The Length-of-Day Project

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1 The Length-of-Day Project Objectives To review telling time and finding elapsed time; and to introduce the Length-of-Day project. epresentations etoolkit Algorithms Practice EM Facts Workshop Game Family Letters Assessment Management Common Core State Standards Curriculum Focal Points Interactive Teacher s Lesson Guide Teaching the Lesson Ongoing Learning & Practice Differentiation Options Key Concepts and Skills Calculate elapsed time using relationships between minutes and hours. [Measurement and Reference Frames Goal 3] Practice telling time on an analog clock and writing time in digital notation. [Measurement and Reference Frames Goal 4] Record Sunrise/Sunset data. [Data and Chance Goal 1] Key Activities Children calculate the length of a school day using a clock face; calculate the length of a day using sunrise/sunset data; discuss how sunrise/sunset data will be collected and analyzed throughout the school year; and complete exercises involving time. Key Vocabulary elapsed time Materials Math Journal 1, pp. 26 and 27 Home Link 1 12 Math Masters, p. 404 tool-kit clock demonstration clock list of recent sunrise/sunset times Sunrise/ Sunset Chart colored marker Job Chart (optional) calculator (optional) Playing Subtraction Top-It Student Reference Book, pp. 310 and 311 Math Masters, p. 440 per partnership: 4 each of number cards 0 10 and 1 each of number cards (from the Everything Math Deck, if available) Children practice subtraction facts. Ongoing Assessment: Recognizing Student Achievement Use Top-It Games Record Sheet. [Operations and Computation Goal 1] Math Boxes 1 13 Math Journal 1, p. 28 Children practice and maintain skills through Math Box problems. Home Link 1 13 Math Masters, p. 30 Children practice and maintain skills through Home Link activities. ENRICHMENT Making a Daily Schedule of Activities Math Masters, p. 31 class schedule Children make schedules of their activities and calculate the amount of time they spend on each activity. EXTRA PRACTICE Minute Math + Minute Math +, pp Children practice time-telling skills. Advance Preparation This lesson may require more than one day. Draw a table on the board with the sunrise/sunset data you collected (see Planning Ahead in Lesson 1 10). Leave the Length of Day column blank. Display a prepared Sunrise/Sunset Chart (see Teacher s Lesson Guide, pages 910 and 911). Teacher s Reference Manual, Grades 1 3 p Unit 1 Routines, Review, and Assessment

2 Getting Started Mental Math and Reflexes Have children use tool-kit clocks to display times. Show a quarter after 3. Show the time 3 hours later. 6:15 Show noon. Show 5 minutes after noon. 12:05 Show noon. Show 1 hour and 15 minutes earlier. 10:45 Show 9:00. Show 3 hours and 10 minutes later. 12:10 Show 9:55. Show 3 hours and 10 minutes later. 1:05 Show 20 minutes to 6. Show 1 hour and 45 minutes earlier. 3:55 Share and discuss strategies. Math Message Mandy is in school from 8:25 A.M. to 3:15 P.M. Work with a partner to figure out the length of her school day. 6 hours and 50 minutes. Use your tool-kit clock to help you. Home Link 1 12 Follow-Up If any more children completed Home Link 1-11, have them share their strategies for finding $100 worth of items in ads. Briefly go over the answers to Home Link Teaching the Lesson Math Message Follow-Up WHOLE-CLASS DISCUSSION Have children share their strategies for calculating the length of Mandy s school day. Use a demonstration clock to model the strategies. Expect answers like the following: I set my tool-kit clock to show 8:25. I moved the hour hand so that the clock showed 2:25 and counted the hours. I counted 6 hours. Then I moved the hands so that the clock showed 3:15 and counted by 5s as I moved the minute hand. I counted 50 minutes. So, Mandy s school day is 6 hours and 50 minutes long. Interactive whiteboard-ready epresentations are available at to help you teach the lesson. NOTE The concepts of time and elapsed time have expansive coverage in Everyday Mathematics. The Length-of-Day Project and the daily recording of the time on journal pages offer opportunities for ongoing practice and review of these concepts. I thought that if the school day lasted from 8:00 to 3:00, it would be 7 hours long. From 8:25 to 3:25 would also be 7 hours. Since 3:15 is 10 minutes before 3:25, the total time must be 10 minutes less than 7 hours, or 6 hours and 50 minutes. First I figured that it would be 35 minutes from 8:25 to 9:00. I know that from 9:00 to 3:00 is 6 hours that s 6 hours and 35 minutes so far. From 3:00 to 3:15 is another 15 minutes. 35 minutes and 15 minutes is 50 minutes. So, the total time is 6 hours and 50 minutes. Some children may find it helpful to use an open number line to illustrate the strategy of counting up hours and minutes. 35 min 6 hr 15 min NOTE The number line is not to scale. 8:25 A.M. 9:00 A.M. 3:00 P.M. 3:15 P.M. 35 min + 6 hrs + 15 min = 6 hrs 50 min NOTE Daily classroom routines, such as taking attendance or keeping track of the date, provide many examples of mathematics in everyday contexts. See Organizing Daily Routines and Displays in the Teacher's Reference Manual, pages 41 49, for suggested routines. Lesson

