# Objectives. Key Skills Addition. Subtraction

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3 Subtract from numbers up to 20 Immerse children in practical opportunities to develop understanding of addition and subtraction. Link practical representations to a number track and on a beadstring, to then recording on a filled number line. Subtracting by taking away Consolidate understanding of subtraction practically before moving on to using number tracks then numbered number lines and hundred squares to subtract by counting back in ones and tens. Using Cuisenaire rods 13-8=5 Beadstrings or beadbars can be used to illustrate subtraction including bridging through 10 by counting back 3 and then counting back another =8 Find the difference between This should be introduced practically first with an emphasis on the language find the difference between and how many more Tom has 5 bears. Sara has 3 bears. How many more bears does Tom have? 7 is 3 more than 4. I am 3 years older than my sister Number Families By the end of Year 1 children should be able to recall and use facts within and to 20 If we know = 9 We also know:, = = = = = 5, etc Subtract using patterns of known facts E.g. 7-3=4 so we know 17-3=14, 10-6=4

5 Develop mental fluency with addition and place value involving 2-digit numbers, then establish more formal methods. Use empty number lines, concrete equipment (Base 10, beadstrings, Numicon, hundred squares etc.) to build confidence and fluency in mental addition skills. Bridge through 10 using known number facts = = = 23 Counting on in 10s = Number Family If I know: 2+3 = 5 I also know: 3+2 = = = Add pairs of 2-digit numbers using a blank number line, moving to the expanded column method when secure adding tens and units. To support understanding children should start by physically making and carrying out the calculation using base 10, Numicon or other apparatus then compare their practical version with the written form to develop conceptual understanding. Step 1: only provide examples that do NOT cross the tens boundary until they are secure with the method itself. Step 2: once children can add a multiple of ten to a 2-digit number mentally (e.g ), they are ready for adding pairs of 2-digit numbers that DO cross the tens boundary (e.g ).

6 Develop mental fluency with subtraction and place value involving 2-digit numbers, then establish more formal methods. Use empty number lines, concrete equipment (Base 10, beadstrings, Numicon, hundred squares etc.) to build confidence and fluency in mental subtraction skills. Using Place Value Know 1 less or 10 less than any number E.g. 1 les than 74, 10 less than 82 Partitioning E.g 55 2 as and 5 2 then combine Counting on Children are taught to recognise when numbers are close together it is more efficient to count on and find the difference = 4 Bridging through as 52-2 then 4 =46 Subtract pairs of 2-digit numbers Number Family If I know: 5-3=2 I also know: 35-2= = = 30-9, = 26 model thought process as Children should start by physically making and carrying out the calculation using base 10, Numicon, hundred squares or other apparatus then compare their practical version with the written form to develop conceptual understanding. Step 1: partition the second number and subtract it in tens and units = 24 Estimate Calculate Check it! Step 2: when confident use more efficient jumps back Bridging through 10 will allow children to become more efficient

9 Develop mental fluency with subtraction and place value involving 2-digit numbers, then establish more formal methods. Use empty number lines, concrete equipment (Base 10, beadstrings, Numicon, hundred squares etc.) to build confidence and fluency in mental subtraction skills. Using Place Value = = 406 Partitioning Use of practical to consolidate learning E.g as 6-2 and 80p - 40p Counting on Children are taught to recognise when numbers are close together it is more efficient to count on and find the difference = 8 Number Facts Know pairs which total each number to = 6 Number bonds to = 65 Bridging through = (130) - 2 =128 Near multiples of = 29 Subtract with 2 and 3-digit numbers. Introduction of partitioned column subtraction. Continue with counting on for close-together numbers, numbers that are near multiples of 10, 100, 100 or money e.g. calculating change. Step 1: introduce this method with examples where exchanging is not required Step 2: introduce exchanging through practical subtraction,. Make the larger number, 72 with Base 10, Numicon, then subtract 47 from it = Estimate Calculate Check it! When learning to exchange, explore partitioning in different ways so that children understand that when you exchange, the value is the same i.e. 72=70 + 2= = etc. Emphasise that the value hasn t changed, we have just partitioned it in a different way. Step 3: once children are secure conceptually with exchanging, they can use the partitioned column method to subtract any 2 and 3-digit numbers.

11 Develop confidence at calculating mentally with larger numbers. Using the full range of strategies: Bridging through 60 when calculating with time Bridging through multiples of = = = 433 Partitioning as = =222 Using known facts Number Family If I know: 63+37=100 I also know: Counting on in 1000s, 100s, 10s,1s as 3475, 4475, Add numbers with up to 4-digits using the compact column addition method carrying To support understanding children should physically make and carry out the calculation using base 10 or other apparatus then compare their practical version with the written form to develop conceptual understanding. Compare the expanded method to the compact column method to develop an understanding of the process and the reduced number of steps involved. In order to carry out this method of addition: Children need to recognise the value of the hundreds, tens and units without recording the partitioning. Record the carried digits as their true value underneath the answer section e.g. 100 not 1. When children are secure with this method move on to the short hand version of compact column addition.

