MiniCTA and Multichannel CTA Systems

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1 MiniCTA and Multichannel CTA Systems Compact CTA Systems for accurate flow investigations Applications Features Flow velocity and turbulence measurements For applications in air (up to 100 m/s) and in water Educational, industrial and scientific applications Can be used with both wire and fiber/film probes depending on application. Multipoint measurements in e.g. boundary layer studies or in studies of coherent structures. Bandwidth ~10 khz for wire probes in air Up to 20 m cables can be used. Easy to use and easy to learn software calibration, data acquisition, traversing, data reduction, database and graphical display in a single platform Velocity and directional calibration of probes Various Calibration Systems ensuring high accuracy. MiniCTA Anemometer package includes all the basics to get started in velocity measurements: MiniCTA channel, software, manuals, 2 hotwire probes and necessary cables delivered in a suitcase. Introduction Constant Temperature Anemometer (CTA) technology is a well-established measurement technique with commercial systems available since The measurement principle is based on the cooling of small sensors placed in a flow. The temperature (resistance) of the sensor is kept constant by an advanced feedback control loop that contains an electronic bridge circuit. This way, the anemometer produces a continuous voltage that is proportional to the instantaneous flow velocity. The output signal is sampled with high enough resolution to analyse the fluctuations in the frequency domain. Even though CTA technique is intrusive and non-linear in response, it is still the best instrument for the accurate determination of high frequency flow fluctuations, boundary layer diagnostics, simultaneous multi-point velocity and temperature measurements. Description The MiniCTA and Multichannel CTA systems offer a cost-effective solution for measurement of flow and turbulence in applications with low to medium flow velocities and moderate fluctuation frequencies. Both platforms contain the same circuit board and therefore share the same specifications for velocity channels. The MiniCTA system is the single-channel version and is ideal for new CTA users and for more experienced users demanding mobility. The MiniCTA system is also well suited for demonstration of CTA in undergraduate fluid dynamics laboratory classes. MultichannelCTA systems offer more functionality than their single-channel counterparts. They are normally configured with a number of velocity channels and a temperature channel. Both systems are operated by the StreamWare Basic software, which performs setup, automatic probe calibration, data acquisition, data conversion and data reduction.

2 MiniCTA MiniCTA is a single channel anemometer optimized for moderate-speed airflow and low-speed water flow measurements. Air velocities up to 100m/s and water velocities up to 2m/s can be measured. The frequency bandwidth reaches above 10 khz at 50 m/s in air. The unit is also designed for use with probes suited for water applications. or Ethernet and the calibration process is controlled from StreamWare Basic software. The manual calibrator supports a two-point calibration scheme as well as a multi-point calibration scheme. Both calibrators are supported in the StreamWare Basic software. Automatic and Manual Hotwire Calibrators MiniCTA: the most compact hotwire anemometer Multichannel CTA The multiple-channel versions of the MiniCTA offer a cost effective solution for multiple-sensor measurements. MultichannelCTA systems are available in three different versions: with 4-, 6- and 8-channels. The 4-channel, and the 8-channel versions contain just velocity channels; and the 6-channel version contains 6 velocity channels, a temperature channel (54T40) and a thermistor (90P10). As an option, a reference velocity transducer is also available with the 6-channel version. The calibrators contain a set of control valves, pressure and temperature transducers and a settling chamber with an exchangeable exit nozzle. Four nozzles cover the entire velocity range. The calibrator operates on compressed air, but it can be programmed to work with other gases. The calibrators are delivered with certificates including the calibration data of the transducers (traceable to accredited laboratories) and a verification of the jet velocity at three points over the velocity range. The verification is performed with a probe with its own traceable calibration. Pitch-yaw manipulator for directional calibrations Hotwire sensors have velocity, temperature and directional sensitivity. Multiple sensor probes are used to perform 2- & 3- component velocity measurements using the directional sensitivity. For accurate measurements, an accurate directional calibration should be performed using an optional pitch-yaw manipulator. Multichannel CTA with Reference Velocity Transducer Automatic and Manual Calibrators As the sensor response depends on many external factors other than velocity, a calibration is often required for accurate CTA measurements. Dantec Dynamics can provide 2 calibrators (an automatic and a manual version) for in situ air velocity calibrations and directional calibrations to assure high accuracy at all times. Both calibrators are designed for calibration of wire and fiber-film probes in air at velocities from a few cm/s up to > 300 m/s. The probe is placed in a free jet with a flat, low-turbulent velocity profile during calibration. The automatic calibrator is connected to a computer via USB Manual and motorized pitch-yaw manipulators allow probe rotation around two axes During the directional calibration, the probe is yawed and rolled around two axes, while it is exposed to a constant calibration velocity. Measuring the probe response with the actual velocity on each sensor, StreamWare Basic software calculates the pitch and yaw factors. Individual velocity and directional calibrations improve the accuracy of the measurement compared to experiments using standard pitch & yaw factors.

