# LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY. Contents. 1. Introduction 1 2. Metric spaces 2 3. Borel and analytic sets The G 0 dichotomy 17

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1 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY PHILIPP SCHLICHT Abstract. Metric spaces, Borel and analytic sets, Baire property and measurability, dichotomies, equivalence relations. Possible topics: determinacy, group actions, rigidity, turbulence. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Metric spaces 2 3. Borel and analytic sets The G 0 dichotomy Introduction Suppose that X is a complete separable metric space and R 0,..., R n are relations on X. Suppose that we forget about the metric, and even the topology, and only remember the Borel sets. Which structural properties remain, i.e. which pairs of such structures can still be distinguished? If the relation is a graph, when is there a Borel measurable coloring of the graph? If the structure is an equivalence relation, when is there a Borel measurable function classifying the equivalence classes by elements of some other separable metric space? The scope of this setting extends to many classes of mathematical structures which can be represented by elements of some Polish space, and isomorphism then corresponds to an equivalence relation on that space. An equivalence relation is smooth if there is a Borel measurable map which sends the equivalence classes to distinct points in a Polish space. Example 1.1. Graphs on the natural numbers can be represented as elements of the Cantor space ω 2. Isomorphism of countable graphs is the most complicated isomorphism relation for classes of countable structures, in particular it is not smooth. Date: June 11,

2 2 PHILIPP SCHLICHT Motivated by a problem in C -algebras, Glimm proved the following striking result in Theorem 1.2. (Glimm) Suppose that G X is a continuous action of a locally compact Polish group G on a Polish space X. If the induced orbit equivalence relation E is not smooth, then there is a continuous reduction f : E 0 E, i.e. a map f : ω 2 X such that x(n) = y(n) for all but finitely many n if and only if (f(x), f(y)) E. Harrington and Kechris proved this in 1990 for arbitrary Borel equivalence relations. Subsequently Kechris and Todorcevic proved a dichotomy for analytic graphs which implies this result. We will present a proof of this by Ben Miller. To do this, we begin with results about metric spaces and their Borel and analytic subsets. 2. Metric spaces A standard Borel space is a set with a σ-algebra which is Borel isomorphic to [0, 1]. The following facts about metric spaces are useful for showing that a given space is standard Borel. Moreover, some of these facts are needed to prove results about standard Borel spaces in the following sections, i.e. given a standard Borel space we will choose an appropriate metric and work with it Polish spaces. Definition 2.1. A Polish metric space is the completion of a countable metric space. Such a space with its topology, but forgetting the metric, is called Polish. If (X, d) is metric, let R(d) denotes the set of distances. A metric on a space is compatible if it induces its topology. Let (X, d) denote a Polish metric space (unless stated otherwise). Then ˆd(x, y) = min{d(x, y), 1} is a bounded compatible complete metric on X. Example 2.2. Compact metric spaces. Countable spaces with the discrete topology. Closed subsets of Polish spaces. Separable Banach spaces. Lemma 2.3. If (X n) n ω is a sequence of Polish spaces, then X = Q n ω Xn is Polish. Proof. Find a compatible complete metric d n on X n bounded by d(x, y) = P n ω dn(xn, yn), where x = (xn) and y = (yn). 1 2 n+1. Let d: X X R,

