocket Propulsion. Nozzle Thermodynamics and Isentropic Flow Relations. J. M. Meyers, PhD

ME 39: Rocket Propulsion Nozzle Thermodynamics and Isentropic Flow Relations J. M. Meyers, PhD 1 Assumptions for this Analysis 1. Steady, one-dimensional flow No motor start/stopping issues to be concerned

### Energy : ṁ (h i + ½V i 2 ) = ṁ(h e + ½V e 2 ) Due to high T take h from table A.7.1

6.33 In a jet engine a flow of air at 000 K, 00 kpa and 30 m/s enters a nozzle, as shown in Fig. P6.33, where the air exits at 850 K, 90 kpa. What is the exit velocity assuming no heat loss? C.V. nozzle.

### Practice Problems on Conservation of Energy. heat loss of 50,000 kj/hr. house maintained at 22 C

COE_10 A passive solar house that is losing heat to the outdoors at an average rate of 50,000 kj/hr is maintained at 22 C at all times during a winter night for 10 hr. The house is to be heated by 50 glass

### Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 3 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC MOTORS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive

### Maximizing Hydroelectric Turbine Performance and Reliability

Maximizing Hydroelectric Turbine Performance and Reliability Introduction Hydroelectric turbines comprise approximately 17% of the total number of power generating units in the United States and Canada.

### 1 High Pressure Steam Turbine... 2 1.1 Sliding Pressure Control... 2 1.1.1 Input for the design load calculation [HD glijdruk 100]... 2 1.1.

High Pressure Steam Turbine.... Sliding Pressure Control..... Input for the design load calculation [HD glijdruk 00]..... Results of the design load calculation..... h-s diagram..... Input for the off-design

### Compressor and turbines

Compressor and turbines In this chapter, we will look at the compressor and the turbine. They are both turbomachinery: machines that transfer energy from a rotor to a fluid, or the other way around. The

### KEYWORDS Micro hydro turbine, Turbine testing, Cross flow turbine

DEVELOPMENT OF COST EFFECTIVE TURBINE FOR HILLY AREAS [Blank line 11 pt] A. Tamil Chandran, Senior Research Engineer Fluid Control Research Institute, Kanjikode west, Plalakkad, Kerala, India tamilchandran@fcriindia.com

### Mechanical Principles

Unit 4: Mechanical Principles Unit code: F/601/1450 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 4 POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL 2 BALANCING 4. Dynamics of rotating systems Single and multi-link mechanisms: slider

### Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,

Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within

### Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright

### CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

### CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES 4.0 PUMP CLASSES Pumps may be classified in two general types, dynamic and positive displacement. Positive displacement pumps

### THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2

THERMODYNAMICS & FLUIDS (Thermodynamics level 1\Thermo & Fluids Module -Thermo Book 2-Contents-December 07.doc) UFMEQU-20-1 THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2 Students must read through these notes and

### Mini & Micro Hydro Power Generation. EBARA Hatakeyama Memorial Fund Tokyo, Japan

Mini & Micro Hydro Power Generation EBARA Hatakeyama Memorial Fund Tokyo, Japan Definitions Large Scale hydro power generation : Capacity 100(MW) Most of them involve major construction of dams. Small

### Chapter 17. For the most part, we have limited our consideration so COMPRESSIBLE FLOW. Objectives

Chapter 17 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW For the most part, we have limited our consideration so far to flows for which density variations and thus compressibility effects are negligible. In this chapter we lift this

### Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

### BLOWERS EXHAUSTERS CONTINENTAL INDUSTRIE ASME PTC 10 PERFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURE. Blowers & Exhausters. Page 1 of 6 PURPOSE STANDARDS INSTRUMENTS

PURPOSE Page 1 of 6 Test purpose is the measure of the following compressor operating parameters: flow of gas handled pressure rice produced shaft power requirement efficiency surge limit STANDARDS Test

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today

### Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 18 Worked Out Examples - I Welcome back in this lecture.

