# Methods and formulas used to calculate the GRACE Risk Scores for patients presenting to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome:

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1 Updated January 30, 2014 Methods and formulas used to calculate the GRACE Risk Scores for patients presenting to hospital with an acute coronary syndrome: Coordinating Center for the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Center for Outcomes Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School Fred Anderson, PhD, Director Gordon FitzGerald, PhD, Senior Biostatistician IN-HOSPITAL MODELS 1. 8 Granger reduced model estimates for hospital death Arch Int Med, Oct 2003 (Can be used to estimate the probability of hospital death.) 2. Translation of 8 estimates into Granger risk score (nomogram) 3. How Granger risk score relates to probability of hospital death (Note- probability computed directly from model estimates in #1 should be slightly more accurate, as a single score cannot completely replace 8 distinct factors.) 4. Risk score for in-hospital death or MI (nomogram) POST DISCHARGE MODELS 5. 9 Eagle reduced model estimates for death in 6 months after discharge JAMA, June 2004 (Can be used to estimate the probability of 6-month death.) 6. Translation of 9 estimates into Eagle risk score (nomogram) 7. Risk score for death or MI in 6 months after discharge (nomogram) ADMISSION TO 6 MONTHS MODELS 8. Risk score for Fox prediction of death from admission to 6 months later (nomogram) BMJ, Oct Risk score for Fox prediction of death or MI from admission to 6 months later (nomogram) Massachusetts Medical School. 1

2 Granger Model for In-hospital Death 1. Model estimates from multiple logistic regression model Intercept AGE (per 1 yr) PULSE (per 1 BPM) SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (per 1 mmhg) INITIAL SERUM CREATININE, mg,dl KILLIP CLASS (1,2,3, or 4) CARDIAC ARREST at presentation* INITIAL CARDIAC ENZYME Positive* ST SEGMENT DEVIATION* * enter a value of 1 if factor is present, 0 otherwise. To obtain estimated risk of death from above estimates Compute XB, where X=individual patient's value for each factor (eg, age=57, pulse=70 ), and B=estimates above, including the intercept. XB is then the summed product of the patient characteristics times the estimates, with the intercept added for every patient. For example, if a patient is age 57, pulse 70, SBP 110, creatinine 1.2, Killip class III, had cardiac arrest and ST deviation but not initial positive enzymes, XB is: XB = * * * * * * * *.8755 (= ). The probability of in-hospital death is then P = (Exp**XB)/(1 + exp**(xb)) (=.21693), where exp is , and ** means raised to that power (XB power). The SAS macro below illustrates this computation for a given patient %macro xb(val1,val2,val3,val4,val5,val6,val7,val8); data x; age=&val1; pulse=&val2; sbp=&val3; creat=&val4; killip=&val5; carrst=&val6; posinit=&val7; stchange=&val8; xb= (0.0531*age) + (0.0087*pulse) - (0.0168*sbp) + (0.1823*creat) + (0.6931* killip) + (1.4586*carrst) + (0.4700*posinit) + (0.8755*stchange); p=(exp(xb))/(1 + exp(xb)); run; proc print data=x; run; %mend xb; %xb(val1=57,val2=70,val3=110,val4=1.2,val5=3,val6=1,val7=0,val8=1); Massachusetts Medical School. 2