3 NOTE If you are in a location where the length of day does not change very much over the course of the year, consider gathering length-of-day data from a location that experiences more variation in the number of hours and minutes of darkness and sunlight. You may also collect the data from your location and compare it to that of another location. Sunrise and sunset data are available in local newspapers, on local newscasts, and on the Internet (www.sunrisesunset.com). Discussing the Sunrise/ Sunset Data WHOLE-CLASS DISCUSSION Have children describe the kind of data in the table on the board. The times at which the sun rose and set during the last few days Where can you find this kind of information? On TV newscasts, in newspapers, on the Internet Does the sun rise and set at the same time every day? no Date Sunrise A.M. Sun rises at Hours of sunlight What season has the shortest days? winter The longest days? summer 9/8 9/15 9/22 9/29 10/6 10/13 6:16 6:24 6:31 6:39 6:47 6:54 12hr 51m 12hr 30m 12hr 11m 11hr 51m 11hr 31m 11hr 12m On what date does the shortest day of the year occur? December 21 or 22 The longest day of the year? June 21 10/20 10/27 11/3 11/10 11/17 11/24 12/1 12/8 12/15 12/22 12/29 7:03 7:11 7:20 7:29 7:37 7:45 7:55 8:01 8:07 8:11 8:13 10hr 52m 10hr 34m 10hr 15m 9hr 58m 9hr 44m 9hr 31m 9hr 18m 9hr 11m 9hr 05m 9hr 04m 9hr 07m Explain that children from the southern hemisphere would say that the shortest day of the year is June 21 and the longest day is December 21 because of the position of the sun at different times of the year. 1/5 8:14 9hr 13m 1/12 8:12 9hr 22m 1/19 1/26 2/2 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 3/9 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/6 4/13 4/20 4/27 8:08 8:03 7:56 7:48 7:38 7:28 7:17 7:05 6:53 6:41 6:30 6:17 6:07 5:54 5:44 9hr 35m 9hr 49m 10hr 05m 10hr 22m 10hr 41m 11hr 00m 11hr 19m 11hr 40m 12hr 00m 12hr 20m 12hr 39m 13hr 00m 13hr 17m 13hr 38m 13hr 56m Adjusting the Activity Ask children to guess how much longer the longest day of the year is than the shortest day. Save their predictions until the end of the school year so that you can check them. You can look up the length of the longest day in an almanac. As an alternative, use the length of the last school day instead of the year s longest day. 5/4 5/11 5:35 5:26 14hr 13m 14hr 29m A U D I T O R Y K I N E S T H E T I C T A C T I L E V I S U A L 5/18 5:19 14hr 44m 5/25 5:14 14hr 55m 6/1 5:10 15hr 05m 6/8 5:08 15hr 12m 6/15 5:07 15hr 16m 6/22 6/29 5:08 5:10 15hr 17m 15hr 15m Finding Elapsed Times PROBLEM SOLVING SMALL-GROUP Sunset P.M. Sun sets at Date 7:07 9/8 6:54 9/15 6:42 9/22 6:30 9/29 6:18 10/6 6:06 10/13 5:55 10/20 5:45 10/27 5:35 11/3 5:27 11/10 5:21 11/17 5:16 11/24 5:13 12/1 5:12 12/8 5:12 12/15 5:15 12/22 5:20 12/29 5:27 1/5 5:34 1/12 5:43 1/19 5:52 1/26 6:01 2/2 6:10 2/9 6:19 2/16 6:28 2/23 6:36 3/2 6:45 3/9 6:53 3/16 7:01 3/23 7:09 3/30 7:17 4/6 7:24 4/13 7:32 4/20 7:40 4/27 7:48 5/4 7:55 5/11 8:03 5/18 8:09 5/25 8:15 6/1 8:20 6/8 8:23 6/15 8:25 6/22 8:25 6/29 Divide the class into small groups. Ask children to figure out how many hours and minutes there are from sunrise to sunset for the first day in the table on the board. Children may use their toolkit clocks, calculators, or anything else that might help. After a few minutes, ask children to share their results. Have them model their solution strategies on the demonstration clock. Record the answer on the board in the Length of Day column. The length of a day is the time that elapses from sunrise to sunset (elapsed time). Have children work in small groups to find the length of day for the other entries in the table. As you revisit this routine each week, encourage different children to share their strategies. NOTE For more information on coverage of time and elapsed time, go to 80 Unit 1 Routines, Review and Assessment