3 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 3 To show that d induces the product topology, consider B d (x, ɛ), where x = (x n) and ɛ > 0. Find n 1 with B d (x, ɛ). 1 2 n+1 < ɛ 2. Then Bd 0 (x 0, ɛ 2n )... Bdn (x n 1), ɛ 2n Q i n Xi If (x (i) ) i is a Cauchy sequence in X, then (x (i) n ) i is a Cauchy sequence in X n for each n. Let x n = lim dn i Definition 2.4. open sets. x (i) n. The x = (x n) = lim d i x (i). (1) A subset A of X is G δ if it is the intersection of countably many (2) A subset A of X is F σ if it is the union of countably many closed sets. Lemma 2.5. Every Polish space is homeomorphic to a G δ [0, 1] ω. subset of the Hilbert cube Proof. Let d n(x, y) = 1 2 n+1 d(x, y) for each n. Suppose that {x n n ω} X is dense. Let f : X [0, 1] ω, f(x) = (f n(x)) n, f n(x) = d(x, x n). Then f is continuous, since d(x, y) < ɛ implies that d(x, x n) d(y, x n) < ɛ and d(f(x), f(y)) = P n ω 1 2 n+1 d(x, x n) = d(y, x n) < ɛ. To see that f 1 (defined on the range of f) is continuous, consider x X and any open set U X with x U. Find n and ɛ > 0 with x B(x n, r) U. If f(x) Q i<n Xi U Q i>n Xi, then y U. Lemma 2.6. Every open U X is Polish. Proof. Let C = X \ U. Consider the metric ˆd(x, y) = d(x, y) d(x,c) d(y,c) on U. To show that ˆd is compatible with the topology, notice that d ˆd and hence every d-open set is ˆd-open. For the other direction suppose that x U, d(x, C) = δ > 0 and ɛ > 0. Find η > 0 with η + η < ɛ. If d(x, y) < η, then δ η < d(y, C) < δ + η and δ η ˆd(x, y) < η + max{ 1 δ 1 δ η, 1 δ 1 δ + η } η = η + max{ δ(δ η), η η(δ η) = η + η δ η < ɛ and hence every ˆd-open set is d-open. Lemma 2.7. Every G δ set U X is Polish. Proof. Let U = T 1 n ω Un with Un open. Find compatible complete metrics dn < on 2 n+1 U n. Let ˆd: X X R, ˆd(x, y) = P n ω dn(x, y). To show that ˆd is compatible with the relative topology on U, consider x X and ɛ > 0. Find n with 1 < ɛ. then T 2 n 2 i<n Bd i ɛ (x, ) U B ˆd(x, ɛ). To show that (U, ˆd) is 2n complete, suppose that (x i) is a Cauchy sequence. Then (x i) is a Cauchy sequence with respect to each d n and hence its limit is in U.

4 4 PHILIPP SCHLICHT Lemma 2.8. Every Polish U X is G δ. Proof. We can assume that U = X. Suppose that (U n) is a base for (X, d) and that ˆd is a compatible complete metric on U. Let A = \ m ω \ {Un diam ˆd(U U n) < 1 m + 1 }. Then A is G δ in X and U A. To show that A U, suppose that x A. Find n i with x U ni and diam ˆd(U U ni ) < 1. There is some i+1 xm U T i m Un i since U is dense in X. Then (x n) is a Cauchy sequence in (U, ˆd) and hence x = lim n x n U. Question 2.9. Why is Q not Polish? Exercise Show that every Polish space is Baire, i.e. the intersection of countably many dense open subsets is dense. Definition Suppose that (X, d X) and (Y, d Y ) are Polish metric spaces. f : X Y is Lipschitz if d Y (f(x), f(y)) d X(x, y) for all x, y X. A map Example Let L(X, Y ) denote the set of all Lipschitz maps from X to Y and suppose that D X = {x n n ω} is dense in X and D Y is dense in Y. Let d L(f, g) = X i ω 2 (i+1) d Y (f(x i), f(x j)) for f, g L(X, Y ). Then d L is a metric on L(X, Y ). Exercise (1) Show that the family of U x,y,n = {f L(X, Y ) d(f(x), y) < 2 n } for x D X, y D y, and n ω is a base for (L(X, Y ), d L). (2) Show that (L(X, Y ), d L) has the topology of pointwise convergence and hence it is complete. Example Let DP (X, Y ) denote the set of all distance-preserving maps (isometric embeddings) from X into Y with the pointwise convergence topology. Then DP (X, Y ) is a closed subset of L(X, Y ) and hence Polish. Example Let Iso(X, Y ) denote the set of all isometries from X onto Y with the pointwise convergence topology. Suppose that D X X and D Y Y are countable dense. Then Iso(X, Y ) is a G δ subset of DP (X, Y ) and hence Polish, since f Iso(X, Y ) if and only if for all y D Y and all n, there is x D Y with d(f(x), y) < 1. n

