Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab."

Transcription

1 Radiation Balance 1 Radiation Balance Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. 5 Radiation = Mode of Energy transfer observes the conservation principle radiation emitted from Earth/atmosphere: terrestrial, longwave radiation radiation emitted from sun: solar, shortwave radiation when solar radiation is absorbed in the Earth/atmosphere, part or most of it is re-emitted as longwave radiation Balance conservation of energy: storage change = input output The Radiation Balance can be expressed in a budget equation, composed of different terms that each represent a radiation transport or conversion process Conservation of energy Q* = (K - K ) + (L - L ) Units: W m -2 = K* + L*

2 Radiation Balance 2 Q* - net all wave radiation net radiative energy that is absorbed and then transformed into a different form (non-radiative) becomes energy available to be partitioned in the energy balance, i.e. to heat the air, heat the ground or evaporate water (see below) K - incoming shortwave radiation. emitted by the sun, transmitted to location of the balance (e.g., top of atmosphere or surface) dependent on solar altitude, transmissive property of the atmosphere above K - outgoing shortwave radiation. outgoing shortwave radiation (reflected!) Depends on K and the albedo (α): K = α K K* - net shortwave radiation (K*= K - K ) Energy that is absorbed may be reradiated at longer wavelengths.

3 Radiation Balance 3 L - incoming longwave radiation: Depends on sky temperature and sky emissivity (ε s ) L = ε s σt s 4 T s ; ε s : summary effect of all layers of the atmosphere; depend on cloud cover, humidity, temperature structure. Can be calculated from radiosonde data L - outgoing longwave radiation: Depends on surface emissivity and surface temperature L = ε 0 σt 0 4 L* - net longwave radiation (L*= L - L ) ε 0 : see list of values in Lab Manual, lab#5 Global Average (i) Shortwave radiation (A&B, Fig. 3-4) total reflected: 30% (= global albedo) total absorbed: 70%

4 Radiation Balance 4 (ii) Long-wave radiation (A&B, Fig. 3-5) total lost to space: 70% (= absorbed solar) L at surface (from atmosphere): greenhouse effect = additional energy source for surface atmospheric net loss: compensated from K (absorbed) & convection from surface (iii) All wave net radiation (A&B, Fig. 3-7) in the atmosphere and at the surface: non-zero net radiation other forms of energy transport must compensate balance can be formed at any level: o top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) o atmosphere

5 Radiation Balance 5 o surface these numbers are long-term global averages, average cloud cover, temperature, etc. considerable spatial and temporal (weather, seasons, climate!) variations exist Global Distribution (spatial variations) Incoming solar radiation ERBE Video Spatially variable because of Earth-sun geometry Maximum solar radiation receipt at the top of the earth's atmosphere at right angles Solar constant: 1367 W m -2 (i) January incoming solar radiation: K Jan Question: Is this the radiation at the surface or the top of the atmosphere? [Hint: look at isopleths across continents.]

6 Radiation Balance 6 January net shortwave radiation at the surface Note: here, negative values refer to K* taken up by the surface (different sign convention from the one we use) (iii) January net longwave radiation at the surface Note: here, positive values refer to L* deficit at the surface (different sign convention from the one we use)

7 Radiation Balance 7 (iv) Net Radiation: Q* - spatially variable To prevent runaway heating in Q* surplus (net gain) region (latitudes < 40 N/S), and runaway cooling in Q* deficit (net loss) regions (latitudes > 40 N/S), energy is transported from the surplus to the deficit regions (poleward transport) by: ocean currents (~1/3) warm/cold winds (sensible heat) (~1/3) moiisture iin aiir (llatent heat) (~1//3)

8 Radiation Balance 8 5. Temporal Variations Observations at long-term research location: Observations at one location Morgan Monroe State Forest Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange Project The 46 m (150 ft.) MMSF AmeriFlux Tower with Energy Balance Instrumentation