3 2. Nomogram translating Eight Granger Model estimates for in-hospital death into integer GRACE Risk Scores (see pg of Granger article) SAS code for obtaining risk score as in article ***************************************** ** Create data for HS Grace score *** ****************************************; *** assign points as in nomogram for Granger ****; * 1. Killip class I,II,III,IV; if killip=1 then killips = 0; else if killip=2 then killips = 20; else if killip=3 then killips = 39; else if killip=4 then killips = 59; * 2. BPSYS is systolic blood pressure (mm Hg); if 0 <=bpsys < 80 then sysbp2 = 58; else if 80 <=bpsys < 100 then sysbp2 = 58 -(bpsys-80)*(10/20); else if 100<=bpsys < 110 then sysbp2 = 48 -(bpsys-100)*(5/10); else if 110<=bpsys < 120 then sysbp2 = 43 -(bpsys-110)*(4/10); else if 120<=bpsys < 130 then sysbp2 = 39 -(bpsys-120)*(5/10); else if 130<=bpsys < 140 then sysbp2 = 34 -(bpsys-130)*(5/10); else if 140<=bpsys < 150 then sysbp2 = 29 -(bpsys-140)*(5/10); else if 150<=bpsys < 160 then sysbp2 = 24 -(bpsys-150)*(5/10); else if 160<=bpsys < 180 then sysbp2 = 19 -(bpsys-160)*(9/20); else if 180<=bpsys < 200 then sysbp2 = 10 -(bpsys-180)*(10/20); else if bpsys >=200 then sysbp2 = 0; * 3. PULSE in beats/minute; if 0 <=pulse < 50 then pulse2 = 0; else if 50 <=pulse < 60 then pulse2 = 0 + (pulse-50)*(3/10); else if 60 <=pulse < 70 then pulse2 = 3 + (pulse-60)*(3/10); else if 70 <=pulse < 80 then pulse2 = 6 + (pulse-70)*(3/10); else if 80 <=pulse < 90 then pulse2 = 9 + (pulse-80)*(3/10); else if 90 <=pulse < 100 then pulse2 = 12 + (pulse-90)*(3/10); else if 100<=pulse < 110 then pulse2 = 15 + (pulse-100)*(3/10); else if 110<=pulse < 150 then pulse2 = 18 + (pulse-110)*(12/40); else if 150<=pulse < 200 then pulse2 = 30 + (pulse-150)*(16/50); else if pulse >=200 then pulse2 = 46; * 4. AGE in years; if 0 <=age < 30 then age2 = 0; else if 30 <=age < 40 then age2 = 0 + (age-30)*(17/10); else if 40 <=age < 50 then age2 = 17 + (age-40)*(16/10); else if 50 <=age < 60 then age2 = 33 + (age-50)*(17/10); else if 60 <=age < 70 then age2 = 50 + (age-60)*(17/10); else if 70 <=age < 80 then age2 = 67 + (age-70)*(16/10); else if 80 <=age < 90 then age2 = 83 + (age-80)*(17/10); else if age >=90 then age2 = 100; * 5. Creatinine in mg/dl; if 0.0 <=creat_mg < 0.2 then crt2 = 0 + (creat_mg-0)*(1/.2); else if 0.2 <=creat_mg < 0.4 then crt2 = 1 + (creat_mg-0.2)*(2/.2); else if 0.4 <=creat_mg < 0.6 then crt2 = 3 + (creat_mg-0.4)*(1/.2); Massachusetts Medical School. 3

4 else if 0.6 <=creat_mg < 0.8 then crt2 = 4 + (creat_mg-0.6)*(2/.2); else if 0.8 <=creat_mg < 1.0 then crt2 = 6 + (creat_mg-0.8)*(1/.2); else if 1.0 <=creat_mg < 1.2 then crt2 = 7 + (creat_mg-1.0)*(1/.2); else if 1.2 <=creat_mg < 1.4 then crt2 = 8 + (creat_mg-1.2)*(2/.2); else if 1.4 <=creat_mg < 1.6 then crt2 = 10 + (creat_mg-1.4)*(1/.2); else if 1.6 <=creat_mg < 1.8 then crt2 = 11 + (creat_mg-1.6)*(2/.2); else if 1.8 <=creat_mg < 2.0 then crt2 = 13 + (creat_mg-1.8)*(1/.2); else if 2.0 <=creat_mg < 3.0 then crt2 = 14 + (creat_mg-2.0)*(7/1); else if 3.0 <=creat_mg < 4.0 then crt2 = 21 + (creat_mg-3.0)*(7/1); else if creat_mg >=4.0 then crt2 = 28; * 6. STCHANGE is ST deviation, assigned a value of 1 if present, 0 if absent; * 7. POSINIT is positive initial cardiac enzymes (1 if present, 0 if absent); * 8. CARRST is cardiac arrest on presentation (1 if present, 0 if absent); * Risk score=sum of points for 8 factors; Death_pt = killips + sysbp2 + pulse2 + age2 + crt2 + 28*stchange + 14*posinit + 39*carrst; Massachusetts Medical School. 4