5 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY Urysohn space. A Polish metric space is universal if it contains an isometric copy of any other Polish metric space (equivalently, of every countable metric space). Urysohn constructed such a space with a random construction which predates the random graph. Definition Suppose that (X, d) is a metric space. A function f : X R is Katetov if it measures the distances of a point in a one-point metric extension of (X, d). Equivalently f(x) f(y) d(x, y) f(x) + f(y) for all x, y X. Definition Suppose that R R. A metric space (X, d) has the (R-)extension property (for R R) if for all finite F X and every Katetov f : F R (f : F R), there is y X such that f(x) = d(x, y) for all x F. Lemma If (X, d X) and (Y, d Y ) are Polish and have the extension property, then X and Y are isometric. Proof. Suppose that D X X and D Y Y are countable dense. Let D X = {x n n ω} and D Y = {y n n ω}. We construct countable sets E X and E Y with D X E X X and D Y E Y Y and an isometry f : E X E Y using the extension property. We then extend f to a map g : X Y as follows. If (x n) is in E X and x = lim n x n, let g(x) = lim n f(x n). Then g is well-defined and g is an isometry. Definition (X, d) is ultrahomogeneous if every isometry between finite subsets extends to an isometry of X (onto X). Remark The extension property implies ultrahomogeneity by an argument as in the previous lemma. Suppose that K is a class of first-order structures in a countable language. An embedding f : A B for A, B K is an isomorphism onto its image. Definition Suppose that K is a class of first-order structures in a countable language. Consider the following properties. (Hereditary property HP) If A K and B is a finitely generated substructure of A, then B is isomorphic to some structure in K.

6 6 PHILIPP SCHLICHT (Joint embedding property JEP) If A, B K, then there is C K such that both A and B are embeddable in C. (Amalgamation property AP) If A, B, C K and f : A B, g : A C are embeddings, then there are D K and embeddings h: B D and i: C D with hf = ig. Lemma The class of finite rational metric spaces has the HP, JEP, and AP. Proof. The HP and JEP are clear. Suppose that A, B, C are finite rational metric spaces and f : A B, g : A C are isometric embeddings. We can assume that A = B C and f = g = id A. Extend d to a metric ˆd on D := B C by letting ˆd(b, c) = inf a A(d(a, b) + d(a, c)). Let h = id B and i = id C. Lemma (Fraissé) For every class K of finitely generated structures with only countably many isomorphism types and with the HP, JEP, and AP, there is a unique (up to isomorphism) countable structure U such that K is the class of finitely generated substructures of U (then K is called the age of U) and U is ultrahomogeneous. We go through Fraissé s construction for the class of finite rational metric spaces. We construct finite metric spaces = D 0 D 1... such that if A, B K with A B, and there is an isometric embedding f : A D i for some i ω, then there are j > i and an isometric embedding g : B D j which extends f. Take a bijection π : ω ω ω such that π(i, j) i for all i, j. When D i is defined, list as (f kj, A kj, B kj ) j ω the triples (f, A, B) (up to isomorphism) where A B and f : A D k is an isometry. Construct D k+1 by the amalgamation property so that if k = π(i, j), then f ij extends to an embedding of B ij into D k+1. Let U = S i Di (the rational Urysohn space). Then U has the extension property. Definition (Urysohn space) Let U denote the completion of U. Lemma For F U finite, f : F R Katetov, and ɛ > 0, there is y U with d(x, y) f(x) < ɛ for all x F. Proof. Suppose that F = {x 0,..., x n} and f(x 0) f(x 1)... f(x n) > 0. assume that ɛ min{d(x i, x j) i < j n}. We can

