# University of Cambridge, Materials Science & Metallurgy. Dilatometry

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 University of Cambridge, Materials Science & Metallurgy H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Dilatometry The dilatometric method utilises either transformation strains or thermal strains; the basic data generated are in the form of curves of dimension against time and temperature. Thermal Expansion The coefficient of linear expansion, also known as expansivity, is the ratio of the change in length per C to the length at 0 C. The coefficient of volume expansion for solids is approximately three times the corresponding linear coefficient. The coefficient of volume expansion of a liquid is the ratio of the change in volume per degree, to the volume at 0 C. The value of the coefficient varies with temperature. The coefficient of volume expansion for a gas under constant pressure is nearly the same for all gases and temperatures, and is equal to If l 0 is the length at 0 C, then the length at a temperature T can be written: l T = l 0 (1 + e 1 T +2 2 T ) (1) The expression is usually terminated after the second term; the same form of equation can be used to represent volume expansion. The thermal expansion is a consequence of the nature of interatomic forces, and solid state theory predicts a simple relationship between specific heat capacity at constant volume (C V ) and the coefficient of linear expansion. Thus, Gruneisen has demonstrated that e 1 is proportional to C V, and this relationship can be exploited in dilatometry; Curie transitions in metals are associated with an anomaly in the specific heat capacity, and can therefore be detected by dilatometry through the accompanying change in e 1. The sample should be free to move, i.e. without any mechanical constraints which would limit accuracy. The length changes should not be transmitted through a second material upon whose expansion coefficient depends the evaluation of the test material. These conditions rule out the use of most push rod type dilatometers. A dilatometer capable of meeting the requirements is described in the Journal of Scientific Instruments, 2, 515 (1969). Study of Vacancies Dilatometry, combined with precision X ray lattice parameter measurements may be used to determine the concentrations of point defects in metals (R. O. Simmons and R. W. Balluffi, Physical Review 117, 1960, 52 61). They showed that the the ratio of vacancies to lattice sites, c v, is given by ( l c v =3 a ) (2) l a where l is the length and a the lattice parameter of a material with a cubic lattice. The presence of point defects must alter the volume of the sample, but the lattice parameter should not be affected, apart from certain changes due to relaxation, to be discussed later. In comparing lengths at different temperatures, subtracting a/a removes changes due to thermal expansion, leaving only the effect of point defects.

2 This subtraction is not necessary in isothermal experiments. The lattice parameter measured is a mean value which includes the effect of local relaxations around a point defect. Subtracting a/a from the length change therefore also removes the influence of local relaxations, leaving only the contribution to l of new lattice sites formed or lost in creating the defects. During isothermal annealing of defects, lattice parameter measurements provide a measure of the lattice relaxation due to the defects and permit the determination of the absolute defect concentration. Vacancy clusters can lead to a misinterpretation of results. Fortunately, the concentration of such clusters is expected to be relatively small. Note that it is the excess concentration of vacancies that is revealed because interstitials can cancel some of the effect of the vacancies. Push Rod Dilatometer The push rod dilatometer can only be used for studies of length changes in solid materials. The sample rests between the tips of a fixed quartz rod and a similar frictionless sensing rod in the centre of a high frequency induction furnace. Length changes are transmitted through the frictionless rod to an electronic transducer which in turn drives the recording system. The thermocouple is spot welded to the sample, and referenced at 40 C by means of a constant temperature bath. Quenching gas enters the chamber, passes through the hollow cylindrical sample and escapes through the openings. It may not be possible in conventional dilatometers to conduct experiments in which the specimens require very fast heating or cooling rates, because of the high thermal inertia of the furnaces involved. In a high speed dilatometer, the specimen is positioned along the axis of a cylindrical heating coil, which is connected to a radio frequency power generator. During operation, the magnetic field around the coil induces currents in the specimen, causing it to warm up. The induction coil itself is only mildly heated through resistive effects, but is in any case water cooled, Hence, the response of the system depends on the thermal characteristics of the specimen rather than those of the furnace. Fast quenching rates can therefore be achieved by directing high pressure jets of gas through the centre of a hollow specimen; quench rates of up to 5000 C/s can be obtained in favourable circumstances. Helium is used as the quenching gas in high cooling rate experiments because its thermal conductivity is about six times that of nitrogen. Large thermal gradients can develop in the specimen during the quench, which may cause difficulties in the interpretation of the observed changes in specimen dimensions. The system should ideally be arranged to stabilise at the isothermal temperature concerned before the onset of any transformation. The specimen can be enclosed in a vacuum, but it is more usual to use an inert atmosphere; in the case of steels, an inert atmosphere results in a smaller degree of decarburisation. The specimen chamber should be evacuated before triggering the quench gas; otherwise, the build up of pressure in the chamber retards the quench, and may cause the lid of the dilatometer chamber to be blown off! The pumping system must be isolated before triggering the quench. Specimen Design Specimens for use in high speed dilatometry are usually in the form of hollow rods, with internal and external diameters of 1.5 and 3.0 mm respectively; the length is limited by the extent of the furnace to a maximum of about 3 cm. These dimensions are somewhat arbitrary, but experience suggests that they satisfy the following requirements: 1. The specimen should be sufficiently thick to prevent free surface effects from altering