12 Develop mental fluency with subtraction using a range of strategies. Children are encouraged to think about the best method for the numbers involved. Use empty number lines, concrete equipment (Base 10, beadstrings, Numicon, hundred squares etc.) to build confidence and fluency in mental subtraction skills. Using Place Value = = 4700 Partitioning Use of practical to consolidate learning E.g as 5-3 and 7p - 4p as and Counting on Children are taught to recognise when numbers are close together it is more efficient to count on and find the difference = 7 Number Facts Number bonds to 10 and 100 and derived facts e.g = 24 and = 0.4 Bridging through 1, 10, 100, = = = 1995 Near multiples of 10, 100, 1000 or = = = = 7.7 Subtract with up to 4-digit numbers using partitioned column subtraction then compact column subtraction Step 1: reinforce this method and extend by moving towards more complex numbers. Use base 10, place value counters and coins to reinforce concepts and understanding. Ensure method is applied to money and measures. Estimate Calculate Check it! Step 2: once children are secure with exchanging up to 4- digits, they can move on to the compact column method to subtract up to 4-digit numbers. Begin by asking children to complete a subtraction calculation using the partitioned column subtraction and then display the compact version. Discuss what is the same, what is the different and the benefits of each method. Ensure method is applied to money and measures.

14 Develop confidence at calculating mentally with larger numbers and decimal numbers. Using the full range of strategies: Bridging through 60 when calculating with time Bridging through multiples of = = = 433 Counting on Add two decimal numbers by adding the 1s, then the 0 1s/0 01s e.g as (8 72) = 8 77 Add near multiples of 1 e.g e.g Count on from large numbers e.g as Partitioning as and and combine the totals: = 8 2 Using known facts Number Family If I know: 4+3=7 I also know: =0.7 Add numbers with more than 4 digits including money, measures and decimals with different numbers of decimal places. To support understanding children should physically make and carry out the calculation using base 10 or other apparatus then compare their practical version with the written form to develop conceptual understanding. Numbers should exceed 4 digits. The decimal point should be aligned in the same way as the other place value columns, and must be in the same column in the answer. Pupils should be able to add more than two values, carefully aligning place value columns. Empty decimal places can be filled with zero to show the place value in each column. Children should understand the place value of tenths and hundredths and use this to align numbers with different numbers of decimal places.

15 Develop mental fluency with subtraction using a range of strategies. Children are encouraged to think about the best method for the numbers involved. Using Place Value = = 6.06 Partitioning and counting back = = = = 2913 or = = = 3.62 Counting on Children are taught to recognise when numbers are close together it is more efficient to count on and find the difference = 2.46 Number Facts Derived facts from number bonds to 10 and 100, and, 10 and using = using = 100 Bridging through 1, 10, 100, = = = 1995 Near multiples of 10, 100, 1000 or = = = = 7.7 Subtract with at least 4-digit numbers including money, measures and decimals. Compact column method Subtracting with larger integers. Children who are still not secure with number facts and place value will need to remain on the partitioned column method until they are ready for the compact method. Subtracting with decimals, including mixtures of integers and decimals, aligning the decimal point. Ensure plenty of opportunities for subtracting money and measures. Model using a zero in any empty decimal places to aid layout. Estimate Calculate Check it!

16 Objectives perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the four operations solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why Key Skills Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers, using and practising a range of mental strategies. Solve multi-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why. Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy. Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 million and determine the value of each digit. Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy. Pupils understand how to add mentally with larger numbers and calculations of increasing complexity. Solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why. Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 million and determine the value of each digit Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy Use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero. Children need to utilise and consider a range of mental subtraction strategies, jottings and written methods before choosing how to calculate. Vocabulary add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens boundary, hundreds boundary, increase, carry, expanded, compact, vertical, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse, decimal places, decimal point, tenths, hundredths, thousandths equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units exchange, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse, tenths, hundredths, decimal point, decimal

17 Develop confidence at calculating mentally with larger numbers and decimal numbers. Using the full range of strategies: Bridging through 60 when calculating with time Bridging through multiples of 1,10, = = = 7.21 Counting on Add two decimal numbers by adding the 1s, then the 0 1s/0 01s/0 001s e.g as (9 314) = 9 32 Add near multiples of 1 e.g e.g Using place value Count in 0 1s, 0 01s, 0 001s e.g. Know what more than is Partitioning e.g as 9 + 3, and , to give Using known facts 63+37= =1 Add several numbers of increasing complexity including money, measures and decimals with different numbers of decimal places. To support understanding children should physically make and carry out the calculation using base 10 or other apparatus then compare their practical version with the written form to develop conceptual understanding. Adding several numbers with different numbers of decimal places (including money and measures): Tenths, hundredths and thousandths should be correctly aligned, with the decimal point lined up vertically including in the answer row. Zeros could be used in any empty decimal places, to show there is no value to add. Adding several numbers with more than 4 digits.

18 Develop mental fluency with subtraction using a wide range of strategies when calculating including decimal and increasingly larger numbers. Children are encouraged to think about the best method for the numbers involved. Using Place Value = = Partitioning and counting back = = = = 2913 or = = = 3.62 Counting on Children are taught to recognise when numbers are close together it is more efficient to count on and find the difference = 0.33 Number Facts Derived facts from number bonds to 10 and 100, and, 10 and using = using = using 20p and 80p = 1 and = 100 Near multiples of 10, 100, 1000 or = Subtract with increasingly large and more complex numbers and decimal values. Compact column method Subtracting with more complex integers. Subtracting money and measures, including decimals with different numbers of decimal places. Empty decimal places can be filled with zero to show the place value in each column. Estimate Calculate Check it!

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