Development of a High Precision Angle Sensor

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1 NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No Technical Paper Development of a High Precision Angle Sensor Toru TAKAHASHI Yoshitaka NAGANO Shoji KAWAHITO Small and high-resolution encoders capable of absolute angle detection are required for many applications such as automotive, industrial, consumer products, and robots. For automotive applications, these sensors are used not only for the motion control of mechanical parts and motors, but also for sensing the human operating motion such as steering sensors or pedal sensors. However, commonly used rotary encoders using magnetoresistive devices or Hall devices combined with a multi-pole magnet have difficulty in meeting these requirements because they have a large cylindrical structure and need a fine-pitched magnetic scale. Furthermore, they can not detect absolute angles. This paper presents a single-chip CMOS magnetic rotary encoder system that operates on a new working principle based on magnetic pattern analysis with a statistical calculation method. The developed chip can detect the absolute angle at a resolution of 10bits per rotation, which leads to a promising solution for compact high-resolution rotary encoders. 1. Introduction Rotary encoders for rotational angle detection have been used in a variety of industrial applications, including detection of actuation and travel amounts and motor speed control. In automotive applications, rotary encoders are utilized for steering system angle detection, accelerator pedals and throttle valves to improve vehicle operability and safety. For every automotive application, the need has been mounting for more compact rotational angle detection sensors that are capable of higher detection accuracy and are less expensive. The detection schemes of rotary encoders can be categorized as contact and non-contact types. Components on a contact type rotary encoder can deteriorate from wear. Non-contact rotary encoders can be further subcategorized into optical rotary encoder types that utilize transmission or reflection of light beams and magnetic rotary encoder types that detect magnetic field variations. Since they are less susceptible to the effects of dust, magnetic rotary encoders are used more often in automotive applications. On many commonly used magnetic rotary encoders, a magnetic sensor, such as a Hall sensor or an MR device, is used to detect the magnetic field variation that results from rotation of a multi-pole magnet. Most of the NTN bearings equipped with rotary encoders use this type of a magnetic sensor. However, this arrangement poses an obstacle to creating more compact rotary encoders because the pole pitch of the multi-pole magnet would be too small for the magnetic sensor to detect magnetic field variations. Therefore, a new sensor that operates on a different principle has been needed to provide a compact detection system that is capable of high precision angle detection. In cooperation with Professor Shoji Kawahito of the Shizuoka University Research Institute of Electronics, New Product Development R&D Center Mechatronics Research Dept. Shizuoka University Research Institute of Electronics Professor -98-

2 Development of a High Precision Angle Sensor NTN has developed a unique compact magnetic array rotary encoder that measures 5 mm square and is capable of detecting an absolute angle of At the International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2005 (ISSCC 2005) held in February 2005, this sensor won the Beatrice Winner Award for Editorial Excellence. 1) This paper provides an overview of our sensor and reports the results of angle detection with a compact bearing that incorporates this sensor. 2. Magnetic array sensor operating principles 2.1 Structure of sensor The rotary encoder we have developed consists of a permanent magnet (using sintered NdFeB) at the tip of a rotary shaft and a 5 mm square sensor chip opposite the permanent magnet with a gap of approximately 0.5 to 1 mm between them (Fig. 1). The internal configuration of the sensor circuit formed on the sensor chip is schematically illustrated in Fig. 2. The integrated sensor chip is comprised of a magnetic sensor array () consisting of multiple miniature sensor elements arranged along the four edges of a tetragon. These include a sample-andhold amplifier (SHA) circuit that amplifies sensor signals, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit that converts analog signals into digital signals and a digital processor circuit that calculates rotational angles. This integrated sensor chip has all the functions needed to detect the absolute rotational angle of a magnet and output detection results as numerical data. 2.2 MAGFET magnetic sensor element Our sensor chip uses a split-drain MAGFET (Magnetic Field Effect Transistor) for each magnetic sensor element. MAGFETs can be manufactured by a CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) process similar to that used for ordinary logic circuits. They can also be incorporated into chips that also include amplifier and calculator circuits. The MAGFET structure and corresponding circuit are illustrated in Fig. 3. Like common transistors, each MAGFET has four terminals, including a source (S), a gate (G) and two separate drain (D) terminals. This sensor is sensitive to magnetic fields that are perpendicular to the sensor elements, and functions because of the Lorentz force used for the current within the transistor. When a magnetic field is not present, the current levels of the two drain terminals are the same and the relation I1=I2 holds. When a magnetic field B z is applied, electrons will flow in the direction of the red arrow in Fig. 3, and there will be a bias between the currents of both drain terminals, resulting in a difference between the drain currents (I1-I2) that occur in accordance with the magnetic field applied. When assuming that the magnetic field intensity is B z [T], the sensor sensitivity is S R [1/T] and the sensor bias current holds a relation of l bias = I1+ I2, then the sensor output signal can be defined as follows: Fig. 1 Rotary encoder setup Isignal = I 1 I 2 = S R B Z I bias 1 Fig. 2 Block diagram of the sensor chip Fig. 3 Structure of MAGFET (unit m) -99-

