The Holocaust

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1 The Holocaust

2 Definition of the Holocaust The state-sponsored, sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and Jews were the primary victims 6 million were murdered; Gypsies, handicapped, Jehovah s s Witnesses, Poles, Soviet prisoners of war, and homosexuals also suffered grievous oppression and death.

3 Pre-Holocaust Timeline Treaty of Versailles cripples Germany National Socialist German Workers Party formed (NAZI) Black Thursday The stock-market crashed

4 Pre-Holocaust Timeline July Nazi seats in German parliament increase to 230 out of 608 January 30, Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany. Ends the Republic Hitler quickly convinces cabinet to suspend individual freedoms and develop the Auxiliary Police.

5 Hitler s s Reign over Germany The Reich Citizenship Law Only Germans or those with German blood ( Aryans )) could be citizens of the Reich German Jews became state subjects The Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor Prohibited marriages and extramarital affairs between Jews and Aryans Known as the Nuremberg Laws

6 Prohibited the employment of German maids under the age of forty-five five in Jewish households Prohibited the raising of the German flag by Jews Symbolically dramatized the exclusion of Jews from German society Rationalized and legitimized actions against the Jews which were to follow

7 WWII and the Concentration Camps March 15, Nazis invade Czechoslovakia September 1, Nazis invade Poland September 3, England & France declare war on Germany September 17, Soviet troops invade eastern Poland

8 Concentration Camps Started even before WWII in 1933 Set up to hold political prisoners and "undesirables." (aka Jews, Gypsies, handicapped, etc ) By 1939, six large concentration camps had been established After the start of WWII, the concentration camps increasingly became places where the enemies of the Nazis, including Jews and POWs, were either killed or forced to act as slave laborers, and kept undernourished and tortured.

9 Camps cont d

10 Camps cont d Extermination Camps the Nazis opened Celmno, the first of what would soon be seven extermination camps, dedicated solely to the mass extermination on an industrial scale, as opposed to the labor or concentration camps Over three million Jews would die in these extermination camps Methods of killing: Gas Chambers, mass shootings, and other means

11 Operation Reinhard Code name given to Nazi plan that marked the beginning of the most destructive phase of the Holocaust (1942) Opened the extermination camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. More than 1.7 million Jews were killed at the three Operation Reinhard camps by October 1943 The largest death camp built was Auschwitz- Birkenau,, which had both a labor camp (Auschwitz( Auschwitz) and an extermination camp (Birkenau( Birkenau); the latter possessing four gas chambers and crematoria

12

13

14 See a difference???

15 How many times would need to occur to equal 6,000,000 deaths? Every day for 5.8 years

16 Coming to and end After Germany was defeated in World War II, the question still remained of what to do with all of the Jews who had lost all of their family or portions of theirs during the Holocaust Zionism- the political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish population in Israel. (1948) Many German Nazi officers were tried and convicted in the Nuremberg Trials. 5,025 Nazi criminals were convicted between

17 Why is it important to study the Holocaust? Responsible Citizenship Appreciation for Democracy Silence and indifference can bring about problems History doesn t t just happen. happen. It occurs because individuals, organizations, and governments made choices. Responsibility when others are being denied civil rights.

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