5 3. How GRACE Risk Scores Relate to Probability of In-hospital Death Estimated Event Rates by Nomogram Score Predicted rate Score Table of selected individual scores by probability of in-hospital death (Note- probability computed directly from model estimates in #1 should be slightly more accurate, as a single score cannot completely replace 8 distinct factors.) Score Probability Score Probability Score Probability Massachusetts Medical School. 5

6 4. Nomogram for translating eight Granger risk factors into an in-hospital death/mi risk score (as used in Palm Pilot software available on GRACE website) *****SAS code *******************************************************; In hospital death/mi score (based on palm pilot); * 1. AGE in years; if 0 <=age < 30 then age3 = 0; else if 30 <=age < 40 then age3 = 0 + (age-30)*(1.3); else if 40 <=age < 50 then age3 = 13 + (age-40)*(1.4); else if 50 <=age < 60 then age3 = 27 + (age-50)*(1.3); else if 60 <=age < 70 then age3 = 40 + (age-60)*(1.4); else if 70 <=age < 80 then age3 = 54 + (age-70)*(1.3); else if 80 <=age < 90 then age3 = 67 + (age-80)*(1.3); else if age >=90 then age3 = 80; * 2. PULSE in beats/minute; if 0 <=pulse < 50 then pulse3 = 0; else if 50 <=pulse < 60 then pulse3 = 0 + (pulse-50)*(.3); else if 60 <=pulse < 70 then pulse3 = 3 + (pulse-60)*(.2); else if 70 <=pulse < 80 then pulse3 = 5 + (pulse-70)*(.3); else if 80 <=pulse < 90 then pulse3 = 8 + (pulse-80)*(.3); else if 90 <=pulse < 100 then pulse3 = 11 + (pulse-90)*(.3); else if 100<=pulse < 110 then pulse3 = 14 + (pulse-100)*(.2); else if 110<=pulse < 150 then pulse3 = 16 + (pulse-110)*(.3); else if 150<=pulse < 200 then pulse3 = 28 + (pulse-150)*(.26); else if pulse >=200 then pulse3 = 41; * 3. BPSYS is systolic blood pressure (mm Hg); if 0 <=sbp < 80 then sysbp3 = 53; else if 80 <=sbp < 100 then sysbp3 = 53 -(sbp-80)*(.4); else if 100<=sbp < 110 then sysbp3 = 45 -(sbp-100)*(.5); else if 110<=sbp < 120 then sysbp3 = 40 -(sbp-110)*(.5); else if 120<=sbp < 130 then sysbp3 = 35 -(sbp-120)*(.4); else if 130<=sbp < 140 then sysbp3 = 31 -(sbp-130)*(.5); else if 140<=sbp < 150 then sysbp3 = 26 -(sbp-140)*(.4); else if 150<=sbp < 160 then sysbp3 = 22 -(sbp-150)*(.5); else if 160<=sbp < 180 then sysbp3 = 17 -(sbp-160)*(.4); else if 180<=sbp < 200 then sysbp3 = 9 -(sbp-180)*(.45); else if sbp >=200 then sysbp3 = 0; * 4. Creatinine in mg/dl (same points as for death score); if 0.0 <=creat_mg < 0.2 then crt2 = 0 + (creat_mg-0)*(1/.2); else if 0.2 <=creat_mg < 0.4 then crt2 = 1 + (creat_mg-0.2)*(2/.2); else if 0.4 <=creat_mg < 0.6 then crt2 = 3 + (creat_mg-0.4)*(1/.2); else if 0.6 <=creat_mg < 0.8 then crt2 = 4 + (creat_mg-0.6)*(2/.2); else if 0.8 <=creat_mg < 1.0 then crt2 = 6 + (creat_mg-0.8)*(1/.2); else if 1.0 <=creat_mg < 1.2 then crt2 = 7 + (creat_mg-1.0)*(1/.2); else if 1.2 <=creat_mg < 1.4 then crt2 = 8 + (creat_mg-1.2)*(2/.2); else if 1.4 <=creat_mg < 1.6 then crt2 = 10 + (creat_mg-1.4)*(1/.2); else if 1.6 <=creat_mg < 1.8 then crt2 = 11 + (creat_mg-1.6)*(2/.2); else if 1.8 <=creat_mg < 2.0 then crt2 = 13 + (creat_mg-1.8)*(1/.2); else if 2.0 <=creat_mg < 3.0 then crt2 = 14 + (creat_mg-2.0)*(7/1); else if 3.0 <=creat_mg < 4.0 then crt2 = 21 + (creat_mg-3.0)*(7/1); else if creat_mg >=4.0 then crt2 = 28; Massachusetts Medical School. 6

