# Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator

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1 Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Digital Communications Lab. Prepared by: Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment Objectives: 1. To understand the operation theory of FSK modulator. 2. To understand the FSK modulation by using the theory of mathematical. 3. To design and implement the FSK modulator by using VCO. Experiment theory: In digital signal transmission, the repeater is used to recover the data signal, this will enhance the immunity to noise. So the coding technique can be used to detect, correct and encrypt the signal. During long haul transmission, the high frequency part of the digital signal will easily attenuate and cause distortion. Therefore, the signal has to be modulated before transmission, and one of the methods is the frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation. FSK technique is to modulate the data signal to two different frequencies to achieve effective transmission. At the receiver, the data signal will be recovered based on the two different frequencies of the received signal. The relation of FSK signal and data signal is shown in figure 7.1. When the data signal is 5 V, after the signal pass through the buffer, the switch S1 will ON, then the frequency of FSK signal is f 1. When the data signal is 0 V, after the signal pass through the buffer, the switch S2 will ON, the frequency of FSK signal is f 2. Normally, the difference between frequencies f 1 and f 2 has to be as large as possible. This is because the correlation of both signals is low, therefore, the effect of transmitting and receiving will be better. However, the required bandwidth must be increased. Figure 7.2 is the signal waveforms of FSK modulation. Figure 7.1 Structure diagram of FSK modulator. 1

2 Figure 7.2 Relation diagram between data signal and FSK signal. In this section, we utilize the theory of mathematic to solve the FSK modulation as shown in equation (7.1). The expression is as follow: Where: A: Magnitude of FSK signal. Cos(ωct) : Carrier frequency. Cos(ωDt) : Audio frequency. Cos(ωc+ωD)t : This frequency represents as "0" Cos(ωc-ωD)t : This frequency represents as "1" The technique of FSK is widely used in commercial and industrial wire transmission and wireless transmission. In the experiments, we will discuss how to produce FSK signal. In certain applications, the FSK signal is fixed. For example, for wireless transmission, the mark signal is 2124 Hz and space signal is 2975 Hz. For wire transmission such as telephone, the frequencies are as follow: Space = 1370 Hz Mark = 870 Hz Or Space = 2225 Hz Mark = 2025 Hz In FSK modulator, we use data signal (Square wave) as the signal source. The output signal frequency of modulator is based on the square wave levels of the data signal. In this experiment, the frequencies of the carriers are 870 Hz and 1370 Hz. These two frequencies can be produced by using a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). The output signal frequencies are varied by the difference levels of the input pulse to produce two different frequencies. Each output signal frequency corresponds to an input voltage level (i.e. "0" or "1"). In this experiment, we utilize 2206 IC waveform generator and LM566 voltage controlled oscillator to produce the modulated FSK signal. First of all lets introduce the characteristics of 2206 IC IC is a waveform generator, which is similar to 8038 IC. Figure 7.3 is the circuit 2

3 diagram of the FSK modulator by using 2206 IC. In figure 7.3, resistors R 3, R 4 comprise a voltage divided circuit. The main function of the voltage divided circuit is to let the negative voltage waveform of the 2206 IC operates normally. The oscillation frequency of 2206 IC is determined by resistors R 1 and R 5. Its oscillation frequencies are There is an internal comparator in 2206 IC. Assume that when the input is 5V, the output frequency is f 1, and when the input is 0V, the output frequency is f 2. We can utilize the TTL signal at pin 9 to control the output frequency to be f 1 or f 2. This type of structure is similar to the structure in figure 7.1. Therefore, by using the characteristic of this structure, we can achieve FSK modulation easily. Figure 7.3 Circuit diagram of FSK modulator by using 2206 IC Next, we use LM566 voltage control oscillator to implement the FSK modulator. First of all, we will discuss the varactor diode. Varactor diode or tuning diode is mainly used for changing the capacitance value of oscillator. The objective is to let the output frequency of oscillator can be adjusted or tunable, therefore, varactor diode dominates the tunable range of the whole voltage controlled oscillator. Varactor diode is a diode, which its capacitance can be varied by adding a reverse bias to pn junction. When reverse bias increases, the depletion region become wide, this will cause the capacitance value decreases; nevertheless when reverse bias decreases, the depletion region will be reduced, this will cause the capacitance value increases. Varactor diode also can be varied from the amplitude of AC signal. Figure 7.4 is the capacitance analog diagram of varactor diode. When a varactor diode without bias, the concentration will be differed from minor carriers at pn junction. Then these 3

4 carriers will diffuse and become depletion region. The p type depletion region carries electron positive ions, then the n type depletion region carries negative ions. We can use parallel plate capacitor to obtain the expression as shown as follow: Where: ᵋ = 11.8 ᵋo (dielectric constant of silicon) ᵋo = A: the cross section area of capacitor. d: the width of depletion region When reverse bias increases, the width of depletion region d will increase but the cross section area A remains, therefore the capacitance value would be reduced. On the other hand, the capacitance value will increase when reverse bias decreases. Figure 7.4 Capacitance analog diagram of varactor diode. Figure 7.5 Equivalent circuit diagram varactor diode. Varactor diode can be equivalent to a capacitor series a resistor as shown in figure 7.5. From figure 7.5, C j is the junction capacitor of semiconductor, which only exits in pn junction. Rs is the sum of bulk resistance and contact resistance of semiconductor material. Which is related to the quality of varactor diode (generally below a few ohm) 4