3 transformation kinetics. The tests should reflect what happens in equivalent bulk samples. Nickel plating the specimens (to a thickness of about 0.08 mm) helps to reduce surface nucleation. Contrary to popular belief, this is not an effective way of preventing decarburisation in steels. To reduce decarburisation, the specimen should be copper plated; carbon is only sparingly soluble in copper. The plating material should be chosen so as not to interact with the sample, for example by penetration into the grain boundaries of the substrate. 2. The specimen dimensions must be small enough to allow rapid changes in temperature. The specimen should obviously be representative of bulk material. Its ends should be ground flat and parallel to give a true cylindrical shape. Otherwise, slip at the specimen quartz interface can lead to erroneous interpretation especially under the influence of the high pressure quench gas jets. It is normal to isolate the specimen from the RF coil with a length of quartz tubing, not only to avoid contaminating the coil, but also to guard against the potentially disastrous consequences of accidental specimen melting. High speed dilatometers generally do not have long term electronic or mechanical stability. Equipment like this cannot be used for tests lasting more than a few hours. Prolonged holding at high temperatures can also lead to slag forming reactions between the specimen and quartz retaining rods. A certain amount of pressure is always necessary to hold the specimen between the quartz retaining rods and to remove backlash, so care should be taken to ensure that any resulting creep effects are negligible. Calibration The temperature calibration is similar to that of differential scanning calorimeter and is not discussed further. However, for the calculation of thermal expansion coefficients, and for the purposes of absolute dilatometry, it may be necessary to calibrate the magnification of the displacement transducer. There are two ways of doing this: 1. A pure platinum specimen with known expansion characteristics is heated at a sufficiently slow rate over the temperature range of interest. The magnification M is then given by l M = (3) Tl Pt e Pt where l is the deflection of the length recording pen, T is the difference between the initial and final temperatures T 1 and T 2 respectively of the test, l Pt is the length of the Pt specimen at T 1, e Pt the linear expansively of Pt (obtainable from standard handbooks). This method can be accurate, but does not take account of the expansion of the part of the quartz rods within the furnace assembly. 2. A micrometer attachment on the dilatometer allows the transducer to be stimulated independently of specimen movement. The magnification is then simply l/micrometer movement. Having calculated the magnification the additional expansion to be expected from the quartz rods, l Q e Q can be obtained from : l = M(l Pt e Pt + l Q e Q ) (4)