7 * 5. Killip class I,II,III,IV; if killip=1 then killips3 = 0; else if killip=2 then killips3 = 33; else if killip=3 then killips3 = 67; else if killip=4 then killips3 = 100; * 6. CARRST is cardiac arrest on presentation (1 if present, 0 if absent); * 7. POSINIT is positive initial cardiac enzymes (1 if present, 0 if absent); * 8. STCHANGE is ST deviation, assigned a value of 1 if present, 0 if absent; * Death/MI risk score=sum of points for 8 factors; deathmi_pt = killips3 + sysbp3 + pulse3 + age3 + crt2 + 67*stchange + 54*posinit + 98*carrst; How score relates to probability of in-hospital death or MI Score Prob Score Prob Score Prob < > Massachusetts Medical School. 7

8 Eagle Model Predicting Death within 6 Months after Hospital Discharge 5. Model estimates from multiple Cox regression model Pg of JAMA article Base survival AGE (per 1 yr) PULSE (per 1 BPM) SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (per 1 mmhg) INITIAL SERUM CREATININE, mg,dl Positive initial enzymes (presentation)* ST SEGMENT DEPRESSION (presentation)* Past MI (determined at presentation)* Past CHF (determined at presentation)* In-hospital PCI* * enter a value of 1 if factor is present, 0 otherwise. To obtain estimated risk of 6 month post discharge death from above estimates Compute XB, where X=individual patient's value for each factor (eg, age=57, pulse=70 ), and B=estimates above, including the intercept. XB is then the summed product of the patient characteristics times the estimates, with the intercept added for every patient. For example, if a patient is age 57, pulse 70, SBP 110, creatinine 1.2, no positive initial enzymes, had ST depression, no past MI, past CHF, had in-hospital PCI, XB is: XB = 57* * * * * * * * *44618 (= ). The probability of 6 month post discharge death is then P = 1 - baseline survival**(exp**xb) (=.0285), where base survival is.9995, exp is , and ** means raised to that power (so.9995 raised to the ( raised to the XB power)). The SAS macro below illustrates this computation for a given patient %macro prob(val1, val2, val3, val4, val5, val6, val7, val8, val9, val10); data x; age=&val1; pulse=&val2; bpsys=&val3; creat=&val4; posinit=&val5; stdepr=&val6; mhmi=&val7; mhchf=&val8; nopci=&val9; basesurv=&val10; Xbeta = (age* ) + (pulse* ) - (bpsys* ) + (creat* ) + (posinit* ) + (stdepr* ) + (mhmi* )+ (mhchf* ) - (pci* ); exbeta=exp(xbeta); cumsurv=basesurv**exbeta; p=1-cumsurv; run; proc print data=x; run; %mend prob; %prob(val1=57, val2=70, val3=110, val4=1.2, val5=0, val6=1, val7=0, val8=1, val9=1, val10=.9995); Massachusetts Medical School. 8