4 Introducing the Yearlong Length-of-Day Project (Math Journal 1, p. 27; Math Masters, p. 404) WHOLE-CLASS Student Page Science Link Tell the children that they will record the sunrise/sunset data once a week throughout the school year, whenever possible on the same day of the week. Choose a day of the week and use the data for that day to demonstrate how to fill in the chart: 1. Write the date, and the times for sunrise and sunset on that date, in the appropriate columns of the chart. 2. On the sunrise and sunset grids, each half-hour interval is divided into 15 equal parts, so each part represents 2 minutes. Locate the time on the grid at which the sun rose, and color the bar to the left of it. Locate the time at which the sun will set, and color the bar to the right of it. 3. Calculate the length of the day, and record it in the Hours of Sunlight column. NOTE If you are in an area that is affected by Daylight Saving Time, your chart will reflect the changes. Use the same color throughout the fall season. Change to a new color on the first day of winter and again on the first day of spring. Ask children to copy the data for that day on the first line of the table on journal page 27. (Math Masters, page 404 is identical to the journal chart. Use it if children need extra copies of the chart.) Briefly review the fact that the colored bars represent the hours of darkness. Make sure children understand that the unshaded portion shows the hours of daylight. If you keep a Job Chart, add a Sunrise/Sunset job to it. The Sunrise/Sunset person is responsible for completing Steps 1 and 2 above. Each child then calculates the length of the day. When there is agreement on the correct answer, the Sunrise/Sunset person records it in the chart. Children then enter the sunrise/sunset data in their journals. Math Journal 1, p. 27 NOTE The authors strongly recommend that you integrate this project into your classroom routines. The project provides ongoing computation and data collection practice throughout the year. At the beginning of the year, you may want to calculate the length of day together. Be sure to model a variety of solution strategies. As the year goes on, however, many of your children will be able to do the calculations independently. Student Page NOTE When you use the ready-made Everyday Mathematics posters with English language learners, you should display either the English version only or both the English and Spanish versions simultaneously; do not display the Spanish version only. Telling Time and Calculating Elapsed Time (Math Journal 1, p. 26) INDEPENDENT Have children complete journal page 26. When most are finished, have a few children share the strategies they used to find the elapsed times. Math Journal 1, p. 26 Lesson

