Cookstoves in context: fuelwood, carbon markets, and black carbon. Akhilesh Khopkar M.N.R. Student NC State University

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1 Cookstoves in context: fuelwood, carbon markets, and black carbon Akhilesh Khopkar M.N.R. Student NC State University

2 Motivations Carbon market Black carbon Fuelwood } Black carbon à potential for rapid mitigation of climate change } Fuelwood à potential for improvements in forest health, and respiratory health } Carbon market à off-set markets are what actually exist and can be studied

3 Presentation Outline } Carbon offset markets } Fuelwood projects } Black carbon implications

4 Carbon offset markets Compliance Voluntary Clean Development Mechanism Gold Standard Verified Carbon Standard } Clean Development Mechanism (1997) } Established by the Kyoto protocol } Voluntary Carbon Standard (2006) } Global standard for voluntary offset projects } Gold Standard (2006) } Standard or certification scheme for both CDM and voluntary market

5 Methodologies } Each of the standards has criteria and procedures for development and approval of methodologies that specify how emissions reductions are measured for different types of projects } I identified the methodologies used for improved cookstove and fuel-switching projects involving wood } VCS recognizes CDM methodologies, and in fact, their cookstove and fuel-switching projects have all been approved under CDM methodologies } VCS also has its own methodologies, and recognized the California as well as the CDM approved methodologies

6 CDM and VCS Methodologies } } } AMS-II.G. Energy efficiency measures in thermal applications of non-renewable biomass } Improved cookstoves } First small scale methodology under CDM for biomass energy efficiency (February 2008) } (e.g. complete replacement of existing biomass fired cookstoves or ovens or dryers with more efficient appliances) AMS-I.C. Thermal energy production with or without electricity } Wood to biogas; Natural gas, oil, coal, LPG to renewable biomass } Displacement of more-ghg-intensive thermal energy production } If solid biomass is used, it has to be demonstrated that solely renewable biomass is used AMS-I.E. Switch from non-renewable biomass for thermal applications by the user } Native wood to renewable biomass (industrial or residential) } Generation of thermal energy by introducing renewable energy technologies for end-users that displace the use of non-renewable biomass. } Only applies to projects introducing 100% renewable energy or zero emission technologies such as solar or biogas cookers } } GS Methodologies GS Methodology for Improved Cookstoves and Kitchen Regimes } Low-emission cook-stoves GS Small Scale Biodigesters Methodology } Consumption of biogas from the biodigesters replaces the consumption of fossil fuel and/or biomass

7 Project Outline } Carbon offset markets } Fuelwood projects } Black carbon mitigation

8 Project types catalogued Reviewed CDM, GS, and VCS registries and pipelines to identify: 1. All projects switching to and from fuelwood (residential and industrial scale) 2. Household energy efficiency projects that involved improved fuelwood cookstoves, residential biogas, or coal to biomass briquettes

9 Cataloguing projects Gathered Project Design Documents from CDM, GS, and VCS project registries PDDs contain detailed info (description, baseline, additionality assessment, leakage assessment, sustainability assessment, spatial data, etc.) Initial Planning à PDD à PDD Approval à PDD Validation à Registration à Monitoring à Issuance of VER/CER à Verification/Certification

10 Grand Total 103 Original Energy Source New Energy Source # projects Coal/wood Solar cookers 1 Coal, charcoal, or wood Biogas 1 Wood Biogas 10 LPG Wood 1 Native wood Renewable wood 28 Natural gas and fuel oil Renewable wood 1 Natural gas Renewable wood 1 Oil Renewable wood 11 Coal Wood 15 Improved cookstoves 34

11

12 Project Outline } Carbon offset markets } Fuelwood } Black carbon

13 Black carbon } Assess whether carbon offset projects dealing with fuelwood are increasing, decreasing, or having no impact on emissions of black carbon } Challenging because there are many unresolved questions regarding the formation of black carbon, or soot, even for the simplest configurations and the purest fuels. } Unlike CO2, but like other trace species such as NOx and CO, emissions of black carbon are quite dependent on the combustion process

14 Source: Bond et all 2004.

15 Grand Total 103 Original Energy Source New Energy Source BC Impact Coal/wood Coal, charcoal, or wood Wood LPG Solar cookers Biogas Biogas Wood Native wood Renewable wood Neutral Natural gas and fuel oil Natural gas Oil Coal Renewable wood Renewable wood Renewable wood Wood Improved cookstoves

16

17 Impact of the carbon market on BC } Carbon finance is one mechanism among many to mitigate BC } Cookstoves are just one type of project involving fuelwood within the carbon markets with implications for black carbon } Scaling-up seems possible } CDM allows Programme of Activities (PoA) combining smaller subprojects } GS places no limit on overall project scale } Carbon market could help scale up national or international programs such as NCI or GACC } Including new emissions seems possible } CDM considers 6 different GHGs, although current methodologies for cookstoves and biogas projects only credit reductions in CO2 } GS allows methodologies to count methane, sulfur, and nitrogen, thereby leading to more GHG offset credits

18 Implications of incorporating BC credits into carbon offset market } Summing credits for carbon and black carbon would have varied impacts on the financial value of projects (reducing credits from some, increasing from others) } Another approach would be to differentiate carbon credits that also reduce BC } Tiered system for different qualities of credits } Projects that mitigate BC could sell higher quality credits } Either approach would require funds and capability for robust monitoring of BC emissions

19 Thank you for your time } Questions?

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