# CHAPTER 1 BASICS OF SURVEYING

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 CHAPTER 1 BASICS OF SURVEYING 1.1 SURVEYING DEFINED What is surveying? Surveying is the art of measuring distances, angles and positions on or near the surface of the earth. It is an art? Because only a surveyor who has full understanding of surveying techniques will be able to determine the most efficient methods required to obtain optimal results over a wide variety of surveying problems.

2 It is scientific? Because the use of mathematical techniques to analyze field data. Accuracy and reliability depends on understanding scientific principles underlying and affecting survey measurement. 1.2 TYPES OF SURVEYING There are two types of surveying: Plane surveying: Earth surface is considered a plane of x-y dimensions. - Z-dimension (height) referenced to the mass spherical surface of the earth (Mean Sea Level). - Most engineering and property survey are plane survey correction to curvature is made for long strips (e.g. Highway).

3 Geodetic surveying: Earth surface is considered spherical in revolution (actually ellipsoid) - Z is referenced to MSL (surface of earth) - Very precise surveys (boundaries and coastal networks). 1.3 CLASSES OF SURVEYS 1. Preliminary survey (data gathering ) : is the gathering of data (distances, position and angles) to locate physical features (rivers, roads, structures) so that data can be plotted to scale (map or plan), also include difference in elevation so that contour could be plotted.

4 2. Layout survey: Marking on the ground (using sticks, iron bar or concrete monuments) the features shown on a design plan features: - Property lines (subdivision survey). - Engineering work (construction survey). - Z-dimensions are given for x-y directions. 3. Control survey: used to reference preliminary and layout surveys. Horizontal control: arbitrary line tied to property line or HWY center or coordinated control stations. Vertical control: Benchmarks: points whose elevation. above sea level is carefully determined. - In Control survey more care to accuracy. - Control lines should be easy to re-establish.

5 1.4 DEFINITIONS 1- Topographic survey: preliminary surveys used to tie earth surface features. 2- Hydrographic survey: preliminary surveys tie underwater feature to surface control line 3- Route surveys: preliminary, layout and control surveys that range over a narrow but long strip of land (highways, railroads, electricity transmission lines and channels). 4- Property surveys: preliminary, layout and control surveys determine boundary locations. 5- Aerial survey: preliminary and final surveys to convert aerial photograph into scale map using photogrametric techniques. 6- Construction survey: layout of engineering work. 7- Final (as built) survey: preliminary surveys tie in features that just have been constructed

6 1.5 SURVEYING INSTRUMENT 1- Transit and theodolite: Establish straight or curved lines, horizontal and vertical angles. 2- The level and rod: measure difference in elevations. 3- Steel tape: measure horizontal and slope distances. 4- Total station. 5- GPS (global positioning system) receivers. Steel tape Level ( stadia principle ) Total station Thedilite GPS

7 1.6 SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE Define reference as the surface of earth. Latitude: East & West //equator. - Max angle 90 o north or south. Longitude (Meridians): North/South converge at poles & max angle = 180 degree east or west from the plane of 0 o longitude Greenwich. - used in geodetic not plane survey. - Plane survey use coordinates grid system. 1.7 SURVEY GRID REFERENCE States and provinces have adopted a grid system best suited to their needs. - Limited in size: no serious error due to curvatures. - Easy to use (plane geometry & trigonometry). - Common datum for x & y dimensions. - Easy to translate to geodetic survey.

8 1.9 SURVEY VERTICAL REFERENCE Vertical dimension can be referenced to any datum. - Mostly used datum is mean sea level MSL = ft. - Benchmarks permanent points whose elevation has been precisely determined DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS Distance between two points can be horizontal, slope or vertical and are recorded in feet (foot units) of meters (SI units). -Horizontal and slope distances can be measured by using fiberglass, steel tape or EDM (electronic distance measuring) + difference in elevation and slope distance. - Vertical distance can be measured by using tape as in construction work or level and leveling rod

9 1.11 UNIT OF MEASUREMENT There are two main measuring systems: English system and Metric system (SI units). - All countries will change to Metric system. - Angles are measured by: Degrees, minutes and seconds. - 1 revolution = 360 degrees, 1 degree = 60 minutes and 1 minutes = 60 seconds LOCATION METHODS B B B C P P P A A A - (a): right angle offset tie. - (b): the angle distance tie (polar tie). - (c): angle at A and B of distance BP of AP (intersection technique).