9 Radiation Balance 9 (i) Clear Summer Day, July Q* Kdn 800 Kup Flux (Wm -2 ) Ldn Lup Time What will happen on a: (ii) Cloudy Summer Day - overcast, stratus Q* Kdn Kup Ldn Lup Flux (Wm -2 ) Time (draw the changes into the figure)

10 Radiation Balance 10 (iii) Cloudy Summer Day - partly cloudy, cumulus Q* Kdn Kup Ldn Lup Flux (Wm -2 ) Time (draw the changes into the figure) (iv) Cloudy Winter Day - what happens if it snows? Q* Kdn Kup Ldn Lup Flux (Wm -2 ) Time (draw the changes into the figure)

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convection redistributes the thermal energy yielding (globally-averaged), a mean lapse rate of ~ -6.5 o C/km. Radiative processes tend to produce a more negative temperature

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE. Peter J. Lamb. Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies

RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE. Peter J. Lamb. Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE by Peter J. Lamb Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies and School of Meteorology The University of Oklahoma

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere

CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere In Chapter 2 we examined the nature of energy and its interactions with Earth. Here we concentrate initially on the way in which energy interacts with the atmosphere

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 G109: 7. Moisture 1 7. MOISTURE Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 1. Introduction Moisture in the atmosphere:

More information

The Surface Energy Budget

The Surface Energy Budget The Surface Energy Budget The radiation (R) budget Shortwave (solar) Radiation Longwave Radiation R SW R SW α α = surface albedo R LW εσt 4 ε = emissivity σ = Stefan-Boltzman constant T = temperature Subsurface

More information

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea ice in the Antarctic

Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea ice in the Antarctic Snow and fee Covers: Interactions with the Atmosphere and Ecosystems (Proceedings of Yokohama Symposia J2 and J5, July 1993). IAHS Publ. no. 223, 1994. 29 Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING 5-1 Introduction Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time. The condition of the atmosphere

More information

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

More information

1. Theoretical background

1. Theoretical background 1. Theoretical background We consider the energy budget at the soil surface (equation 1). Energy flux components absorbed or emitted by the soil surface are: net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat

More information

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature Chapter 2 The global energy balance We consider now the general problem of the radiative equilibrium temperature of the Earth. The Earth is bathed in solar radiation and absorbs much of that incident upon

More information

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

More information

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Temperature - dynamical feedback Climate sensitivity export Feedback characteristics Negative feedbacks dampen; positive amplify

More information

Take away concepts. What is Energy? Solar Energy. EM Radiation. Properties of waves. Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption

Take away concepts. What is Energy? Solar Energy. EM Radiation. Properties of waves. Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption Take away concepts Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Conservation of energy. Black body radiation principle Emission wavelength and temperature (Wein s Law). Radiation vs. distance

More information

What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper

What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper IPCC Cloud feedbacks remain the largest source of uncertainty. Roadmap 1. Low cloud primer 2. Radiation and low

More information

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science with emphasis on aquatic and vegetation canopy media Autumn 2008 Prof. Emmanuel Boss, Dr. Eyal Rotenberg Introduction Radiation in Environmental sciences Most

More information

How does snow melt? Principles of snow melt. Energy balance. GEO4430 snow hydrology 21.03.2006. Energy flux onto a unit surface:

How does snow melt? Principles of snow melt. Energy balance. GEO4430 snow hydrology 21.03.2006. Energy flux onto a unit surface: Principles of snow melt How does snow melt? We need energy to melt snow/ ice. GEO443 snow hydrology 21.3.26 E = m L h we s K = ρ h = w w we f E ρ L L f f Thomas V. Schuler t.v.schuler@geo.uio.no E energy

More information

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Bent H Sass Danish Meteorological Institute 10 June 2009 As the horizontal grid size in atmospheric models is reduced the assumptions made

More information

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

More information

Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes

Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes Ecosystem-land-surface-BL-cloud coupling as climate changes Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, akbetts@aol.com CMMAP August 19, 2009 Outline of Talk Land-surface climate: - surface, BL & cloud coupling