3 NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No Angle detection scheme The arrangement of the sensor arrays is shown in Fig. 4. This diagram illustrates a state where the magnet is at a standstill with a rotational angle. The blue line in this diagram shows the border between the N-pole and the S-pole. The magnetic field perpendicular to the page from this line is zero, so this line is called the "Zero-Line." When the sensor signals from the multiple MAGFETs arranged on the sensor chip are sequentially read in a clockwise direction, beginning with the No. 1 position in the upper left corner of Fig. 4, and the read signals are plotted, the wave pattern shown in Fig. 5 is obtained. The relation between the magnetic field distribution and the sensor signals is shown in Fig. 6. By detecting two points, Z1 and Z2, where the obtained sensor signal level is zero, the angle of the Zero-Line can be calculated based on their coordinates. = tan -1 ( y/ x) 2 Fig. 4 Arrangement of sensor arrays (magnet is set at an angle ) Boundary between poles S-pole Sensor signal N-pole Two points where no magnetic field exists are detected. Boundary angle is calculated. Fig. 6 Detection of the Zero-Line To improve the detection accuracy of two zerocrossing points in the actual calculation process, the Zero-Crossing Window, the area subjected to calculation shown with dotted lines in Fig. 5, is set, and the multiple sensor signals included in this window are statistically processed. 2) A block diagram of the angle calculator circuit is shown in Fig. 7. The sensor data AD1 through AD4 obtained from the sensors on the four edges are stowed in the memory. Then the data within the zero-crossing window are sampled and subjected to calculation. In the calculator circuit, the positions of the two zero-crossing points are determined accurately to enable linear approximation based on a Least Mean Square (LMS) method. Using the coordinates of the two determined points, calculation is executed as per expression (2) (arctan CORDIC circuit), and then the calculated 10- bit angle data is output to an external system. Since this calculator circuit includes a communication circuit (Comm.I/F), it can output angle data through a serial communication means. Fig. 7 Block diagram of the angle calculator Fig. 5 Output signal of the sensor arrays -100-

4 Development of a High Precision Angle Sensor 2.4 Features of our sensor system Our sensor system calculates an angle based on magnetic field distribution measured by multiple magnetic sensors, and has the following advantages. (1) Since it is intended to detect a position where a magnetic field does not exist (position where the level of magnetic sensor output is zero), our sensor system is not affected by sensitivity variation or the non-linearity of the sensor elements. As a result, a complicated compensation process is not necessary. (2) Since multiple sensor signals are statistically processed, the effect of signal noise is minimized, resulting in the improved angle detection accuracy. (3) Since the angle is calculated from the coordinates of two zero-crossing points, our sensor system is not much affected by the positional difference between the magnet and the sensor elements. (4) The MAGFET magnetic sensor chip can be manufactured by a common CMOS process. As a result, related circuits can be incorporated into the same chip, reducing manufacturing costs. 3. Native-MAGFET As explained above, our MAGFET magnetic sensor chip can be manufactured by an ordinary CMOS process. However, because it is made from a silicon material, its magnetic sensitivity is lower than Hall sensors and other sensor chips made from chemical compound semiconductor materials. In addition, variations in the characteristics of the MAGFET are unavoidable because the chip is manufactured through an ordinary CMOS process. To attain sufficiently accurate angle detection with our sensor system, it was necessary to improve the sensor performance by enhancing the magnetic sensitivity of the sensor elements. To achieve this, we invented a native-magfet structured as shown in Fig. 8. 3) This diagram shows cross-sectional views of CMOS circuit transistors and the native-magfet. Structured identically to an nmos transistor, a "normal-magfet" is usually formed on the p-well region. In contrast, native-magfet is formed directly on the p-substrate, and its impurity concentration directly beneath the gate differs from that of a normal- MAGFET. Use of a native-magfet leads to the following advantages. (1) Compared to the p-well region, the impurity concentration on the p-substrate is lower. This in turn leads to higher electron mobility within the native-magfet, causing the MAGFET chip to have higher magnetic sensitivity. (2) Because the p-well region is formed through an ion implantation process, the concentration of implanted ions can vary, which leads to variation in the characteristics of the sensor elements formed in this region. Native-MAGFETs are free from this problem, so variation of characteristics is minimized. The results of measured magnetic sensitivities of normal and native MAGFETs are plotted in Fig. 9. In this diagram, IMAGFET represents bias currents carried by the MAGFET. While the magnetic sensitivity of the normal-magfet was 2.7%/T, that of the native- MAGFET was approximately 5%/T%. The sensitivity of the native-magfet is approximately twice as high as that of the normal-magfet. At the same time, we learned that the magnetic sensitivity of the native- MAGFET decreased as the bias current increased. Because the sensor elements were formed directly on the p-substrate, the channel structure of regions with lower gate voltage seems to be similar to that of embedded channels. We believe that with a higher gate voltage, the distribution of channels shifts to the surface. Since the channels are affected by diffusion at the interface, decreasing electron mobility, magnetic sensitivity is reduced. Fig. 9 Magnetic sensitivity of the MAGFETs (I MAGFET : bias current in a MAGFET) Fig. 8 Cross section of native-magfet -101-