10 1.13 ACCURACY AND PRECISION Accuracy: relationship between measure & true value of measurement. Precision: Degree of refinement with which the measurement is made. Accurate, not precise (the average is accurate) precise not accurate accurate and precise Example: True Distance Measured Distance Error Cloth tape Steel tape More precise method resulted in more accurate. - More precise method may result in less accurate measurement. Example: Repaired tape.

11 1.14 ACCURACY RATIO Error of closure: The difference between the measured location and the theoretical correct location (repeated measurement, mathematical analysis). Exp. measured distance errors 0.06 Known distance Accuracy ratio 0.06/ = 1/4175 = 1/ Fraction whose numerator is unity and denominator closest 100 unit ERRORS - No measurement (except count) can be free of error. -True value is determined statistically (mean) to calculate error. Systematic error: error whose magnitude and algebraic sign can be determined and eliminated (temp. error). Random Error: - Error due to surveyor skill. - Tend to cancel each other. - Little significance except for high precision survey. - Unskilled or careless surveyor can make problem. - Large random error doesn t result in accurate work even if they cancel.

12 1.16 MISTAKES There are many mistakes that cold be happened to surveyors. - Blunders made by survey personnel e.g. 68 instead of Miscounting tape length, measuring from wrong point. - Mistakes will occur and must be discovered and eliminated by verifying the measurement (Repeat Geometry analysis, etc.). - Every measurement should be repeated to eliminate mistakes and improved precision STATIONING Along Baseline: stations or champagne At night angle: offset dist. Beg ft (m)

### CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Surveying Terms 9-2 Standard Abbreviations 9-6 9-1 A) SURVEYING TERMS Accuracy - The degree of conformity with a standard, or the degree of perfection attained

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

### Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

### Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

### State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

### NSPS SURVEY TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION PROGRAM LEVEL III SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

NSPS SURVEY TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION PROGRAM LEVEL III SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS NATIONAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL SURVEYORS October 2007 This booklet has been prepared to provide an example of what

### TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. RELIEF (brown) Hills, valleys, mountains, plains, etc. WATER. land boundaries, etc. CULTURAL

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS MAP 2-D REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH S SURFACE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP A graphic representation of the 3-D configuration of the earth s surface. This is it shows elevations (third dimension). It

### The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of

### STATE OF ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF MINING, LAND AND WATER. GENERAL SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS EASEMENTS Authority 11 AAC 53

STATE OF ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF MINING, LAND AND WATER GENERAL SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS EASEMENTS Authority 11 AAC 53 These instructions define the survey and platting criteria unique

### ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING

ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING Chapter 4 2015 Cadastral Mapping Manual 4-0 Elements of Surveying and Mapping Utah's system of land surveying is the rectangular survey system as set forth on

### MINIMUM STANDARDS OF ACCURACY, CONTENT AND CERTIFICATION FOR SURVEYS AND MAPS ARTICLE I. TYPES OF SURVEYS

MINIMUM STANDARDS OF ACCURACY, CONTENT AND CERTIFICATION FOR SURVEYS AND MAPS ARTICLE I. TYPES OF SURVEYS Current with material published in Conn.L.J. through 5/13/08 Sec. 20-300b-1. General There are

### ROAD SURVEYING Section I. RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY PREPARATION AND SCOPE

CHAPTER 2 ROAD SURVEYING Section I. RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY PREPARATION AND SCOPE The reconnaissance survey is an extensive study of an entire area that might be used for a road or airfield. Its purpose

### It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

### Survey Ties Guidelines

North Carolina Board of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors Survey Ties Guidelines The North Carolina Board of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors is providing this document to serve as an interpretative

### CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND METHODS OF DESCRIBING REAL ESTATE

r CHAPTER 4 LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF LAND DESCRIBING LAND A legal description is a detailed way of describing a parcel of land for documents such as deeds and mortgages that will be accepted in a court of

### For Environmental Health Science Students. Surveying. Wuttiet Tafesse, Tesfaye Gobena. Haramaya University

LECTURE NOTES For Environmental Health Science Students Surveying Wuttiet Tafesse, Tesfaye Gobena Haramaya University In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center,

### SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

### Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System

State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular

### Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

### Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

### PEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES

16 PEOPLE & SITES The People & Sites sections contain fields to help you provide contextual information for your collections. Artifacts, archival materials, photographs, and publications reveal something

### WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS - True, Geodetic, or Grid - Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)

### 4.03 Vertical Control Surveys: 4-1

4. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CONTROL 4.01 General: Sufficient horizontal and, if applicable, vertical control surveys shall be established by the Contractor for all photogrammetric mapping purposes. Prior