More information

Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal Temperature Variations Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors

More information

Copyrighted Material. 1 Basics of Climate. The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale

Copyrighted Material. 1 Basics of Climate. The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale 1 Basics of Climate The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale To appreciate the role of the ocean in climate, we need to have a basic understanding of how the climate

More information

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June 24 2010 What are the Major Greenhouse Gases? Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N 2, 78%), oxygen (O 2, 21%), and argon (Ar, 0.9%)

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab) These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

More information

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep

More information

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons Changing Aspect Angle Direct Sunlight is more intense and concentrated. Solar Incidence Angle is Latitude and Time/Date Dependent Daily and Seasonal Variation Zenith There

More information

TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ASL720: Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing TERM PAPER TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION Group Members: Anil Kumar (2010ME10649) Mayank

More information

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Weather & Climate ~occur every 3-7 years ~can last weeks or years! ~cooler/wetter conditions in SE US ~dry weather in southern Africa, Southeast Asia,

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions 1. Radiative Transfer Virtually all the exchanges of energy between the earth-atmosphere system and the rest of the universe take place by radiative transfer. The earth and its atmosphere are constantly

More information

Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud

Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud coupling Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, akbetts@aol.com Congress on Climate Change 8)Earth System Feedbacks and Carbon Sequestration Copenhagen, March 10, 2009

More information

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling David R. Mears, Ph.D. Bioresource Engineering Department of Plant Biology and Pathology Rutgers University 20 Ag Extension

More information

GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE. by Habibullo Abdussamatov

GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE. by Habibullo Abdussamatov GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE by Habibullo Abdussamatov SPPI ORIGINAL PAPER November 25, 2013 GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE

More information

Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance

Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance The are three basic snowmelt phases 1) Warming phase: Absorbed energy raises the average snowpack temperature to a point at which the snowpack is isothermal (no vertical

More information

Decadal Variability: ERBS, ISCCP, Surface Cloud Observer, and Ocean Heat Storage

Decadal Variability: ERBS, ISCCP, Surface Cloud Observer, and Ocean Heat Storage Decadal Variability: ERBS, ISCCP, Surface Cloud Observer, and Ocean Heat Storage Takmeng Wong, Bruce A. Wielicki, and Robert B. Lee, III NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 30 th CERES Science

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

The Earth s Atmosphere

The Earth s Atmosphere THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

The Importance of Understanding Clouds

The Importance of Understanding Clouds NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Importance of Understanding Clouds One of the most interesting features of Earth, as seen from space, is the ever-changing distribution

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding 2007 Page 1 Solar Heating Basics Reflected radiation is solar energy received by collectorsfrom adjacent surfaces of the building or ground. It depends a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

More information

Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment

Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment Stage 4 Science FW4S1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to

More information

AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling

AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling Effect of radiation on clouds: fog 2 Clear-sky cooling/heating rate: longwave CO2 O3 H2O 3 Clear-sky heating rate: shortwave Standard atmosphere Heating due

More information

Empirical study of the temporal variation of a tropical surface temperature on hourly time integration

Empirical study of the temporal variation of a tropical surface temperature on hourly time integration Global Advanced Research Journal of Physical and Applied Sciences Vol. 4 (1) pp. 051-056, September, 2015 Available online http://www.garj.org/garjpas/index.htm Copyright 2015 Global Advanced Research

More information

Iden%fying CESM cloud and surface biases at Summit, Greenland

Iden%fying CESM cloud and surface biases at Summit, Greenland Iden%fying CESM cloud and surface biases at Summit, Greenland Nathaniel Miller (CU- ATOC, CIRES) MaEhew Shupe, Andrew GeEleman, Jennifer Kay, Line Bourdages CESM Ice Sheet Surface Biases Cross Working