9 6. Nomogram translating nine Eagle Model estimates for death within the 6 months after discharge into GRACE Risk Score integers (see pg of 2004 JAMA article) SAS code for obtaining risk score as in article * 1. Age in years; if 0 <=age < 35 then age_sc = 0; else if 35 <=age < 45 then age_sc = 0 + (age-35)*((18-0)/10); else if 45 <=age < 55 then age_sc = 18 + (age-45)*((36-18)/10); else if 55 <=age < 65 then age_sc = 36 + (age-55)*((55-36)/10); else if 65 <=age < 75 then age_sc = 55 + (age-65)*((73-55)/10); else if 75 <=age < 85 then age_sc = 73 + (age-75)*((91-73)/10); else if 85 <=age < 90 then age_sc = 91 + (age-85)*((100-91)/5); else if age >=90 then age_sc = 100; * 2. Pulse at presentation, in beats/minute; if 0 <= pulse < 50 then pulse_sc = 0; else if 50 <= pulse < 60 then pulse_sc= 0 + (pulse-50)*((3-0)/10); else if 60 <= pulse < 80 then pulse_sc= 3 + (pulse-60)*((9-3)/20); else if 80 <= pulse < 100 then pulse_sc= 9 + (pulse-80)*((14-9)/20); else if 100 <= pulse < 130 then pulse_sc= 14 + (pulse-100)*((23-14)/30); else if 130 <= pulse < 175 then pulse_sc= 23 + (pulse-130)*((35-23)/45); else if 175 <= pulse < 200 then pulse_sc= 35 + (pulse-175)*((43-35)/25); else if pulse >=200 then pulse_sc= 43; * 3. Systolic blood pressure at presentation, in mm Hg; if 0 <=bpsys< 80 then sbp_sc = 24; else if 80 <=bpsys< 90 then sbp_sc = 24 - (bpsys-80)*((24-22)/10); else if 90 <=bpsys< 110 then sbp_sc = 22 - (bpsys-90)*((22-18)/20); else if 110 <=bpsys< 130 then sbp_sc = 18 - (bpsys-110)*((18-14)/20); else if 130 <=bpsys< 150 then sbp_sc = 14 - (bpsys-130)*((14-10)/20); else if 150 <=bpsys< 180 then sbp_sc = 10 - (bpsys-150)*((10-4)/30); else if 180 <=bpsys< 200 then sbp_sc = 4 - (bpsys-180)*((4-0)/20); else if bpsys>=200 then sbp_sc = 0; * 4. Initial creatinine in mg/dl; if 0 <= creat < 0.2 then creat_sc = 0 + (creat-0.0)*((1-0)/0.2); else if 0.2 <= creat < 0.4 then creat_sc = 1 + (creat-0.2)*((2-1)/0.2); else if 0.4 <= creat < 0.6 then creat_sc = 2 + (creat-0.4)*((3-2)/0.2); else if 0.6 <= creat < 0.8 then creat_sc = 3 + (creat-0.6)*((4-3)/0.2); else if 0.8 <= creat < 1.0 then creat_sc = 4 + (creat-0.8)*((5-4)/0.2); else if 1.0 <= creat < 1.2 then creat_sc = 5 + (creat-1.0)*((6-5)/0.2); else if 1.2 <= creat < 1.4 then creat_sc = 6 + (creat-1.2)*((7-6)/0.2); else if 1.4 <= creat < 1.6 then creat_sc = 7 + (creat-1.4)*((8-7)/0.2); else if 1.6 <= creat < 1.8 then creat_sc = 8 + (creat-1.6)*((9-8)/0.2); else if 1.8 <= creat < 2.0 then creat_sc = 9 + (creat-1.8)*((10-9)/0.2); else if 2.0 <= creat < 3.0 then creat_sc = 10+ (creat-2.0)*((15-10)/1.0); else if 3.0 <= creat < 4.0 then creat_sc = 15+ (creat-3.0)*((20-15)/1.0); else if creat >=4.0 then creat_sc = 20; * for 5-8, code 0 if absent, 1 if present; * 5. POSINIT is initial elevated serum cardiac biomarkers; * 6. STDEPR is ST-segment depression on initial ECG; * 7. MHMI is history of MI (as of hospital admission); Massachusetts Medical School. 9

10 * 8. MHCHF is history of CHF (as of hospital admission); * 9. NOPCI is PCI performed in hospital (code 1=no PCI, 0=PCI); * Risk score=sum of points for 9 factors; *** equation; escore = age_sc + pulse_sc + sbp_sc + creat_sc + 15*posinit + 11*stdepr + 12*mhmi + 24*mhchf + 14*nopci; Predicted values for All Cause Mortality From Discharge to 6 Months 50.00% 45.00% 40.00% 35.00% Predicted Probability 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Score Table of selected individual scores by probability of 6 month death (Note- probability computed directly from model estimates in section #5 should be slightly more accurate, as a single score cannot completely replace 8 distinct factors.) Score Probability Score Probability Score Probability % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Massachusetts Medical School. 10