### CHAPTER 3 PROJECT CONTROL

CHAPTER 3 PROJECT CONTROL Marking Survey Control Points 3-2 Horizontal Control 3-2 Vertical Control 3-3 Preconstruction Bench Marks 3-3 Bench Mark Levels 3-3 Bench Mark Check Levels 3-5 Total Station Leveling

### LAB E - INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC TOOLS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

LAB E - INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC TOOLS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Introduction Topographic maps differ from the thematic and regional maps found in atlases in that they employ contour lines (isopleths), lines

### FUNDAMENTALS OF LANDSCAPE TECHNOLOGY GSD Harvard University Graduate School of Design Department of Landscape Architecture Fall 2006

FUNDAMENTALS OF LANDSCAPE TECHNOLOGY GSD Harvard University Graduate School of Design Department of Landscape Architecture Fall 2006 6106/ M2 BASICS OF GRADING AND SURVEYING Laura Solano, Lecturer Name

### CONTROL POINT SURVEYING AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING

CONTROL POINT SURVEYING AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING Shoichi Oki Land Bureau, National Land Agency, Japan Keywords: control point, survey, topography, mapping, geodesy Contents 1. Introduction 2. Geometric

### Land Survey Services and Building Site Services

Land Surveyors Land surveyors assess a particular area for the purpose of development, and to measure and map the area. Land surveyors used advanced technology such as GPS, Robotic Total Stations (Theodolites),

### Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/238-1911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations

### Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

### CHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK. Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS

CHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS IMPORTANCE In road, railroad, and airfield construction, the movement of large volumes of earth (earthwork) is one of the most important

### EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

### Registered map layers

Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

### UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates

UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)

### CHAPTER 8 - LAND DESCRIPTIONS

CHAPTER 8 - LAND DESCRIPTIONS Notes: While the location of land is commonly referred to by street number and city, it is necessary to use the legal description in the preparation of those instruments relating

### Brevard County Public Works Finance and Contracts Administration

Brevard County Public Works Finance and Contracts Administration Public Works Survey & Mapping Division Review Check Sheet for Land Acquisition, Drainage, Roadway and Pedway Expansion, Asbuilts, Maintenance

### 量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong

量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong Survey & Mapping Office Lands Department 1995 All Right Reserved by Hong Kong Government 留 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............... A1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND............

### Model Virginia Map Accuracy Standards Guideline

Commonwealth of Virginia Model Virginia Map Accuracy Standards Guideline Virginia Information Technologies Agency (VITA) Publication Version Control Publication Version Control: It is the user's responsibility

### www.passpe.com Surveying for California Civil PE License Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE Surveying for California Civil Engineering License

Well Organized, Based on the Current California Board Test Plan and References, Detailed, Computer Generated Index (8 pages), Simplified Concepts, 66 Sample Problems with Detailed Solutions, and 181 Supplemental

### Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

### Maps A Primer for Content & Production of Topographic Base Maps For Design Presented by SurvBase, LLC

Maps A Primer for Content & Production of Topographic Base Maps For Design Presented by Definition and Purpose of, Map: a representation of the whole or a part of an area. Maps serve a wide range of purposes.

### SURVEYING WITH GPS. GPS has become a standard surveying technique in most surveying practices

SURVEYING WITH GPS Key Words: Static, Fast-static, Kinematic, Pseudo- Kinematic, Real-time kinematic, Receiver Initialization, On The Fly (OTF), Baselines, Redundant baselines, Base Receiver, Rover GPS

### Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system

Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique

### The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping

The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below

### GIS s s Roots in Cartography

Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

### SCHEME OF STUDIES CERTIFICATE IN LAND SURVEYING

1 SCHEME OF STUDIES CERTIFICATE IN LAND SURVEYING Sr.No. Subjects Theory Practical Sessional Total Marks Page Nos 1. CLS-101-Mathematics, Scales 70 0 0 70 2-3 2. CLS-102-Introduction to Survey Instruments

### Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are

### Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

### Total Program's Units

Associate Degree Program Department of Civil and Architectural Technology Major : Survey Technology First Semester NO 5 6 Code SRV 0 SRV 0 SRV 0 ENG 0 MTH 7 CMT 0 Course Title Land survey Survey drawing

### Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening

DUTIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SURVEYOR In support of construction activities, the surveyor obtains the reconnaissance and preliminary data which are necessary at the planning stage. During the construction