More information

Solar Irradiance Variability

Solar Irradiance Variability Solar Radiative Output and its Variability Claus Frölich and Judith Lean Preethi Ganapathy November 22, 2005 Solar Irradiance Variability Historical Investigations Contemporary Investigations Limitations

More information

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1

Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1 Student Worksheets Stage 4 Geography FW4G1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes

More information

Physics 1010: The Physics of Everyday Life. TODAY Black Body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect

Physics 1010: The Physics of Everyday Life. TODAY Black Body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect Physics 1010: The Physics of Everyday Life TODAY Black Body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect 1 Admin Stuff Exams are at back of room, alphabetically in four piles. Please collect AFTER class Grades posted

More information

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

Solar Energy Forecasting Using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models. Patrick Mathiesen, Sanyo Fellow, UCSD Jan Kleissl, UCSD

Solar Energy Forecasting Using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models. Patrick Mathiesen, Sanyo Fellow, UCSD Jan Kleissl, UCSD Solar Energy Forecasting Using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models Patrick Mathiesen, Sanyo Fellow, UCSD Jan Kleissl, UCSD Solar Radiation Reaching the Surface Incoming solar radiation can be reflected,

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Effects of moisture on static stability & convection

Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature

More information

BY NASIF NAHLE SABAG* Submitted to Review on 10 May 2007. Published on 12 May 2007.

BY NASIF NAHLE SABAG* Submitted to Review on 10 May 2007. Published on 12 May 2007. EARTH S ANNUAL ENERGY BUDGET (ECOLOGY) BY NASIF NAHLE SABAG* Submitted to Review on 10 May 2007. Published on 12 May 2007. The author is grateful to TS for his kind assistance with the text. To quote this

More information

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy.

Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy. This combines electricity and magnetism such that setting up an electric

More information

SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction

SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING Kedir, Mohammed National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia Introduction The application(uses) of satellite sensing data deals to obtain information about the basic

More information

Total radiative heating/cooling rates.

Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Lecture. Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Objectives:. Solar heating rates.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in a cloudy atmosphere.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in different aerosol-laden

More information

February 17 th Video Conference Agenda

February 17 th Video Conference Agenda February 17 th Video Conference Agenda 8:30 am Video, audio and connection checks 9:00 am Brief intro by mediator, Ellen Holmes, followed by 3 to 5 minute Day in the Life of Presentations from each school.

More information

Comparison of Cloud and Radiation Variability Reported by Surface Observers, ISCCP, and ERBS

Comparison of Cloud and Radiation Variability Reported by Surface Observers, ISCCP, and ERBS Comparison of Cloud and Radiation Variability Reported by Surface Observers, ISCCP, and ERBS Joel Norris (SIO/UCSD) Cloud Assessment Workshop April 5, 2005 Outline brief satellite data description upper-level

More information

CSS 560 Principles of Ecology for Environmental Educators

CSS 560 Principles of Ecology for Environmental Educators CSS 560 Principles of Ecology for Environmental Educators Journaling task (15:00 min/each) Draw a diagram that shows the major components (boxes) and interactions (arrows) of a terrestrial ecosystem Conceptual

More information

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a medium-size star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun Earth-Relationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times

More information

COURSE OUTLINE. Geography 101 (C-ID Number: GEOG 110) Physical Geography (C-ID Title: Introduction to Physical Geography)

COURSE OUTLINE. Geography 101 (C-ID Number: GEOG 110) Physical Geography (C-ID Title: Introduction to Physical Geography) Degree Applicable Glendale Community College March 2013 COURSE OUTLINE Geography 101 (C-ID Number: GEOG 110) Physical Geography (C-ID Title: Introduction to Physical Geography) I. Catalog Statement Geography

More information

ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D.

ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Solar Radiation Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 2 The Sun The Sun is a perpetual source of energy It has produced energy for about 4.6 billions of years, and it is

More information

Multiple Choice Exam Questions

Multiple Choice Exam Questions Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Exam Questions 1. The primary source of energy for the earth's atmosphere is: a. energy from within the earth b. the sun c. erupting volcanoes d. lightning discharges associated

More information

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. 1. Basic introduction to the electromagnetic field: Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic spectrum. Basic radiometric quantities:

More information

Cloud Notes for SIO 218

Cloud Notes for SIO 218 Cloud Notes for SIO 218 October 11 and 16, 2001 Satellite Observations Satellites observe cloudiness by measuring electromagnetic radiation at a variety of wavelengths (e.g., visible, infrared, microwave).

More information

Water vapour and greenhouse effect

Water vapour and greenhouse effect GEOFIZIKA VOL. 16-17 1999-2000 Short communication UDC 551.571.4 Water vapour and greenhouse effect Ferenz Rákóczi and Zsuzsanna Iványi Department of Meteorology, Eötvös Loránd University Pázmány P. 1.,

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

More information

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

More information

VARIATION IN LIGHT INTENSITY AT DIFFERENT LATITUDES AND SEASONS, EFFECTS OF CLOUD COVER, AND THE AMOUNTS OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSED LIGHT

VARIATION IN LIGHT INTENSITY AT DIFFERENT LATITUDES AND SEASONS, EFFECTS OF CLOUD COVER, AND THE AMOUNTS OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSED LIGHT VARIATION IN LIGHT INTENSITY AT DIFFERENT LATITUDES AND SEASONS, EFFECTS OF CLOUD COVER, AND THE AMOUNTS OF DIRECT AND DIFFUSED LIGHT Paul Burgess School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield,

More information

Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis

Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis Professor of Remote Sensing UCL Geography & NERC NCEO Aims of lecture In this lecture, we will: consider the importance of understanding the science of climate

More information

Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Arctic Surface: The Influence of Cloud Properties, Surface Albedo, and Solar Zenith Angle

Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Arctic Surface: The Influence of Cloud Properties, Surface Albedo, and Solar Zenith Angle 616 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Arctic Surface: The Influence of Cloud Properties, Surface Albedo, and Solar Zenith Angle MATTHEW D. SHUPE Science and Technology Corporation, NOAA/Environmental

More information

Frequently Asked Question 1.1 What Factors Determine Earth s Climate?

Frequently Asked Question 1.1 What Factors Determine Earth s Climate? Frequently Asked Question 1.1 What Factors Determine Earth s Climate? The climate system is a complex, interactive system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface, snow and ice, oceans and other bodies

More information

T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre

T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SURFACE SOLAR IRRADIANCES UNDER CLEAR-SKIES AND CLOUD COVER OBTAINED FROM LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION MEASUREMENTS IN THE RONDONIA REGION OF BRAZIL T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre Centro

More information

On the relative humidity of the Earth s atmosphere

On the relative humidity of the Earth s atmosphere On the relative humidity of the Earth s atmosphere Raymond T. Pierrehumbert The University of Chicago In collaboration with Remy Roca, LMD 1 The Many Roles of Water in Climate IR radiation, heat transport,

More information

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun zenith 90 summer solstice 75 equinox 52 winter solstice 29 altitude angles observer Figure 3.1: Solar noon altitude angles for Melbourne SOUTH winter midday shadow WEST summer midday shadow summer EAST

More information

Materials Needed: Choose one of the following methods depending on how familiar your students are with the internet and how to use it.

Materials Needed: Choose one of the following methods depending on how familiar your students are with the internet and how to use it. Teacher Information Lesson Title: Global Warming, Green House Effect and Climate Changes Lesson Description: This lesson helps students to understand or review their understanding of global warming, the

More information

Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the

Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the tropics, less at higher latitudes Ok, so if the Earth weren't

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 marks) (i) climate (ii) maritime (iii) temperate (iv) tropical (b) Match the description with

More information

Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW45DT2

Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW45DT2 Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: OCTOBER 6, 2015 In the News India submits climate action plan Will have 40% renewable

More information