3 MiniCTA temperature module A compact thermistor and amplifier package (54T40 and 90P10) is available for measurement of slow temperature changes. This package is especially useful for standalone MiniCTA- (single-channel) and MultichannelCTA systems without temperature channels (4-channel and 8- channel versions). With this package one can perform temperature correction to improve measurement accuracy in flows with temperature variations. Completing the measuring chain - Probes Dantec Dynamics s standard hotwire and hotfilm probes are supported by the novel MiniCTA circuit board design, and cover most applications in flow measurements. Additionally, special probe and support designs for unique flow situations in accordance with customer s specifications can be offered upon request. Contact your Dantec Dynamics representative for more details. Hotwire probes, ideal at high frequencies Dantec Dynamics thermal anemometry probes are very compact. Small sensor size ensures high spatial resolution, small flow interference and fast response. The miniature wire sensors, typically made of plated tungsten wire, 5 µm in diameter and 1.2 mm long, are welded on needle shaped prongs embedded in ceramic tubes. Tungsten combines high sensitivity with electrical stability and superior mechanical strength. It can be used for flows from 0.2m/s up to supersonic and withstand ambient temperatures up to 150 C. Gold-plated wires are available for high-turbulence applications. Thin film coating is performed in our clean room facility Probe supports, mounting tubes and cables Probe supports connect the probe electrically to the CTA module while supporting them mechanically. They are available for all standard probes in straight and right angle configurations. The stiffness of the construction can be improved by means of mounting-tubes made of stainless steel. The coaxial cable connecting the probe support to the CTA module has to match the servo-loop set-up with respect to impedance and inductance. It is therefore strongly recommended to use standard probe cables from Dantec Dynamics. Traversing systems Dantec Dynamics offers traversing systems that can move the probe in one, two or three directions with micrometer accuracy. The traverse may be equipped with a probe rotation unit that also allows probes to be rotated. The rotation may be needed in order to obtain proper alignment of the probe with respect to the flow, or for obtaining three velocity components from single slanted wire probes or x-probes. Precision-engineered probes ensure data quality Fibre and film probes for contaminated fluids Film and fiber-film probes are used in gas flows containing some contamination or in liquid flows. The sensors are nickel thin films protected by a thin quartz coating against wear, oxidation and as electrical insulation. Suport for traversing systems makes the point CTA technique attractive even for large-volume measurement campaigns and for single-sensor multi-position measurements. Multi-sensor probes for 2- and 3-component measurements In addition to the single yawed sensors, multiple sensor probes are also available in orthogonal configurations for 2- and 3-component velocity measurements. The sensor orientation is designed for both parallel and cross flows with respect to the probe body.