7 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 7 Let ɛ 0 = ɛ. Find y0,..., yn U with d(xi, yi) < ɛ0 for I n. Let G = {y0,..., yn}. 4(n+1) To approximate f by an admissible function g : G Q, we increase the values of f and decrease the distances between the values. Find g(y i) Q with f(x i) + (4i + 2)ɛ 0 g(y i) ɛ 0. Then For i < j n d(y i, y j) d(x i, y i) + d(x j, y j) + f(x i) + f(x j) 2ɛ 0 + f(x i) + f(x j) g(y i) + g(y j) and g(y i) g(y j) f(x i) f(x j) 4(j i)ɛ 0 + 2ɛ 0 d(x i, x j) 2ɛ 0 d(y i, y j) g(y j) g(y i) f(x j) f(x i) + 4(j i)ɛ 0 + 2ɛ 0 (4n + 1)ɛ 0 = ɛ 2ɛ + 0 d(x i, x j) d(x i, y i) d(x j, y j) d(y < i, y j). Find y U realizing g by the extension property. Then d(x i, y) f(x i) = d(y i, y) f(x i) + d(x, y i) = g(y i) f(x i) + d(x, y i) (4n + 3)ɛ 0 + ɛ 0 = ɛ Lemma U has the extension property. Proof. Suppose that F = {x 0,..., x m} U. Suppose that f : F R is admissible and f(x 0) f(x 1)... f(x n) = ɛ > 0. We define a sequence (y n) in U with d(x i, y n) f(x i) 2 n ɛ for i m. Find y 0 using that f is admissible. If y n is defined, extend f to g by letting g(y n) = 2 n ɛ. Now g is admissible by the inductive assumption on y n. Find y n+1 realizing g up to 2 (n+1) ɛ. Then d(y n, y n+1) 2 n ɛ 2 (n+1) ɛ, so d(y n, y n+1) < 2 n+1 ɛ. Let y = lim n y n. Then d(x i, y) = f(x i) for i n. A Polish metric space is universal if it contains an isometric copy of any other Polish metric space. Exercise Show that any ultrahomogeneous universal Polish metric space has the extension property and hence is isometric to U.

8 8 PHILIPP SCHLICHT For studying isometry groups we need a variant of the Fraissé construction, the Katetov construction, which begins from any Polish metric space (X, d) instead of the empty set. Definition We say that a Katetov function f : X R has finite support if for some finite S X, f(x) = inf{f(y) + d(x, y) : y S} for all x X. Let E(X) denote the set of finitely supported Katetov functions on X and d E the function defined by d E(f, g) = sup{ f(x) g(x) : x X}. Exercise d E is a metric on E(X). Lemma (E(X), d E) is separable. Proof. Suppose that D X is dense and countable. It follows from the proof of Lemma 2.25 that E(D) is dense in E(X). We go through the Katetov contruction. Let X 0 = X and X n+1 = E(X n) for n 1. As in the Fraissé construction, S n ω Xn has the extension property. Then its completion has the extension property by Lemma Example When we consider R as a subset of R 2, the Katetov construction over R adds no element of R 2 \ R to R Ultrametric spaces. Definition An ultrametric space is a metric space (X, d) which satisfies the ultrametric inequality d(x, z) max{d(x, y), d(y, z)} for all x, y X. Example The Baire space ω ω with the ultrametric d: ω ω ω ω R, d(x, y) = 2 min{i ω x(i) y(i)} for x y in ω ω. Example The Cantor space ω 2 with the ultrametric inherited from the Baire space. Example Sym(ω) with the ultrametric d: Sym(ω) Sym(ω) R, d(x, y) = 2 max{ (x,y), (x 1,y 1 )} and (x, y) = min{i ω x(i) y(i)} for x y in Sym(ω).