4 Interpretation of Transformation Curves Dilatometric data are plotted as graphs of relative length change versus time. These plots are usually sigmoidal in shape, with the length change being dependent on the extent of transformation. If the length of the specimen before the beginning of transformation is l 1, and that at the termination of transformation at a time t = t 2 is l 2, then at time t, { } V t lt l = f 1 (5) V 2 l 2 l 1 where t = 0 at the beginning of transformation and l t is the specimen at any time t. V t is the volume fraction of transformation corresponding to t, and V 2 is that when reaction has stopped. The latter quantity may either be deduced by using an independent technique, or, if sufficient data are available, it can be calculated from the magnitude of l 2, where l 2 = l 2 l 1 For an austenite (γ) to ferrite (α) transformation in a plain carbon steel, in which the formation of ferrite enriches the residual austenite with carbon, l l = 2Va3 α +(1 V )a3 γ 0 a 3 γ 3a 3 γ (6) where l/l is the length change per unit length; V is the volume fraction of ferrite; a α is the lattice parameter of ferrite at the transformation temperature; a γ0 is the lattice parameter of austenite at the transformation temperature when the austenite has the mean composition of the steel (x); a γ is the corresponding lattice parameter of carbon enriched austenite. The extent of enrichment can be estimated from mass balance: x γ = x + V (x x α )/(1 V ) where x α is the carbon concentration in the ferrite. Texture and Anisotropy of Thermal Expansion Most polycrystalline materials are crystallographically textured. This becomes important when testing materials with low crystalline symmetry and anisotropic thermal expansion characteristics. The assumption that the measured length change corresponds is about a third of the volume change is no longer valid and it becomes necessary to specify the crystallographic directions along which measurements are made. It turns out that such effects may be advantageously exploited. Under the influence of neutron irradiation Uranium has a pronounced tendency to swell in the < 010> direction and contact in the < 100 > direction. In polycrystalline specimens, the swelling tendency must depend on the texture, which can be determined using tedious X ray techniques. Alternatively, an indirect measure of preferred orientation can be obtained by measuring thermal expansion and electrical resistivity along a variety of directions of the specimen shape. The expansion coefficient and thermal resistivity characteristics of uranium are both anisotropic. High resistivity in a particular direction indicates an excess of < 100> directions over random, while a low expansion coefficient indicates an excess of < 010 > directions. Hence these two measurements made in the

5 same direction on the specimen give an estimate of the tendency to irradiation growth. (Journal of Nuclear Materials, 4, 109, 1969). Miscellaneous It is known that cycling a specimen through a phase transformation can lead to permanent length change, so that the apparent length change observed may alter with the number of cycles, even though there may be no real changes in transformation behaviour. When dealing with specimens of low thermal conductivity, care should be taken to ensure that the imposed heat treatments allow the specimen to attain thermal equilibrium within the time period of the test.

### STANDARD CLEANING AND CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR TGA-50(H) AND TGA-51(H)

STANDARD CLEANING AND CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR TGA-50(H) AND TGA-51(H) by Joseph F. Greenbeck, Jr. And Courtney W. Taylor INTRODUCTION The following procedure is to be used for the maintenance and calibration

### Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals

Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals Heat Treatment (time and temperature) Microstructure Mechanical Properties Kinetics of phase transformations Multiphase Transformations Phase transformations

### Table of content. L81/RITA high speed Thermo Balance. Quattro Dilatometer. L75/1250/B/S Macro Dilatometer. New air cooled furnace program

THERMAL TRENDS 2 Table of content L75/SDC simultaneous-dilatometer/calorimeter L75/SDD simultaneous Dilatometer/DTA L81/RITA high speed Thermo Balance Quattro Dilatometer L75/1250/B/S Macro Dilatometer

### Chapter 5: Diffusion. 5.1 Steady-State Diffusion

: Diffusion Diffusion: the movement of particles in a solid from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, resulting in the uniform distribution of the substance Diffusion is process

### Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagrams

Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagrams R. Manna Assistant Professor Centre of Advanced Study Department of Metallurgical Engineering Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221

### The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Gases are composed of atoms or molecules. These atoms or molecules do not really interact with each other except through collisions. In many cases, we may think of a

### Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip

### Lecture 19: Eutectoid Transformation in Steels: a typical case of Cellular

Lecture 19: Eutectoid Transformation in Steels: a typical case of Cellular Precipitation Today s topics Understanding of Cellular transformation (or precipitation): when applied to phase transformation

### Lecture 7: Oxidation of manganese and carbon. Key words: Solidification of steel, decarburization, BOF steelmaking

Lecture 7: Oxidation of manganese and carbon Contents: Behaviour of manganese Oxidation of manganese Reduction of manganese Oxidation of carbon Rimming reaction Illustration Key words: Solidification of