### G.S. 47-30 Mapping Requirements for Recordable Maps

G.S. 47-30 Mapping Requirements for Recordable Maps 47-30. Plats and subdivisions; mapping requirements. (a) Size Requirements. All land plats presented to the register of deeds for recording in the registry

### Fundamentals of Surveying Theory and Samples Exercises

Fundamentals of Surveying Theory and Samples Exercises Prof. Dr. Yuji Murayama Surantha Dassanayake Division of Spatial Information Science Graduate School Life and Environment Sciences University of Tsukuba

### Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standards Part 2: Standards for Geodetic Networks

Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standards Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee Federal Geographic Data Committee Federal Geographic Data Committee Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce Department

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

### GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

### Used by New Zealand. Emergency Services. Map Reading Guide 1:50 000. How to use a Topographic map

Used by New Zealand Emergency Services Map Reading Guide How to use a Topographic map 1:50 000 This guide provides information on: datums projections the New Zealand topographic map series Topo50 (and

### Learning about GPS and GIS

Learning about GPS and GIS Standards 4.4 Understand geographic information systems (G.I.S.). B12.1 Understand common surveying techniques used in agriculture (e.g., leveling, land measurement, building

### PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google

### Number Sense and Operations

Number Sense and Operations representing as they: 6.N.1 6.N.2 6.N.3 6.N.4 6.N.5 6.N.6 6.N.7 6.N.8 6.N.9 6.N.10 6.N.11 6.N.12 6.N.13. 6.N.14 6.N.15 Demonstrate an understanding of positive integer exponents

### Field Preparations with Topcon Tools

Oscar R. Cantu Topcon University FTP Site For access to previously offered webinars and supporting documentation, please go to: ftp://tulive+topconuniversity.com:tulive@ftp.topconuniversity.com Topcon

### Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections

1 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections Dan Uhrhan dfu101@psu.edu 2 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 3 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 4 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 5 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM [Replace

### How do you compare numbers? On a number line, larger numbers are to the right and smaller numbers are to the left.

The verbal answers to all of the following questions should be memorized before completion of pre-algebra. Answers that are not memorized will hinder your ability to succeed in algebra 1. Number Basics

### CHAPTER 7 TRAVERSE Section I. SELECTION OF TRAVERSE DEFINITION

CHAPTER 7 TRAVERSE Section I. SELECTION OF TRAVERSE DEFINITION A traverse is a series of straight lines called traverse legs. The surveyor uses them to connect a series of selected points called traverse

### Geographic Referencing

CHAPTER 10 Geographic Referencing 10.1 GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION SYSTEMS To create a reliable map, it is necessary to relate the digital data to its true terrestrial situation. 10.1.1 Land Subdivision The system

### 4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation

4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation 4.1 Details on Great Circles In fig. GN 4.1 two Great Circle/Rhumb Line cases are shown, one in each hemisphere. In each case the shorter distance between

### 2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT

2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT Open channel flow is defined as flow in any channel where the liquid flows with a free surface. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the

### NJDEP GPS Data Collection Standards For GIS Data Development

NJDEP GPS Data Collection Standards For GIS Data Development Bureau of Geographic Information Systems Office of Information Resource Management June 8, 2011 1.0 Introduction... 3 2.0 GPS Receiver Hardware

### Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

### Microsoft Mathematics for Educators:

Microsoft Mathematics for Educators: Familiarize yourself with the interface When you first open Microsoft Mathematics, you ll see the following elements displayed: 1. The Calculator Pad which includes

### Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies. 13 th May 2004. Content. What is GIS?

Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies 13 th May 2004 Content Introduction to GIS Data concepts Data input Analysis Applications selected examples What is GIS? Geographic Information

### NC General Statutes - Chapter 102 1

Chapter 102. Official Survey Base. 102-1. Name and description. The official survey base for the State of North Carolina shall be a system of plane coordinates to be known as the "North Carolina Coordinate

### Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to

### Modern Real Estate Practice in Illinois, 6 th Edition Filmore W. Galaty, Wellington J. Allaway, Robert C. Kyle Laurie MacDougal, Consulting Editor

Filmore W. Galaty, Wellington J. Allaway, Robert C. Kyle Laurie MacDougal, Consulting Editor Chapter 9 Review Quiz 1. The numbering of sections in a township begins in the section in the a. northeast corner

### Elev. A = 200.05, Elev. B = 325.25, horizontal distance = 1625 feet a. 7.7 b..077 c. 12.98 d. 1.28

1. If the percent grade is 7.25 % and the horizontal length of grade is 1625 feet, what is the change in elevation? a. 117.81 feet b. 1178.13 feet c. 11.78 feet d. 1.17 feet 2. In surveying, the distance