### The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems. Heat Transfer

The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems The first law of thermodynamics can be simply stated as follows: during an interaction between a system and its surroundings, the amount of energy gained

### DESIGN OF SMALL HYDRO ELECTRIC PROJECT USING TAILRACE EXTENSION SCHEME

DESIGN OF SMALL HYDRO ELECTRIC PROJECT USING TAILRACE EXTENSION SCHEME Delson Jose 1, Lini Varghese 2, Renjini G. 3 1,2B.Tech Scholars Engineering College, Cheruthuruthy, Thrissur, 3Assistant Professor,

### Introduction. Chapter 1. 1.1 The Motivation

Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 The Motivation Hydroelectric power plants, like real systems, have nonlinear behaviour. In order to design turbine controllers, it was normal practice in the past, when computer

### HYDROPOWER SYSTEMS BY APPOINTMENT TO H.M. THE QUEEN WATER TURBINE ENGINEERS, GILBERT GILKES & GORDON LTD, KENDAL

HYDROPOWER SYSTEMS BY APPOINTMENT TO H.M. THE QUEEN WATER TURBINE ENGINEERS, GILBERT GILKES & GORDON LTD, KENDAL 1 WWW.GILKES.COM CONTENTS THE COMPANY 3 GILKES HYDROPOWER 5 GILKES PACKAGE 7 TURBINE SELECTION

### Turbine Design for Thermoacoustic

Turbine Design for Thermoacoustic Generator Design of a bi-directional turbine to convert acoustic power into electricity 8/20/2012 Company: FACT-Foundation Author: Tim Kloprogge Student number: 443943

### SOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN. FUNDAMENTALS of. Thermodynamics. Sixth Edition

SOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN FUNDAMENTALS of Thermodynamics Sixth Edition CONTENT SUBSECTION PROB NO. Correspondence table Concept-Study Guide Problems -20 Steady

### 1. A belt pulley is 3 ft. in diameter and rotates at 250 rpm. The belt which is 5 ins. wide makes an angle of contact of 190 over the pulley.

Sample Questions REVISED FIRST CLASS PARTS A1, A2, AND A3 (NOTE: these questions are intended as representations of the style of questions that may appear on examinations. They are not intended as study

### FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

### VERTICAL TURBINE AND PROPELLER PUMPS

VERTICAL TURBINE AND PROPELLER PUMPS INTRODUCTION Vertical Turbine and Propeller Pumps Model 7000 Series Turbine Pump Model 800 Series Axial Flow Propeller Pump Model 800 Series Mixed Flow Propeller Pump

### Modeling Fluid Systems

Modeling Fluid Systems The prevalent use of fluid (hydraulic) circuitry in machines tool applications, aircraft control systems, and similar operations occurs because of such factors such as accuracy,

### Automatic Transmission Basics

Automatic Transmission Basics Lesson Objectives 1. Describe the function of the torque converter. 2. Identify the three major components of the torque converter that contribute to the multiplication of

### Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any

Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass

### h b b h Q u da u 1 1 dy dz u 1 dy 1 dz u b h b h

P3.18 An incompressible fluid flows steadily through the rectangular duct in the figure. The exit velocity profile is given by u umax(1 y /b )(1 z /h ). (a) Does this profile satisfy the correct boundary

### www.klmtechgroup.com TABLE OF CONTENT

Page : 1 of 26 Project Engineering Standard www.klmtechgroup.com KLM Technology #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru Malaysia TABLE OF CONTENT SCOPE 2 REFERENCES

### 2. Parallel pump system Q(pump) = 300 gpm, h p = 270 ft for each of the two pumps

Pumping Systems: Parallel and Series Configurations For some piping system designs, it may be desirable to consider a multiple pump system to meet the design requirements. Two typical options include parallel

### HydroHelp 1 AN EXCEL PROGRAM DEVELOPED FOR TURBINE-GENERATOR SELECTION FOR HYDROELECTRIC SITES

HydroHelp 1 AN EXCEL PROGRAM DEVELOPED FOR TURBINE-GENERATOR SELECTION FOR HYDROELECTRIC SITES Selecting the correct turbine for a hydro site is difficult, particularly for small low-head sites. Manufacturers

### When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs

### SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a three-phase synchronous machine are practically identical

### Gas Turbine cycles and Propulsion system. Sarika Goel 3 rd year,chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi Guide : Prof. Gautam Biswas & Prof. S.