### Introduction to Iron Metallurgy. Lee Morin Houston Home Metal Shop Club October 2010

Introduction to Iron Metallurgy Lee Morin Houston Home Metal Shop Club October 2010 Book I stole the pictures from We will start with a brief overview! Metals Are Crystals Fundamental geometry of a crystal

### Defects Introduction. Bonding + Structure + Defects. Properties

Defects Introduction Bonding + Structure + Defects Properties The processing determines the defects Composition Bonding type Structure of Crystalline Processing factors Defects Microstructure Types of

### Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606

Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal

### Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9 University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 1 The Iron Iron Carbide (Fe Fe 3 C) Phase Diagram In their simplest form,

### Module 34. Heat Treatment of steel IV. Lecture 34. Heat Treatment of steel IV

Module 34 Heat reatment of steel IV Lecture 34 Heat reatment of steel IV 1 Keywords : Austenitization of hypo & hyper eutectoid steel, austenization temperature, effect of heat treatment on structure &

### The mechanical properties of metal affected by heat treatment are:

Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will learn the basic concepts of the heat treating processes as they pertain to carbon and alloy steels.

### CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY TMA. W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager

PERKIN ELMER Polymers technical note CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager Thermomechanical analysis () is one of the important characterization techniques in the field

### The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

### North American Stainless

North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 310S (S31008)/ EN 1.4845 Introduction: SS310 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel designed for elevated-temperature service.

### 4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

172 4 Thermomechanical Analysis 4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 4.1 Principles of TMA 4.1.1 Introduction A dilatometer is used to determine the linear thermal expansion of a solid as a function of temperature.

### Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip

### HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL Heat Treatment of Steel Most heat treating operations begin with heating the alloy into the austenitic phase field to dissolve the carbide in the iron. Steel heat treating practice

### MSE 528 - PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN 7075 ALUMINUM ALLOY

MSE 528 - PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN 7075 ALUMINUM ALLOY Objective To study the time and temperature variations in the hardness and electrical conductivity of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu high strength alloy on isothermal

### North American Stainless

Introduction: North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 309S (S30908)/ EN1.4833 SS309 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel used for its excellent oxidation resistance,

### Solution for Homework #1

Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen

### Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name:

Name:. In order for two objects to have the same temperature, they must a. be in thermal equilibrium.

### Mechanical Pressure Measurement David Gardellin, P.E.

Mechanical Pressure Measurement David Gardellin, P.E. Bourdon tube-type pressure sensors are the most common for industrial use in the family of elastic pressure elements. They have been in use for over

### Heat Treatment of Steels : Spheroidize annealing. Heat Treatment of Steels : Normalizing

Heat Treatment of Steels :Recrystallization annealing The carbon and alloy steels were treated at a temperature of about 700 C, which is about 20 C below the eutectoid temperature. The holding time should

### XFA 600 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal Conductivity

XFA 600 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal Conductivity Thermal Diffusivity, Thermal Conductivity Information of the thermo physical properties of materials and heat transfer optimization of final products is

### = 62 wt% Ni-38 wt% Cu.

9-2 9.2 (a) From Figure 9.8, the maximum solubility of Pb in Sn at 100 C corresponds to the position of the β (α + β) phase boundary at this temperature, or to about 2 wt% Pb. (b) From this same figure,

### Electrical Conductivity

Advanced Materials Science - Lab Intermediate Physics University of Ulm Solid State Physics Department Electrical Conductivity Translated by Michael-Stefan Rill January 20, 2003 CONTENTS 1 Contents 1 Introduction

### Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible

### Lecture: 33. Solidification of Weld Metal

Lecture: 33 Solidification of Weld Metal This chapter presents common solidification mechanisms observed in weld metal and different modes of solidification. Influence of welding speed and heat input on

### RESULTS OF ICARUS 9 EXPERIMENTS RUN AT IMRA EUROPE

Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido,

### Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 FV 6/26/13 MATERIALS: PURPOSE: 1000 ml tall-form beaker, 10 ml graduated cylinder, -10 to 110 o C thermometer, thermometer clamp, plastic pipet, long

### Martensite in Steels

Materials Science & Metallurgy http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2002/martensite.html H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Martensite in Steels The name martensite is after the German scientist Martens. It was used