9 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 9 Example The space of models or logic space for a countable relational language. Suppose L = {R i i ω} and R i ω n i. Let Mod(L) = Y i ω 2 (ωn i ) where each M Mod(L) codes a sequence of characteristic functions of relations on ω and hence a model of L. Note that we can define the logic space for any countable language by representing functions and constants by relations. Lemma The set of distences R(d) for a complete ultrametric d on a separable space is countable. Proof. Suppose (X, d) is ultrametric Polish. Find D X countable dense. Let R = {d(x, y) x, y D}. We show that R = R(d). Suppose that x y in X. Suppose that x, y X with d(x, x ), d(y, y ) < d(x,y) 3. Then d(x, y) = d(x, y ) R. Suppose that R R is countable. We can construct an ultrametric Urysohn space U ult R similar as the Urysohn space U by a Fraisse construction or a Katetov construction. 1 Exercise Suppose d is the standard ultrametric on the Baire space.then ( ω ω, d) has the R(d)-Urysohn property. We now prove that every Polish space is a bijective continuous image of a closed subset of the Baire space. Lemma Suppose that (X, d) is Polish, U X is open, and ɛ > 0. Then there is a sequence (U n) n ω of open sets such that U = S n ω Un = S n ω Un and diam(un) < ɛ for all n. Proof. See Marker: Lecture notes on descriptive set theory, Lemma 1.6. Lemma Suppose that (X, d) is Polish, F X is F σ, and ɛ > 0. Then there is a sequence (F n) n ω of F σ sets such that F = S n ω Fn = S n ω Fn and diam(fn) < ɛ for all n. Proof. See Marker: Lecture notes on descriptive set theory, Lemma Lemma For every Polish space (X, d), there is a closed set C ω ω and a continuous bijection f : C X. 1 See Gao-Shao: Polish ultrametric Urysohn spaces and their isometry groups

10 10 PHILIPP SCHLICHT Proof. See Marker: Lecture notes on descriptive set theory, Lemma It is easy to see that every closed subset of the Baire space is a continuous image of the Baire space (from a retraction). Hence every Polish space is a continuous image of the Baire space. This also follows from a modification of the construction above Hyperspaces. To represent closed subsets of a Polish space X as elements of another Polish space, we need to define a metric measuring the distance between closed sets. Let us first consider compact sets. Example (Hausdorff metric) Suppose that (X, d) is Polish. Let K(X) = {K X K is compact }. Let 8 max{max{d(x, L) x K}, max{d(k, y) y L}} if K, L >< d H(K, L) := 0 if K = L = >: 1 if exactly one ofk, Lis. Lemma (K(X), d H) is Polish. Proof. It is easy to see that d H is a metric. To show that (K(X), d H) is separable, suppose that D X is countable dense. Then {K D K is finite} is dense in K(X) (use that every compact subset of a metric space is totally bounded). To show that (K(X), d H) is complete, suppose that (K n) is a Cauchy sequence. Let K = {lim n x n x n K n, (x n) is Cauchy}. It is straightforward to check that K = lim n K n. Borel subsets of a topological space are the elements of the σ-algebra generated by the open sets. Remark Suppose that (X, d) is Polish. Let F (X) = {C X C is closed}. Let E U = {C F (X) C U } E U = {C F (X) C U} where U X is open. (1) The family of all sets E U and E U form a subbase for (K(X), d H). For example, to show that U ɛ(l) := {K max{d(x, L) x K} < ɛ} is a union of sets of the form E V, cover L with a finite union of open balls of radius δ for any given δ < ɛ using compactness. This topology on F (X) is called the Vietoris topology. (2) The Effros Borel structure on F (X) is defined as the σ-algebra generated by the sets E U (equivalently by the sets E U ).