5 NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No Verification of our prototype chip operation The prototype sensor chip is shown in Photo 1. This chip was fabricated through a standard 0.25 m CMOS process [5-layer metal wiring, 1-layer polysilicon, MiM (Meal-Insulator-Metal) capacitor]. The sensor chip measures 5 mm by 5 mm, and the sensor array measures approximately 4.2 mm square. The technical data of the prototype sensor chip are as follows. (a) Number of sensor elements: 184 pixels 4 lines (b) Structure of one pixel: six MAGFETs connected in parallel (c) Chip size: 5 5 mm (d) Chip thickness: approx. 300 m (e) Number of IO terminals: 100 (including test terminals) (f) Angle detection resolution: 0.36 degrees The result of angle detection with our sensor chip is summarized in Fig. 10. The horizontal axis corresponds with one revolution of the magnet (360 degrees). The angle resolution was within 0.36 degrees, and accuracy of 10 bits per revolution was achieved. 5. Sensor bearing sample A sample sensor bearing that incorporates our sensor chip is shown in Photo 2. Its structure is shown in Fig. 11, together with the structure of a conventional sensor bearing. Sensor Photo 2 Picture of a sensor bearing sample Hall sensor Sensor chip Angle Calculator Multi-pole ring (a) Conventional sensor bearing Permanent magnet (b) Newly developed sensor bearin Fig. 11 Cross section of sensor bearings Photo 1 Micrograph of a prototype chip Fig. 10 Angle detection result -102-

6 Development of a High Precision Angle Sensor The optimal resolution with conventional sensor bearings was approximately 2 degrees (180 pulses/revolution). As pulse output types, they cannot detect absolute angles. In contrast, our sensor bearing is capable of 0.36-degree resolution and can detect an absolute angle and output this angle as a digital value. The sensor chip can be installed easily, and the sensor bearing can be of a more compact design. The angle detection accuracy of the new sensor bearing is plotted in Fig. 12. The detection error at a sampling speed of 10 khz was within 0.3 degrees. Detection error [degrees] Magnet rotational angle [degrees] Fig. 12 Angle detection result using a sensor bearing 6. Conclusion We have developed a novel rotational angle sensor that employs magnetic sensor arrays. To improve the characteristics of sensor elements on silicon substrates, we developed a new sensor structure using a native-substrate MAGFET to enhance the magnetic sensitivity of the sensor elements, thereby achieving a very high angle detection accuracy of 10 bits per revolution (0.36 degrees). This degree of angle detection accuracy was also achieved with a sensor bearing that incorporates a MAGFET sensor chip sealed in a compact package. Automotive components are becoming increasingly more compact and functional. We intend to apply our simple, compact sensor chip to automotive applications including steering systems and accelerator pedals. References 1 S. Kawahito, T. Takahashi, Y. Nagano, and K. Nakano, "CMOS Rotary Encoder System Based on Magnetic Pattern Analysis with a Resolution of 10b per Rotation," ISSCC2005, Dig. Tech. Papers, IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., pp , K. Nakano, T. Takahashi, S. Kawahito, "Angle Detection Methods for a CMOS Smart Rotary Encoder," Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics Vol.17(4), pp , Toru Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nakano, and Shoji Kawahito, "CMOS Magnetic Sensor Arrays Using Native-Substrate MAGFETs for a Smart Rotary Encoder," Proc. IEEE SENSORS 2004, pp , Photos of authors Toru TAKAHASHI New Product Development R&D Center Mechatronics Research Dept. Yoshitaka NAGANO New Product Development R&D Center Mechatronics Research Dept. Shoji KAWAHITO Shizuoka University Research Institute of Electronics Professor -103-

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