### North American Stainless

North American Stainless Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet AISI 310S S31008 EN 1.4845 AISI 314 S31400 EN 1.4841 INTRODUCTION Types 310S SS and 314 SS are highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels

### FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PLATINUM ALLOYS. Kris Vaithinathan and Richard Lanam Engelhard Corporation

FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PLATINUM ALLOYS Kris Vaithinathan and Richard Lanam Engelhard Corporation Introduction There has been a significant increase in the world wide use of platinum for jewelry

### Solid shape molding is not desired in injection molding due to following reasons.

PLASTICS PART DESIGN and MOULDABILITY Injection molding is popular manufacturing method because of its high-speed production capability. Performance of plastics part is limited by its properties which

### Induction Heating Principles

Induction Heating Principles PRESENTATION www.ceia-power.com Main Applications of Induction Heating Hard (Silver) Brazing Tin Soldering Heat Treatment (Hardening, Annealing, Tempering, ) Melting Applications

### phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion

### In order to solve this problem it is first necessary to use Equation 5.5: x 2 Dt. = 1 erf. = 1.30, and x = 2 mm = 2 10-3 m. Thus,

5.3 (a) Compare interstitial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diffusion. (b) Cite two reasons why interstitial diffusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diffusion. Solution (a) With vacancy diffusion,

### Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Objective The purpose of this experiment is to introduce students to the use of X-ray diffraction techniques for investigating various types

### ATI 316Ti. ATI 316Ti. Technical Data Sheet. Stainless Steel: Austenitic GENERAL PROPERTIES

ATI 316Ti Stainless Steel: Austenitic (UNS S31635) GENERAL PROPERTIES ATI 316Ti stainless is a titanium-stabilized version of Type 316 molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel. It is also known as

### THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

### Heat Treatment of Steel

Heat Treatment of Steel Steels can be heat treated to produce a great variety of microstructures and properties. Generally, heat treatment uses phase transformation during heating and cooling to change

### Problems in Welding of High Strength Aluminium Alloys

Singapore Welding Society Newsletter, September 1999 Problems in Welding of High Strength Aluminium Alloys Wei Zhou Nanyang Technological University, Singapore E-mail: WZhou@Cantab.Net Pure aluminium has

### LIQUID LIMIT: CONE PENETROMETER METHOD

LIQUID LIMIT: CONE PENETROMETER METHOD 1 SCOPE This method describes the procedures for the determination of the Cone Liquid Limit of soils and granular materials. 2 SAFETY This method does not attempt

### POROUS BURNER - A New Approach to Infrared

Page: 1 POROUS BURNER - A New Approach to Infrared 1. Preface There are several possibilities to produce infrared radiation in the technical sense. Regarding the source of energy you can distinguish between

### Damasteel s martensitic stainless Nitrobe 77 is a powder based steel which solves two classical knife problems:

Damasteel s martensitic stainless Nitrobe 77 is a powder based steel which solves two classical knife problems: Sharp edges on chef knives. Nitrobe 77 is dishwasher safe without risk of corrosion or edge

### North American Stainless

North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 201 (S20100) 201LN (S20153) EN 1.4372 Introduction: SS201 is a lower-cost alternative to the conventional Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steels,

### Laminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers

Flow and Flow rate. Laminar and Turbulent flow Laminar flow: smooth, orderly and regular Mechanical sensors have inertia, which can integrate out small variations due to turbulence Turbulent flow: chaotic

### KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move

### How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Why would one go to the effort of growing a single crystal?

Crystal Growth How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Single crystal specimens maintain translational symmetry over macroscopic distances (crystal dimensions are typically 0.1 mm 10

### Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1. Dr. Feras Fraige

Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1 Dr. Feras Fraige Outline Defects in Solids 0D, Point defects vacancies Interstitials impurities, weight and atomic composition 1D, Dislocations edge screw 2D, Grain

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter

INL/EXT-08-15056 Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter J. E. Daw November 2008 The INL is a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Battelle Energy

### Chapter Outline. Diffusion - how do atoms move through solids?

Chapter Outline iffusion - how do atoms move through solids? iffusion mechanisms Vacancy diffusion Interstitial diffusion Impurities The mathematics of diffusion Steady-state diffusion (Fick s first law)