11 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 11 Definition (Gromov-Hausdorff metric) Suppose that K, L are compact metric spaces. Let d GH(K, L) = inf{d X H(f(K), g(l) f : K X, g : L X are isometric embeddings }. Fact (Gromov) 2 Let C denote the set of isometry classes of compact metric spaces. Then (C, d GH) is a compact metric space. To define a Polish topology on F (X), suppose that (U n) is a base for X. Suppose that Y is a metric compactification of X (i.e. Y is a compact metric space and X is dense in Y ) (see 2.5). We consider the topology τ on F (X) induced by (K(Y ), d H) via the pullback of C C. Note that this might depend on the choice of the compactification. Lemma (F (X), τ) is Polish. Proof. Let A = {C C F (X)} K(Y ). Then for all C K(Y ), C A if and only if for all n C U n C U n X. Then A is G δ in K(Y ) and hence Polish. Moreover (F (X), τ) is homeomorphic to (A, τ H), where τ H is the topology induced by d H. Remark It is easy to see that τ generates the Effros Borel structure on F (X). Every set (E U ) X is of the form (E U ) Y, every set (E U ) Y is a countable intersection of sets of the form (E U ) X, and (E U ) X = (E U ) Y. The Wijsman topology on F (X) is the least topology which makes all maps C d(x, C) for x X continuous. Like τ it is also Polish and generates the Effros Borel structure, and moreover it only depends on the metric on X. 3. Borel and analytic sets Suppose that X = (X, d) is a Polish space. Definition 3.1. (perfect) A set A X is perfect if it is uncountable, closed, and has no isolated points. Lemma 3.2. Suppose that (X, d) is a perfect Polish space. Then there is a continuous injection f : ω 2 X. Proof. We construct a family (U s) s <ω 2 of open nonempty subsets of X such that for all s <ω 2 and i < 2 2 See Heinonen: Geometric embeddings of metric spaces, section 2: Gromov-Hausdorff convergence

12 12 PHILIPP SCHLICHT (1) U s i U s and (2) U s i U s (1 i) =. For each x ω 2, let f(x) denote the unique element of T n ω U x n. Then f : ω 2 X is continuous and injective. Lemma 3.3. Suppose that U X is open and that ɛ > 0. There is a sequence (U n) n ω of open sets with U = S n ω Un = S n ω Un and diam(un) < ɛ for all n. Proof. Suppose that D X is countable and dense. Let (U i) i ω x D, 1 n list all B(x, 1 n ) with < ɛ, and 2 Un U. We claim that U = S i ω Ui. Suppose that x U. Find n with B(x, 2 ) U. Find y D B(x, 1 ). Then x B(y, 1 ) and B(y, 1 ) U, so n n n n B(y, 1 ) = Ui for some i. n Lemma 3.4. Suppose that F X is F σ and ɛ > 0. There is a sequence (F n) n ω of pairwise disjoint F σ sets with F = S n ω Fn = S n ω Fn and diam(fn) < ɛ for all n. Proof. Let F = S h ω Cn with C0 C1... closed. Then F = C0 (C1 \ C0)... and C n+1 \ C n C n+1 F. Hence it is sufficient to show that for A X closed and B X open, there is a sequence F n) n ω of pairwise disjoint F σ sets with A B = S n ω Fn and diam(f n) < ɛ for all n. Write B = S n ω Bn = S n ω Bn as in the previous lemma. Then Fn = A (Bn \ S i<n Bi) works. Lemma 3.5. There is a continuous bijection f : C X for some closed C ]ω ω. Proof. We construct level by level a tree T <ω ω and a family (X t) t T sets such that X 0 = X and for all s T n ω of nonempty F σ X s = F s i T X s i, X s i X s, and diam(x s) < 1 2 n. We write [T ] = {x ω ω n x n T }. For each x [T ], let f(x) denote the unique element of T n ω X x n. Then f is continuous by the last condition. For each n, there is a unique s n 2 with x X s by the first condition, and hence f is surjective. Corollary 3.6. There is a continuous surjection f : ω ω X. Proof. It is easy to see that there is a continuous retraction r : ω ω [T ], i.e. such that r [T ] = id [T ]. Definition 3.7. Suppose that A X and x X. The x is a condensation point of A if A U is uncountable for every open U X with x X.