11 7. Nomogram translating five risk factors for post discharge death/mi into GRACE Risk Scores (as used in Palm Pilot program) /********************************************************************** Risk score for 6 mo post discharge death or MI- 5 factors. This score ignores 5 death model factors: pulse, sys BP, creatinine, PCI, and ST depression, and introduces in-hospital CABG. **********************************************************************/ * 1. Age in years; if 0 <=age < 35 then age_sc = 0; else if 35 <=age < 45 then age_sc = 0 + (age-35)*((18-0)/10); else if 45 <=age < 55 then age_sc = 18 + (age-45)*((36-18)/10); else if 55 <=age < 65 then age_sc = 36 + (age-55)*((55-36)/10); else if 65 <=age < 75 then age_sc = 55 + (age-65)*((73-55)/10); else if 75 <=age < 85 then age_sc = 73 + (age-75)*((91-73)/10); else if 85 <=age < 90 then age_sc = 91 + (age-85)*((100-91)/5); else if age >=90 then age_sc = 100; * 2-4 are coded 1=present, 0=absent; * 2. POSINIT is initial elevated serum cardiac biomarkers; * 3. MHMI is history of MI (as of hospital admission); * 4. CHF is past CHF or CHF developed in the hospital; * 5. NOCABG is CABG performed in the hospital (1=no CABG 0=CABG); if chfpe=1 or mhchf=1 then chf=1; if chfpe=0 and mhchf=0 then chf=0; if cabg=1 then nocabg=0; if cabg=0 then nocabg=1; dthmi_pt= age_sc + 22*posinit + 29*mhmi + 72*chf + 36*nocabg; How risk score for 6-month death/mi relates to probability of 6-month death/mi (from Palm Pilot software) Please NOTE: Because the death/mi score ignores 5 factors in the death model, it's possible the death probability > death/mi prob based on solely on score. In such cases, the death/mi prob is made > death prob, since it's illogical to have the combined death/mi prob. be < death prob. Score Prob* Score Prob* Score Prob* < > * Must be > prob of death alone (see note above) Massachusetts Medical School. 11

12 Fox Model for Death between Hospital Admission and 6 months later 8. Nomogram for risk score for death from admission to 6 months later (as used in Palm Pilot software) Although the published paper (BMJ 2006) mentions 9 reduced model factors, the palm pilot uses the 8 Granger factors * 1. AGE in years; if 0 <=age < 35 then age2 = 0; else if 35 <=age < 45 then age2 = 0 + (age-35)*(1.8); else if 45 <=age < 55 then age2 = 18 + (age-45)*(1.8); else if 55 <=age < 65 then age2 = 36 + (age-55)*(1.8); else if 65 <=age < 75 then age2 = 54 + (age-65)*(1.9); else if 75 <=age < 85 then age2 = 73 + (age-75)*(1.8); else if 85 <=age < 90 then age2 = 91 + (age-85)*(1.8); else if age >=90 then age2 = 100; * 2. PULSE in beats/minute; if 0 <=pulse < 70 then pulse2 = 0; else if 70 <=pulse < 80 then pulse2 = 0 + (pulse-70)*(.3); else if 80 <=pulse < 90 then pulse2 = 3 + (pulse-80)*(.2); else if 90 <=pulse < 100 then pulse2 = 5 + (pulse-90)*(.3); else if 100<=pulse < 110 then pulse2 = 8 + (pulse-100)*(.2); else if 110<=pulse < 150 then pulse2 = 10 + (pulse-110)*(.3); else if 150<=pulse < 200 then pulse2 = 22 + (pulse-150)*(.3); else if pulse >=200 then pulse2 = 34; * 3. BPSYS is systolic blood pressure (mm Hg); if 0 <=sbp < 80 then sysbp2 = 40; else if 80 <=sbp < 100 then sysbp2 = 40 -(sbp-80)*(.3); else if 100<=sbp < 110 then sysbp2 = 34 -(sbp-100)*(.3); else if 110<=sbp < 120 then sysbp2 = 31 -(sbp-110)*(.4); else if 120<=sbp < 130 then sysbp2 = 27 -(sbp-120)*(.3); else if 130<=sbp < 140 then sysbp2 = 24 -(sbp-130)*(.3); else if 140<=sbp < 150 then sysbp2 = 20 -(sbp-140)*(.4); else if 150<=sbp < 160 then sysbp2 = 17 -(sbp-150)*(.3); else if 160<=sbp < 180 then sysbp2 = 14 -(sbp-160)*(.3); else if 180<=sbp < 200 then sysbp2 = 8 -(sbp-180)*(.4); else if sbp >=200 then sysbp2 = 0; * 4. Creatinine in mg/dl; if 0.0 <=creat < 0.2 then crt2 = 0 + (creat-0)*(1/.2); else if 0.2 <=creat < 0.4 then crt2 = 1 + (creat-0.2)*(2/.2); else if 0.4 <=creat < 0.6 then crt2 = 3 + (creat-0.4)*(1/.2); else if 0.6 <=creat < 0.8 then crt2 = 4 + (creat-0.6)*(2/.2); else if 0.8 <=creat < 1.0 then crt2 = 6 + (creat-0.8)*(1/.2); else if 1.0 <=creat < 1.2 then crt2 = 7 + (creat-1.0)*(1/.2); else if 1.2 <=creat < 1.4 then crt2 = 8 + (creat-1.2)*(2/.2); else if 1.4 <=creat < 1.6 then crt2 = 10 + (creat-1.4)*(1/.2); else if 1.6 <=creat < 1.8 then crt2 = 11 + (creat-1.6)*(2/.2); else if 1.8 <=creat < 2.0 then crt2 = 13 + (creat-1.8)*(1/.2); else if 2.0 <=creat < 3.0 then crt2 = 14 + (creat-2.0)*(7/1); else if 3.0 <=creat < 4.0 then crt2 = 21 + (creat-3.0)*(7/1); else if creat >=4.0 then crt2 = 28; Massachusetts Medical School. 12