Gas Turbine cycles and Propulsion system Sarika Goel 3 rd year,chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi Guide : Prof. Gautam Biswas & Prof. S. Sarkar Outline Introduction- Gas turbine cycles Applications of gas

### FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant

### Comparative Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades with and without Turbulators

Comparative Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades with and without Turbulators Sagar H T 1, Kishan Naik 2 1 PG Student, Dept. of Studies in Mechanical Engineering, University BDT College of Engineering, Davangere,

### Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area

Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area Masayuki TAKAHASHI With small fans, selecting the right fan that most fits the purpose is extremely important from

### Commissioning of 87,000-kW Kaplan Turbine and Generator for Otori Power Station

Commissioning of 87,000-kW Kaplan Turbine and Generator for Otori Power Station 126 Commissioning of 87,000-kW Kaplan Turbine and Generator for Otori Power Station Asami Sato Keiichi Goto OVERVIEW: The

### Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers

Part I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers 1. The parameter used by ASME to define fans, blowers and compressors is a) Fan ration b) Specific ratio c) Blade ratio d) Twist

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 7 PERFORMANCE TEST OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 7 PERFORMANCE TEST OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OBJECTIVE The primary objectives of this experiment is to measure the performance of a centrifugal pump and compare the results to the manufacturers

### Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design

Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Niclas Falck February 2008 Master Thesis Division of Thermal Power Engineering Department of Energy Sciences Lund University, Sweden Niclas Falck 2008 ISSN 0282-1990

### MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 4 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL 2 BELT DRIVES

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 4 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION TUTORIAL BELT DRIVES Simple machines: lifting devices e.g. lever systems, inclined plane, screw jack, pulley blocks, Weston differential pulley

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics (FL) The First Law of Thermodynamics Explain and manipulate the first law Write the integral and differential forms of the first law Describe the physical meaning of each

### Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine

Session 2166 Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine John E. Matsson Oral Roberts University Abstract This paper describes the experience gained from the operation of a JetCat model turbojet engine

### Steam turbine power generation is a Rankine Cycle, best plotted on a temperature/entropy [T/s] diagram : Critical Point

Cogeneration Thermodynamics Revisited Dr Mike Inkson and Ben Misplon Thermal Energy Systems Abstract Whilst most engineers understand that higher HP steam conditions result in a more efficient power station,

### OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE. TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

UNIT 61: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Unit code: D/601/1410 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS 2 Be able to evaluate

### 5. State the function of pulveriser. The pulverisers are the equipments which are used to powdered coal.

413 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING PART-A 1. Define Power. Power is the rate at which energy is used (or) Energy/time. 2. What are the types of fuels? Solid fuel Liquid fuel Gaseous fuel (Any one among the above

### Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems Part 1 covered the response of a single degree of freedom system to harmonic excitation without considering the effects of damping. However, almost

### Using mechanical energy for daily

unit 3 Using mechanical energy for daily activities Physics Chapter 3 Using mechanical energy for daily activities Competency Uses mechanical energy for day-to-day activities Competency level 3.1 Investigates

### High Speed Aerodynamics Prof. K. P. Sinhamahapatra Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

High Speed Aerodynamics Prof. K. P. Sinhamahapatra Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 06 One-dimensional Gas Dynamics (Contd.) We

### Chapter 2 Pump Types and Performance Data

Chapter 2 Pump Types and Performance Data Abstract Centrifugal pumps are used for transporting liquids by raising a specified volume flow to a specified pressure level. Pump performance at a given rotor

### FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES INTRODUCTION The gas turbine is an internal combustion engine that uses air as the working fluid. The engine extracts chemical energy from fuel and converts it to mechanical