4 System Computer The MiniCTA and MultichannelCTA systems can be delivered with a system computer, a portable or a desktop version, which is preconfigured, tested and ready to use. All necessary hardware and software installation is performed before delivery. Database for organised measurements and results StreamWare Basic organizes the measurement setups and stores them in a dedicated database. The complete measurement task from configuration and experiment layout to acquiring, reducing and storing data is performed in an intuitive way. The user can go back to a data set and see the instrument configuration, electronic settings, measurement chain, and analysis sequence as an on-line notebook. Default set-up parameters related to the actual probe are stored in dedicated libraries, as are drivers for a number of A/D boards and a traverse system. StreamWare Basic can communicate with the automatic calibrator and a traverse system via USB (or LAN), while analog data are acquired via an A/D board. All set-ups, calibrations, experiment layouts and raw and reduced data are saved by the StreamWare Basic project manager, which puts you in full control and ensures traceability of results. The StreamLine Basic system computer is from an international manufacturer with worldwide presence. System Test All Dantec Dynamics systems with system controllers have to pass a detailed system test procedure before shipment where the test data is recorded on the system controller. The system test procedure ensures a smooth installation of the system on site and a quick start to actual research activities. Software StreamWare Basic is a complete software package running in a Windows environment that helps the user to design, organize and document the measurements as well as post process the results. The complete system can be controlled by StreamWare Basic, which performs hardware set-up, automatic probe calibration, data acquisition, conversion and reduction. Raw and reduced data can be presented in StreamWare Basic or they can be exported to other applications (e.g. Excel and TecPlot ) for further manipulations. System configuration and hardware set-up The hardware configuration is displayed graphically on the computer screen. With the graphical interface, a complicated system configuration becomes an easy task, and in addition, this provides a record of the system configuration of each experiment performed in the past. System configuration graphical user interface supports both MiniCTA and MultichannelCTA systems Default experiment set-up A default experiment loop contains the set-up of anemometer & signal conditioner, traversing of the probe and acquisition of data. Finally, data are reduced in accordance with a predefined scheme utilizing the probe calibration. Set-up is defined graphically before experiment StreamWare Basic with the new ribbon interface It is also possible to design more advanced experiments with conditional sampling, waiting loops, exchange of data with other equipment etc.

5 Advanced set up defining Hardware, Scheduling of data acquisition, Conversion & Reduction Turbulence Diagnostics in StreamWare CTA is still the preferred technique for investigation of turbulence due to its unmatched frequency response. In the frequency domain, power spectra can be computed for analysis of the fluctuating flow characteristics. The power spectrum calculation in StreamWare Basic provides a one-sided power spectral density per unit time. The computation combines features like block averaging, data windowing, zero padding and data overlapping in a smart fashion to reduce uncertainty inherent to Fourier analysis, while satisfying the Parseval s theorem for each signal block. The result is a clean power spectrum where dominant frequencies and harmonics are obtained. Data conversion and reduction Raw data are converted into velocity samples and further decomposed into velocity components in the case of multi-sensor probes, based on the calibration data. Data reduction comprises analysis in both the amplitude and the time (spectral) domain selected in a data reduction dialogue box. Reduced data are stored separately and are always available for graphical presentation. Correction for ambient temperature changes StreamWare Basic contains routines for temperature correction of raw data, prior to linearization, based on temperature input from the system temperature probe. As the ambient temperature often varies during an experiment, this is an important feature that improves the overall measurement accuracy significantly. Data export and presentation Based on time series acquired in one or several points in the flow statistics, mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds stresses and autocorrelation function can be calculated and displayed. Results can be displayed in StreamWare Basic or exported to other applications for further analysis or for advanced graphical presentation. Block-averaged Power Spectral Density in the freestream of a small closed-return open-test section (Göttingen type) wind tunnel at 20 m/s. Calibration, measurement and processing performed using 54T29 Reference Velocity transducer, 54T42 MiniCTA unit, 55P11 Miniature wire probe and the StreamWare Basic software. Additional information For additional information and ordering please contact your Dantec Dynamics representative. Flow field downstream of a cylinder in cross flow exported to Tecplot: mean velocity field & turbulence intensity. Dantec Dynamics undertakes a continuous and intensive product development programme to ensure that its instruments perform to the highest technical standards. As a result the specifications in this document are subject to change without notice. Publication No.: PI313v4

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