5 Tuning ratio, TR is the ratio of capacitance value under two different biases for varactor diode. The expression is shown as follow: Where: TR: tuning ratio C V1 : capacitance value of varactor diode at V 1 C V2 : capacitance value of varactor diode at V 2 The oscillation frequency of LM566 is: Where V cc is the power supply voltage input at pin 8 of LM566. Vin is the input voltage of LM566 at pin 5. The conditions for using LM566 VCO are as follow: 2 kω R kω 0.75 V in V cc f o 500 khz 10 V V cc 24 V Figure 7.6 is the circuit diagram of FSK modulator. The operation theory is to convert the voltage level of data signal (TTL levels) to appropriate voltage level. This voltage will input to the input terminal of LM566 VCO. Then, the VCO will produce two frequencies with respect to the input voltage levels (870 Hz and 1370 Hz). The Q 1, Q 2, R 1, R 2, R 3, VR 1 and VR 2 comprise a voltage converter. In this circuit, Q 1 will operate as NOT gate. When the input signal of the base of Q 1 is high, then Q 1 will switch on. At this moment, the output signal of the collector will be low (around 0.2 V), so Q 2 will switch off. When input signal of the base of Q 1 is low (0 V), Q 1 will switch off. At this moment, the output signal of the collector of Q 1 is high (5 V), so, Q 2 will switch on. When Q 2 switch off, the input voltage of VCO is: The VCO output signal frequency is f 1. When Q 2 switch on, the input voltage of VCO is (Assume the resistance of Q 2 is only a few ohm) 5

6 At this moment, the output signal frequency of VCO is f 2. So, we just need to adjust VR 1 and VR 2, then the output signal frequencies of VCO will become f 1 and f 2 which are 1370 Hz and 870 Hz, respectively. In figure 7.6, the two µa741, R 5, R 6, R 7, R 8, R 9, R 10, C 3, C 4, C 5 and C 6 comprise a 4th order low-pass filter. The objective is to remove the unwanted signal from the LM566 VCO output (TP2), so that we can obtain the sinusoidal waveform signal. Figure 7.6 Circuit diagram of FSK modulator. 6

7 Experiment items: Experiment 1: XR2206 FSK modulator 1. Refer to figure 7.3 with R 1 = 1 kω and R 5 = 10 kω or refer to figure DCS 13.1 on ETEK DCS module. Let J2 and J4 be short circuit, J3 and J5 be open circuit. 2. From figure DCS13.1, let the two terminal of I/P be short circuit and J1 be open circuit, i.e. at the data signal input terminal (Data I/P), input 0 V DC voltage. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveform of FSK signal (FSK O/P), then record the measured results in table From figure DCS13.1, let the two terminal of I/P be open circuit and J1 be short circuit, i.e. at the data signal input terminal (Data I/P), input 5 V DC voltage. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveform of FSK signal (FSK O/P), then record the measured results in table At the data signal input terminal (Data I/P), input 5 V amplitude, 100 Hz TTL signal. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveform of FSK signal (FSK O/P), then record the measured results in table According to the input signal in table 7.1, repeat step 4 and record the measured results in table Refer to figure 7.3 with R 1 = 7.5 kω and R 5 = 15 kω or refer to figure DCS 13.1 on ETEK DCS module. Let J2 and J4 be open circuit, J3 and J5 be short circuit. 7. According to the input signal in table 7.2, repeat step 2 to step 4 and record the measured results in table

8 Experiment 2: LM566 FSK modulator 1. Refer to the circuit diagram in figure 7.6 or figure DCS13.2 on ETEK DCS module. 2. From figure DCS13.2, let the two terminal of I/P be short circuit and J1 be open circuit, i.e. at the data signal input terminal (Data I/P), input 0 V DC voltage. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveform of the VCO output port (TP2) of LM566. Slightly adjust VR 2 so that the frequency of TP2 is 1370 Hz. Again observe on the output signal waveforms of the charge and discharge test point (TP1), second order low-pass filter (TP3) and FSK signal output port (FSK O/P). Finally, record the measured results in table From figure DCS13.2, let the two terminal of I/P be open circuit and J1 be short circuit, i.e. at the data signal input terminal (Data I/P), input 5 V DC voltage. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveform of the VCO output port (TP2) of LM566. Slightly adjust VR 2 so that the frequency of TP2 is 870 Hz. Again observe on the output signal waveforms of the charge and discharge test point (TP1), second order low-pass filter (TP3) and FSK signal output port (FSK O/P). Finally, record the measured results in table At the data signal input terminal (Data I/P), input 5 V amplitude, 100 Hz TTL signal. By using oscilloscope, observe on the output signal waveforms of Data I/P, TP1, TP2, TP3 and FSK output. Finally, record the measured results in table According to the input signal in table 7.4, repeat step 4 and record the measured results in table

9 Measured results: Table 7-1 Measured results of FSK modulator by using 2206 IC. Input Signal Output signal waveforms 0 V (I/P SC, J1 OC) 5 V (I/P OC, J1 SC) J2, J4 SC J3, J5 OC 100 Hz 200 Hz Table 7-2 Measured results of FSK modulator by using 2206 IC. Input Signal Output signal waveforms 0 V (I/P SC, J1 OC) 5 V (I/P OC, J1 SC) J2, J4 OC J3, J5 SC 100 Hz 200 Hz 9

10 Table 7-3 Measured results of FSK modulator by using LM566. Input signal TP1 TP2 0 V TP3 FSK O/P TP1 TP2 5 V TP3 FSK O/P Table 7-4 Measured results of FSK modulator by using LM566. Input signal frequencies Data I/P TP1 TTL signal with Vp = 5 V TP2 TP3 f = 100 Hz FSK O/P Data I/P TP1 TTL signal with Vp = 5 V TP2 TP3 f = 200 Hz FSK O/P 11

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