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3 Note that, l is the effective span for bending moment and the loaded length for the maximum effect in the member under consideration for shear. 'l ' should be in metres. The formulae given here are not applicable for spans less than or equal to 8 m with ballast cushion. For the other standard design loading the reader can refer to Bridge rules. Highway bridges: In India, highway bridges are designed in accordance with IRC bridge code. IRC: Section II gives the specifications for the various loads and stresses to be considered in bridge design. There are three types of standard loadings for which the bridges are designed namely, IRC class AA loading, IRC class A loading and IRC class B loading. Fig.7.10 IRC AA loading IRC class AA loading consists of either a tracked vehicle of 70 tonnes or a wheeled vehicle of 40 tonnes with dimensions as shown in Fig The units in the figure are mm for length and tonnes for load. Normally, bridges on national

5 W P = kn / m 100 l (7.3) Where, P = Live load in kn/m 2 l = Effective span of the bridge in m. W = Width of the foot path in m. Where foot-paths are provided on a combined rail-road bridge, the load on foot-path for purpose of designing the main girders should be taken as 2.0 kn/m 2. Impact load Fig 7.11 Impact percentage curve for highway bridges for IRC class A and IRC class B loadings The dynamic effect caused due to vertical oscillation and periodical shifting of the live load from one wheel to another when the locomotive is moving is known as impact load. The impact load is determined as a product of impact factor, I, and the live load. The impact factors are specified by different authorities for different types of bridges. The impact factors for different bridges

6 for different types of moving loads are given in the table 7.1. Fig.7.11 shows impact percentage curve for highway bridges for class AA loading. Note that, in the above table l is loaded length in m and B is spacing of main girders in m. Longitudinal forces Longitudinal forces are set up between vehicles and bridge deck when the former accelerate or brake. The magnitude of the force F, is given by F = W g δv δt (7.4) Where, W weight of the vehicle g acceleration due to gravity δv change in velocity in time d t This loading is taken to act at a level 1.20 m above the road surface. No increase in vertical force for dynamic effect should be made along with longitudinal forces. The possibility of more than one vehicle braking at the same time on a multi-lane bridge should also be considered. Table 7.1: Impact factors for different bridges BRIDGE LOADING IMPACT FACTOR (I) Railway bridgesaccording to bridge rules Broad and gauge gauge (a) Single track Meter (b) Main girder of double track with two girders (c) Intermediate main girder of multiple track spans (d) Outside main girders of multiple track spans (e) Cross girders carrying two or more tracks Specified in (a) or (b) whichever applies

7 Broad Meter gauge gauge Rails with ordinary fish plate joints and supported directly on sleepers or transverse steel troughing Narrow gauge IRC class AA loading (i) Spans less than 9 m. (a) Tracked vehicle (b) Wheeled vehicle 0.25 for spans up to 5 mand linearly reducing to 0.10 to spans of 9m 0.25 Highway bridges according to IRC regulations (ii) Spans 9 m or more (a) Tracked vehicle (b) Wheeled vehicle for spans up to 23 mand in accordance with the curve indicated infig.11 for spans in excess of 23 m Foot bridges IRC class A loading and IRC class B loading Spans between 3 m and45 m In accordance with the curve indicated infig.11 for all spans No separate impact allowance is made Thermal forces The free expansion or contraction of a structure due to changes in temperature may be restrained by its form of construction. Where any portion of the structure is not free to expand or contract under the variation of temperature, allowance should be made for the stresses resulting from this condition. The coefficient of thermal expansion or contraction for steel is 11.7 x 10-6 / o C

8 Wind load Wind load on a bridge may act Horizontally, transverse to the direction of span Horizontally, along the direction of span Vertically upwards, causing uplift Wind load on vehicles Wind load effect is not generally significant in short-span bridges; for medium spans, the design of sub-structure is affected by wind loading; the super structure design is affected by wind only in long spans. For the purpose of the design, wind loadings are adopted from the maps and tables given in IS: 875 (Part III). A wind load of 2.40 kn/m 2 is adopted for the unloaded span of the railway, highway and footbridges. In case of structures with opening the effect of drag around edges of members has to be considered. Racking force This is a lateral force produced due to the lateral movement of rolling stocks in railway bridges. Lateral bracing of the loaded deck of railway spans shall be designed to resist, in addition to the wind and centrifugal loads, a lateral load due to racking force of 6.0 kn/m treated as moving load. This lateral load need not be taken into account when calculating stresses in chords or flanges of main girders. Forces on parapets - Railings or parapets shall have a minimum height above the adjacent roadway or footway surface of 1.0 m less one half the horizontal width of the top rail or top of the parapet. They shall be designed to resist a lateral horizontal force and a vertical force each of 1.50 kn/m applied simultaneously at the top of the railing or parapet.

9 Seismic load If a bridge is situated in an earthquake prone region, the earthquake or seismic forces are given due consideration in structural design. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal forces in the structure that will be proportional to the weight of the structure. Both horizontal and vertical components have to be taken into account for design of bridge structures. IS: may be referred to for the actual design loads. Forces due to curvature - When a track or traffic lane on a bridge is curved allowance for centrifugal action of the moving load should be made in designing the members of the bridge. All the tracks and lanes on the structure being considered are assumed as occupied by the moving load. This force is given by the following formula: 2 WV C = (7.5) 12.7 R Where, C - Centrifugal force in kn/m W - Equivalent distributed live load in kn/m V - Maximum speed in km/hour R - Radius of curvature in m Erection forces There are different techniques that are used for construction of railway bridges, such as launching, pushing, cantilever method, lift and place. In composite construction the composite action is mobilised only after concrete hardens and prior to that steel section has to carry dead and construction live loads. Depending upon the technique adopted the stresses in the members of the bridge structure would vary. Such erection stresses should

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