1 International Symposium New Frontier of Irradiated food and Non-Food Products September 2005, KMUTT, Bangkok, Thailand Effect of irradiation on chemical changes and contaminated microorganisms in turmeric and creat powder S Timprasert 1, T. Boonruad 2 K. Nouchpramool 3, P. Setakanna 2, J. Rattanasiri 2, A. Pannanususorn 2 P. Kaewchoung 3, W. Orankanok 1, THAILAND 1 Department of Agricultural Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and co-operatives. 2 Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health. 3 Office of Atoms for Peace, Ministry of Science. Abstract Investigation on the effects of irradiation on chemical changes and contaminated microorganisms in turmeric and creat powder. Tumeric powder was bought from a farmer group at Thakhun, Surathani and creat powder was brought from a group of farmers at Kampeangsan, Nakornpathom. These powdered herbs were irradiated with gamma rays at 5, 10, 15 and. Chemical changes and contaminated microorganisms of treated powder herbs have been determined by the Medical Plant Research Institute, Ministry of Public Health. The results showed that there are no chemical changes in both turmeric and the creat. There was a significant reduction in colonies per gram of total bacteria, yeast & moulds, enterobacteria and E. coli in both herbs. There has been no chemical change in the %moisture, %ash, %non soluble ash, %water soluble substance and %curcuminiod. Exceptional % of water soluble substance concentration in creat was not significantly reduced compared to nonirradiated treatment (control) Keywords:, turmeric and creat. 1.Introlduction Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and creat (Androphasis paniculata (Burn. F. Nees.) are tropical herbs that originated in South and Southeast Asia. These two herbs are very favorable as herbal medicines, supplementary diets and cosmetics. Even though, India produces and exports most turmeric in the world market, but Thailand has produced turmeric better chemical properties. And Thailand turmeric is being accepted for various medical recipes in many Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea and in Europe as well. Turmeric is well known as an herbal medicine, particularly, for indigestion and wounded stomach (Medical Plant Research Institute, 2001) where as creat is well known as an herbal medicine to reduce a fever, influenza and diarrhea (Medical Plant Research Institute, 1999). However, the main problem of Thai herbal medicine productions is that microbial contamination always exceeds the standard of the Public Health Ministry, and this contamination may cause stomachache and sickness to the customer Sun drying or Ethylene oxide gas treatment are common practices for microorganism decontamination in herbs. These practices can any kill microorganisms to some extent and are rather complicated processes. Moreover, with chemical treatment, residue may result in environmental damage and is toxic to the customers. Introduction of irradiation for microorganisms is accepted by 40 countries over the world. This method can irradiate contaminating microorganisms safely and efficiently with no residue in the products as well as no reduction of the important substance of treated herbs
2 (Biological Sciences Division, 1999). Therefore, it is important to evaluate for the optimum dose of irradiation. 2. Materials and Methods Sample collection and preparation Turmeric had been collected (bought) from a farmer group at Takhun, Surathani province and the creat had been collected from a farmer group at Kampaengsan, Nakornpratom province respectively. Twenty kilogram of each sampled herbs were welly mixed. Each was contained in 250 gm of plastic bottle for irradiation. Evaluation Samples of turmeric and creat had been given for 5 treatments at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kgy with 4 replications. All treatment samples had been analysed for their chemical properties: % moisture, %ash, %non-soluble ash, %water soluble, %ethanol, %aromatic and %curcuminiod and quality of contaminate microorganisms 3. Result and Discussion In the turmeric powder, the results showed that %moisture, %ash, %non-soluble ash, %water soluble, %ethanol, %aromatic were not significance differences between irradiated and non-irradiated turmeric powder. High doses of irradiation (10 and ) produced significantly reduced %curcuminoid compared to non-irradiated powder, but there was no significance between irradiation treatments (Table 1). Moreover, irradiation significantly reduced total bacteria, yeast & mould, enterobacteria and E. coli (Table 2). For creat powder chemical changes; % moisture, %non-soluble ash, %ethanol soluble substance and total lactone were not significant between irradiated and non-irradiated the creat powder. Irradiated powder at had significant % water soluble substance in comparison with non-irradiated powder, but there was no difference among irradiation treatments (Table 3). did not reduce total bacteria, yeast & mould and E. coli, but could not reduced enterobacteria (Table 4). However, there was no significant difference between irradiated and control treatments. So it could be concluded that these irradiation trials would not cause any change in the inherent qualities of the.
3 Table1. The chemical changes in the powder form of turmeric irradiated with gamma ray at 5, 10, 15 and 1 Moisture 6.48 a 4.53 a 5.51 a 5.86 a 6.03 a Ash 5.68 a 5.77 a 5.84 a 5.41 a 5.44 a Non soluble ash 0.24 a 0.21 a 0.17 a 0.17 a 0.16 a Water soluble a a a a a Ethanol a a a a a Aromatic 6.56 a 6.81 a 6.88 a 9.78 a 6.25 a Curcuminiod b ab a ab b Table2. The microorganism in the powder form of turmeric irradiated with gamma ray at 5,10,15 and Total bacteria Yeast & Fungi Enterobacteria E. coli 1 2.5x10 5 a < < < < 40.0 a 7.3 b 9.5 b 15.8 b 9.5 b 5x10 4 a >50 a 2) gm = Total bacteria is less than 5.0x10 5 colony/gm, yeast & moulds and enterobacteria are less than 5.0x10 3 colony/gm, E. coli is less than 50 colony/gm
4 Table 3. The chemical changes in the powder form of creat irradiated with gamma ray at 5, 10,15 and Moisture Ash Water soluble Ethanol soluble Total Lactone a 5.51 a 5.48 a 5.98 a 5.71 a 4.75 a 3.25 a b ab ab ab a a a a a a a a 9.26 a a 9.89 a Table 4. The microorganism in the powder form of creat irradiated with gamma ray at 5, 10, 15 and Total Bacteria Yeast & Fungi Enterobacteria E. coli a 0.26 b 0.01 b 0.03 a 4.50 a 2.05 a 4.50 a 3) gm = Total bacteria is less than 5.0x10 5 colony/gm, yeast &moulds and enterobacteria are less than 5.0x10 3 colony/gm, E. coli is less than 50 colony/gm Acknowledgement I would like to thank secretary of King Mongkut s University of Technology Thonburi, for being as a valuable interpreter.
5 References 1. Biological Sciences Division Use of gamma ray to control insect pest. Office of Atoms for Peace, Ministry of Science. 2. Medical Plant Research Institute Andrographis paniculata., Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health. 3. Medical Plant Research Institute Curcuma longa L. Department of Medical Sciences. Ministry of Public Health. 4. Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health. Vol.i:24-31,