5 Name Date Time Top-It Games Record Sheet Players and Write the number sentences for each round. Circle the larger sum, difference, or product. Round 1 Round 3 Round 5 Math Masters, p. 440 Game Master Round 2 Round 4 Round 6 2 Ongoing Learning & Practice Playing Subtraction Top-It (Student Reference Book, pp. 310 and 311; Math Masters, p. 440) SMALL-GROUP Children practice subtraction by playing Subtraction Top-It. If necessary, have children look up the rules in the Student Reference Book. They should record six rounds on the Top-It Games Record Sheet, Math Masters, page 440. Ongoing Assessment: Recognizing Student Achievement Math Masters, Page 440 Use the Top-It Games Record Sheet to assess children s ability to demonstrate automaticity with basic subtraction facts. Children are making adequate progress if they are able to correctly record six pairs of subtraction facts from the game. Some children will be able to circle the fact with the larger difference from each pair. [Operations and Computation Goal 1] Adjusting the Activity To practice with specific subtraction facts, you may wish to keep one of the two numbers the same for each round so that it is always a subtrahend. Use three cards for practice with multidigit subtraction problems. Make one 2-digit number and subtract the number on the remaining card from the 2-digit number. A U D I T O R Y K I N E S T H E T I C T A C T I L E V I S U A L Date LESSON 1 13 Math Boxes 1. How many children like lions? 6 How many children like tigers? 10 Animal choice Bears //// 3. Use + or to make each number sentence true. 9 = = = 9 9 Number of Children Lions ////\ / Crows /// Tigers ////\ ////\ OCTOBER Su M Tu W Th F Sa Unit If October 6 is on a Sunday, what are the dates for the next two Sundays? October 13 October 20 Math Journal 1, p. 28 Student Page Time 2. Count back by 4s. 104, 100, 96, 92, 88 84, 80, 76, 72, 68, 64, 60, 56, 52, 48, Draw the bills and coins to show $2.43 in two ways. Sample answers: ÁÁ Á ÍÍÍÍ ÎÎÎ ÍÂ ÎÎÎ 6. Complete the Fact Triangle. 14, Math Boxes 1 13 (Math Journal 1, p. 28) INDEPENDENT Mixed Practice Math Boxes in this lesson are linked with Math Boxes in Lessons 1-9 and The skill in Problem 6 previews Unit 2 content. Home Link 1 13 (Math Masters, p. 30) INDEPENDENT Home Connection Children show times on the clock faces by drawing the hour and minute hands. For each of three problems children show a given time on a clock face. Then given an elapsed time, they show the resulting later (or earlier) time. 82 Unit 1 Routines, Review and Assessment

6 3 Differentiation Options Home Link Master ENRICHMENT INDEPENDENT Making a Daily Schedule of Activities (Math Masters, p. 31) 5 15 Min PROBLEM SOLVING To apply children s understanding of the relationships between hours and minutes, have them discuss the activities they do each day. Have children briefly share the kinds of activities they do each day. Go over the classroom schedule, and have them make a schedule of their activities on Math Masters, page 31. Then have children figure out about what time they begin each of these activities and about what time they finish. Next, have them calculate how long they spend on each activity. Ask children: Which activity takes up most of your 24-hour day? Math Masters, p. 30 Which activity takes up the least of your 24-hour day? EXTRA PRACTICE Minute Math+ SMALL-GROUP 5 15 Min To offer children more experience with time-telling skills, see the following pages in Minute Math+: Measurement: pp Teaching Master Math Masters, p. 31 Lesson

7 Name Date Time Top-It Games Record Sheet Players and Write the number sentences for each round. Circle the larger sum, difference, or product. Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Round 5 Round 6 Copyright Wright Group/McGraw-Hill 440

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