13 * 5. Killip class I,II,III,IV; if killip=1 then killips = 0; else if killip=2 then killips = 15; else if killip=3 then killips = 29; else if killip=4 then killips = 44; * 6. CARRST is cardiac arrest on presentation (1 if present, 0 if absent); * 7. POSINIT is positive initial cardiac enzymes (1 if present, 0 if absent); * 8. STCHANGE is ST deviation, assigned a value of 1 if present, 0 if absent; * Death risk score=sum of points for 8 factors; deatha6_pt = killips + sysbp2 + pulse2 + age2 + crt2 + 17*stchange + 13*posinit + 30*carrst; How score relates to probability of death between admission and 6 months later Score Prob Score Prob Score Prob Massachusetts Medical School. 13

14 9. Nomogram for Risk Score for Death or MI from Admission to 6 Months later (as used in Palm Pilot software) (pulse is not used) * 1. AGE in years; if 0 <=age < 35 then age2 = 0; else if 35 <=age < 45 then age2 = 0 + (age-35)*(1.8); else if 45 <=age < 55 then age2 = 18 + (age-45)*(1.8); else if 55 <=age < 65 then age2 = 36 + (age-55)*(1.8); else if 65 <=age < 75 then age2 = 54 + (age-65)*(1.9); else if 75 <=age < 85 then age2 = 73 + (age-75)*(1.8); else if 85 <=age < 90 then age2 = 91 + (age-85)*(1.8); else if age >=90 then age2 = 100; * 3. BPSYS is systolic blood pressure (mm Hg); if 0 <=sbp < 80 then sysbp3 = 54; else if 80 <=sbp < 200 then sysbp3 = 54 -(sbp-80)*(.45); else if sbp >=200 then sysbp3 = 0; * 4. Creatinine in mg/dl; if 0.0 <=creat < 3.0 then crt3 = 0 + (creat-0)*(10); else if 3.0 <=creat < 4.0 then crt3 = 30 + (creat-3.0)*(11); else if creat >=4.0 then crt3 = 41; * 5. Killip class I,II,III,IV; if killip=1 then killips3 = 0; else if killip=2 then killips3 = 27; else if killip=3 then killips3 = 55; else if killip=4 then killips3 = 82; * Death/MI risk score=sum of points for 7 factors (pulse not used); deathmia6_pt = killips3 + sysbp3 + age2 + crt3 + 39*stchange + 41*posinit + 66*carrst; How score relates to probability of death/mi between admission and 6 months later Note- if probability of death/mi based on score is less than prob of death alone, score is ignored and prob of death/mi is made > prob of death Score Prob* Score Prob* Score Prob* * Must be > probability of death alone (see note above) Massachusetts Medical School. 14

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