### VARIABLE VANE PUMPS V3

VARIABLE VANE PUMPS V3 (series 30 and 40) Nominal sizes 12; 25; 40; 63 up to p n 100 bar V g 8.5; 19; 32; 47 cm 3 /rev KE 1015 11/02 replaces 07/97 easy commissioning due to automatic bleed facility low

### UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name:

UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name: 1. These waves travel through the body of the Earth and are called S waves. a. Transverse b. Longitudinal c. Amplitude d. Trough 2. These waves

### Introduction to Gas Turbines for Non- Engineers

Introduction to Gas Turbines for Non- Engineers (Published in the Global Gas Turbine News, Volume 37: 1997, No. 2) by Lee S. Langston, University of Connecticut and George Opdyke, Jr., Dykewood Enterprises

### 3 Work, Power and Energy

3 Work, Power and Energy At the end of this section you should be able to: a. describe potential energy as energy due to position and derive potential energy as mgh b. describe kinetic energy as energy

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA FURTHER MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS UNIT 11 - NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 3 - ROTATING SYSTEMS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA FURTHER MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS UNIT 11 - NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 3 - ROTATING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 - ANGULAR MOTION CONTENT Be able to determine the characteristics

### Announcements. Dry Friction

Announcements Dry Friction Today s Objectives Understand the characteristics of dry friction Draw a FBD including friction Solve problems involving friction Class Activities Applications Characteristics

### Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (2002-2006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Outline Overview. Inlet and outlet boundaries.

### Wind Turbines. Wind Turbines 2. Wind Turbines 4. Wind Turbines 3. Wind Turbines 5. Wind Turbines 6

Wind Turbines 1 Wind Turbines 2 Introductory Question Wind Turbines You and a child half your height lean out over the edge of a pool at the same angle. If you both let go simultaneously, who will tip

### SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS

STEAM TURBINE OPERATIONAL ASPECTS R.A. Chaplin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Canada Keywords: Steam Turbines, Operation, Supersaturation, Moisture, Back Pressure, Governing

### Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic energy).

HYDRAULIC MACHINES Used to convert between hydraulic and mechanical energies. Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic

### Chapter 11. Refrigeration Cycles

Chapter 11 Refrigeration Cycles The vapor compression refrigeration cycle is a common method for transferring heat from a low temperature space to a high temperature space. The figures below show the objectives

### No Brain Too Small PHYSICS. 2 kg

MECHANICS: ANGULAR MECHANICS QUESTIONS ROTATIONAL MOTION (2014;1) Universal gravitational constant = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2 (a) The radius of the Sun is 6.96 10 8 m. The equator of the Sun rotates at a

### Boston University BRAYTON CYCLE EXPERIMENT -JET ENGINE

Boston University ENG EK 304 Energy and Thermodynamics Laboratory Exercise II BRAYTON CYCLE EXPERIMENT -JET ENGINE (Based on an instruction set provided by Turbine Technologies Limited, 2002 Modified by

### Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Ahsan Iqbal #1, Alireza Afshari #2, Per Heiselberg *3, Anders Høj **4 # Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research

### 9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

### EE 206 Electric Energy Engineering

Chapter 1: Review Lecturer: Dr Ibrahim Rida Electrical Engineering Department University of Hail First Semester (112) 2011/12 1.2. ENERGY SOURCES Energy resources are the various materials that contain

### Pushing the limits. Turbine simulation for next-generation turbochargers

Pushing the limits Turbine simulation for next-generation turbochargers KWOK-KAI SO, BENT PHILLIPSEN, MAGNUS FISCHER Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has matured and is now an indispensable tool for

### SOLID MECHANICS DYNAMICS TUTORIAL MOMENT OF INERTIA. This work covers elements of the following syllabi.

SOLID MECHANICS DYNAMICS TUTOIAL MOMENT OF INETIA This work covers elements of the following syllabi. Parts of the Engineering Council Graduate Diploma Exam D5 Dynamics of Mechanical Systems Parts of the

### An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation

An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation R K Kapooria Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM College of Engineering & Technology, Bahal (Haryana)

### Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout

AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.