### Effect of Magnesium Oxide Content on Final Slag Fluidity of Blast Furnace

China Steel Technical Report, No. 21, pp. 21-28, (2008) J. S. Shiau and S. H. Liu 21 Effect of Magnesium Oxide Content on Final Slag Fluidity of Blast Furnace JIA-SHYAN SHIAU and SHIH-HSIEN LIU Steel and

### Experiment A5. Hysteresis in Magnetic Materials

HYSTERESIS IN MAGNETIC MATERIALS A5 1 Experiment A5. Hysteresis in Magnetic Materials Objectives This experiment illustrates energy losses in a transformer by using hysteresis curves. The difference betwen

### Force measurement. Forces VECTORIAL ISSUES ACTION ET RÉACTION ISOSTATISM

Force measurement Forces VECTORIAL ISSUES In classical mechanics, a force is defined as "an action capable of modifying the quantity of movement of a material point". Therefore, a force has the attributes

### HOW ACCURATE ARE THOSE THERMOCOUPLES?

HOW ACCURATE ARE THOSE THERMOCOUPLES? Deggary N. Priest Priest & Associates Consulting, LLC INTRODUCTION Inevitably, during any QC Audit of the Laboratory s calibration procedures, the question of thermocouple

### Measurement of Residual Stress in Plastics

Measurement of Residual Stress in Plastics An evaluation has been made of the effectiveness of the chemical probe and hole drilling techniques to measure the residual stresses present in thermoplastic

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### BB-18 Black Body High Vacuum System Technical Description

BB-18 Black Body High Vacuum System Technical Description The BB-18 Black Body is versatile and is programmed for use as a fixed cold target at 80 K or variable target, at 80 K- 350 K no extra cost. The

ADVANCED LEAK TEST METHODS Before new technologies were available to directly measure very small leaks, most leak measurements were done indirectly. Direct mass leak flow measurement has many advantages.

### Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS

1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS The comparison of any physical quantity with its standard unit is called measurement. Physical Quantities All the quantities in terms of

### POURING THE MOLTEN METAL

HEATING AND POURING To perform a casting operation, the metal must be heated to a temperature somewhat above its melting point and then poured into the mold cavity to solidify. In this section, we consider

### The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering

Section 5: Reflow Oven Heat Transfer The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering There are three different heating modes involved with most SMT reflow processes: conduction, convection, and infrared

### Overview. Inficon s Product

A comparison between Stanford Research Systems BGA244 Binary Gas Analyzer and Inficon s Composer Elite Gas Concentration Monitor. (Compiled by Stanford Research Systems) Overview The speed of sound can

### ROLLED STAINLESS STEEL PLATES, SECTIONS AND BARS

STANDARD FOR CERTIFICATION No. 2.9 ROLLED STAINLESS STEEL PLATES, SECTIONS AND BARS OCTOBER 2008 Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Høvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11 FOREWORD (DNV) is an autonomous

### Question 6.5: A steel bar 100 mm (4.0 in.) long and having a square cross section 20 mm

14:440:407 Ch6 Question 6.3: A specimen of aluminum having a rectangular cross section 10 mm 12.7 mm (0.4 in. 0.5 in.) is pulled in tension with 35,500 N (8000 lb f ) force, producing only elastic deformation.

### Exercise 3 Physical Vapour Deposition

Exercise 3 Physical Vapour Deposition Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) technology consist of the techniques of arc deposition, ion plating, resistance evaporation, electron beam evaporation, sputtering

### Lecture 18 Strain Hardening And Recrystallization

-138- Lecture 18 Strain Hardening And Recrystallization Strain Hardening We have previously seen that the flow stress (the stress necessary to produce a certain plastic strain rate) increases with increasing

### A Comparison of FC-0208 to a 0.3% Molybdenum Prealloyed Low-Alloy Powder with 0.8% Graphite

A Comparison of FC-0208 to a 0.3% Molybdenum Prealloyed Low-Alloy Powder with 0.8% Graphite Francis Hanejko Manager, Customer Applications Hoeganaes Corporation Cinnaminson, NJ 08077 Abstract Iron copper

### Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

### Sputtering (cont.) and Other Plasma Processes

Sputtering (cont.) and Other Plasma Processes Sputtering Summary Create an ionic plasma by applying a high voltage to a glow tube. Ions bombard the target material at the cathode. Target atoms are ejected

### North American Stainless

North American Stainless Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 2205 UNS S2205 EN 1.4462 2304 UNS S2304 EN 1.4362 INTRODUCTION Types 2205 and 2304 are duplex stainless steel grades with a microstructure,

### GENERAL PROPERTIES //////////////////////////////////////////////////////

ALLOY 625 DATA SHEET //// Alloy 625 (UNS designation N06625) is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy possessing excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion over a broad range of corrosive conditions,

### North American Stainless

North American Stainless Flat Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 430 (S43000)/ EN 1.4016 Introduction: SS430 is a low-carbon plain chromium, ferritic stainless steel without any stabilization of carbon

### THE STRAIN GAGE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

THE STRAIN GAGE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER Pressure transducers use a variety of sensing devices to provide an electrical output proportional to applied pressure. The sensing device employed in the transducers

### 15. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometry

123 15. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometry Even though the liquid-in-glass thermometer is used much less frequently today than formerly, it is still a very commonly used device. Although it is normally an instrument

### Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys

Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys THIRD EDITION DAVID A. PORTER, KENNETH E. EASTERLING, and MOHAMED Y. SHERIF ( г йс) CRC Press ^ ^ ) Taylor & Francis Group Boca Raton London New York CRC Press

### BS EN 10025: 1-6: 2004 (Current) BS 4360: 1986 (Superseded, Withdrawn) Specification for weldable structural steels

Comparison of BS and BS EN for steel materials Appendix This table only highlights the comparison of BS and BS EN on steel materials, which are relevant to plan approval. Title of BS BS BS EN/other Title

### Tensile Testing. Objectives

Laboratory 1 Tensile Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principle of a uniaxial tensile testing and gain their practices on operating the tensile testing machine. Students are able

### Simulation of Residual Stresses in an Induction Hardened Roll

2.6.4 Simulation of Residual Stresses in an Induction Hardened Roll Ludwig Hellenthal, Clemens Groth Walzen Irle GmbH, Netphen-Deuz, Germany CADFEM GmbH, Burgdorf/Hannover, Germany Summary A heat treatment

### Boltzmann Distribution Law

Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce

### Stainless Steel Instrumentation Fractional / Metric Tubing

Tubing benefits Tubing has many benefits against piping. Pipe threading or welding is difficult to disassemble and re-assemble. Piping requires skilled worker for welding & threading. Piping is bulky.

### 1.4 Review. 1.5 Thermodynamic Properties. CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26,

CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26, 2011 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container

### RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS

Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia AMES Scientific paper UDC:669.35-153.881-412.2=20 RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS M. ŠULER 1, L. KOSEC 1, A. C. KNEISSL 2, M. BIZJAK 1, K. RAIĆ

### Spray water cooling heat transfer under oxide scale formation conditions

Spray water cooling heat transfer under oxide scale formation conditions R. Viscorova 1, R. Scholz 2, K.-H. Spitzer 1 and J. Wendelstorf 1 Clausthal University of Technology (http://www.tu-clausthal.de)

### Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

### Chapter 8 Fluid Flow

Chapter 8 Fluid Flow GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it in an operational

### STEEL TUBES AND PIPES

STANDARD FOR CERTIFICATION No. 2.9 STEEL TUBES AND PIPES OCTOBER 2008 Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Høvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11 FOREWORD (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation

### How to measure absolute pressure using piezoresistive sensing elements

In sensor technology several different methods are used to measure pressure. It is usually differentiated between the measurement of relative, differential, and absolute pressure. The following article

### Resistor Theory and Technology

Resistor Theory and Technology Felix Zandman Chairman, Scientific Director, and CEO, Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. Paul-Rene Simon Consultant Joseph Szwarc Chief Engineer, Vishay Israel Ltd SciTECH PUBLISHING;

### Humidity, Evaporation, and

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Dew drops like these, on a banana leaf photographed just after sunrise, form when the air temperature drops to or below the dew point. At the dew