### Maps and Globes. By Kennedy s Korner

Maps and Globes By Kennedy s Korner Table of Contents Words to Know What are Maps and Globes Map Key or Symbols Cardinal Directions Intermediate Directions Equator Prime Meridian Hemispheres Coordinate

### Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to:

Chapter 5 Section 1 Lesson Angle Measure Objectives After completing this section, you should be able to: Use the most common conventions to position and measure angles on the plane. Demonstrate an understanding

### Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007

Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Modified from: Kerski, J.J., 2007, Measuring the Earth s Circumference with GPS, Copyright ESRI,

### Topographic Maps Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007

Topographic Maps Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 1. In the illustration shown below what navigational features are represented by A, B, and C? Note that A is a critical city in defining

### Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013

Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from

### Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Site Plans

Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Site Plans Sacramento City College EDT 300/ENGR 306 EDT 300/ENGR 306 - Site Plans 1 Cabin Project Site Plan/Bubble Diagram - Assignment 1 =10-0 Floor Plan - Assignment 1/4

### ASF Cave Survey and Map Standards

ASF Cave Survey and Map Standards by Edward G. Anderson and others, 1978 Replaces ASF Survey Standard of 1962 Ken Grimes, 1 March, 1997 ASF Survey Commission Copyright 1962, 1978, 1985, 1997 Australian

### Obtaining Accurate Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates using Kiwi OSD

Obtaining Accurate Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates using Kiwi OSD Walter V. Morgan Presented at the IOTA 2007 Annual Meeting July 21, 2007 Pasco, Washington, U.S.A. Summary STATUS GPS-based timing

### Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

### A NEW ALGORITHM FOR MAP PROJECTION REVERSE TRANSFORMATION IN GIS

Geoinformatics 004 Proc. 1th Int. Conf. on Geoinformatics Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 004 A NEW ALGORITHM FOR MAP PROJECTION

### Slope and Topographic Maps

Slope and Topographic Maps Lesson Plan Cube Fellow: Kenneth A. Macpherson Teacher Mentor: Sandra Fugett Goal: The goal is for students to gain a more intuitive understanding of slope. This will be accomplished

### Chapter 5: Working with contours

Introduction Contoured topographic maps contain a vast amount of information about the three-dimensional geometry of the land surface and the purpose of this chapter is to consider some of the ways in

### PART 6 MAPPING CHAPTER 1 ASSESSMENT MAPPING PARCELING STANDARDS AND ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES MANUAL. DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE Property Tax Division

Parceling Stards PART 6 MAPPING CHAPTER 1 ASSESSMENT MAPPING AND PARCELING STANDARDS 6.1.1 Parceling Stards INTRODUCTION As computerized mapping has moved into the mainstream, the sharing of geographic

### STATE OF NEVADA Department of Administration Division of Human Resource Management CLASS SPECIFICATION

STATE OF NEVADA Department of Administration Division of Human Resource Management CLASS SPECIFICATION TITLE PHOTOGRAMMETRIST/CARTOGRAPHER V 39 6.102 PHOTOGRAMMETRIST/CARTOGRAPHER II 33 6.110 PHOTOGRAMMETRIST/CARTOGRAPHER

### ALBERTA SURVEY CONTROL PRODUCTS MANUAL

ALBERTA SURVEY CONTROL PRODUCTS MANUAL Lands Division Land Dispositions Branch Geodetic Control Unit Edmonton 2007 Pub. No.: Ref. 85 ISBN: 0-7732-1298-1 For copies of this document, please contact: Geodetic

### 3.1 Aerodrome information to be provided for a certified aerodrome

CHAPTER 3:AERODROME DATA 3.1 Aerodrome information to be provided for a certified aerodrome 3.1.1 Aerodrome chart. An aerodrome chart will contain the following information: a) layout of runways, taxiways

### John F. Cotton College of Architecture & Environmental Design California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California JOHN F.

SO L I DMO D E L I N GAS A TO O LFO RCO N S T RU C T I N SO G LA REN V E LO PE S by John F. Cotton College of Architecture & Environmental Design California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo,

The Basics of Navigation Knowledge of map reading and the use of the compass is an indispensable skill of bushcraft. Without this skill, a walker is a passenger and mere follower on a trip. To become a

### Land Surveying Technology Office Technician

Land Surveying Technology Office Technician INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu Land Surveying Technology Office Technician CREDENTIAL Associate of Applied