13 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 13 Lemma 3.8. Suppose that A X is uncountable and C X is the set of condensation points of A. Then A C is uncountable. Proof. It is easy to see that C is closed. For each x X \ C, there is a basic open set U X \ C with x U such that A U is countable. Hence A \ C is countable. Lemma 3.9. Suppose that A X is uncountable. U, V such that A U and A V are uncountable. Then there are disjoint open sets Proof. Find condensation points x y of A and disjoint open neighborhoods of x and y. Lemma Suppose that f : X Y is continuous and A = f[x] si uncountable. Then there are open set U, V X such that f[u] and f[v ] are disjoint and uncountable. Proof. Find disjoint open sets U, V Y such that A U and A V are uncountable. Consider f 1 [U] and f 1 [V ]. Proposition Every uncountable analytic set has a perfect subset. Proof. Suppose that f : ω ω X is continuous and A = f[ ω ω]. previous lemma (t s) s <ω 2 in <ω ω such that for all s n 2 and i < 2 t s t s i, f[u ts ] is uncountable, and f[u ts 0 U ts 1 ] = (so in particular t s 0 t s 1). We construct by the Let g : ω 2 ω ω, where g(x) is the unique element of T n ω Ut x n. Then g is a continuous injection. Moreover fg is injective by the last requirement. Since ω 2 is compact, fg[ ω 2] is closed in X. Since fg is injective, fg[ ω 2] is perfect. Lemma Suppose that Y X is Borel and f : X Y is an injection such that the preimages and images of Borel sets are Borel. Then there is a Borel isomorphism between X and Y. Proof. Let A 0 = X, A n+1 = f[a n], B 0 = Y, B n+1 = f[b n]. Then f[a n \ B n] = A n+1 \ B n+1. The sets A n \ B n are disjoint since f[a n] B n. Let A = S n ω (An \ Bn). Let g : X Y, where 8 >< f(x) g(x) = >: x if x A otherwise. Then g A = f A: A A is a Borel isomorphism and g (X \ A) = id (X \ A) is a Borel isomorphism.

14 14 PHILIPP SCHLICHT Proposition All uncountable Polish spaces are Borel isomorphic. Proof. Suppose that X is an uncountabl Polish space. We construct a continuous injection f : ω 1 X. Then f maps closed sets to closed sets. and hence Borel sets to Borel sets. We have constructed a continuous bijection g : C X, where C ω ω is closed. Note that the specific function which we contructed earlier maps basic open sets to F σ sets and hence Borel sets to Borel sets. To apply the previous lemma, it is sufficient that there is an injection ω ω ω 2 which maps Borel sets to Borel sets. Let h: ω ω ω 2, where h(x) = 0 x(0) 10 x(1) 10 x(2) 1... Stefan proved the following lemmas. Lemma Suppose that A n X is Borel for each n ω. Then there is a finer Polish topology with the same Borel sets in which each A n is both closed and open. Lemma Suppose that A 0 and A 1 are disjoint analytic subsets of X. Then there are disjoint Borel subsets of X with A i B i for i < 2. Lemma Suppose that f : X Y is a function and A = {(x, y) X Y f(x) = y} its graph. Then the following are equivalent: (1) f is Borel measurable. (2) A is Borel. (3) A is analytic. Proof. To prove (2) from (1), find a base (U n) n ω for Y. Then (x, y) A if for all n, if x f 1 [U n], then y U n. To prove (1) from (3), suppose that B Y is Borel. Then x f 1 [B] if and only if y B (x, y) A if and only if y Y ((x, y) A y B). Lemma suppose that (A n) n ω is a sequence of analytic subsets of X. Then there is a sequence (B n) n ω of pairwise disjoint Borel subsets of X with A n B n for all n. So f 1 [B] is analytic and coanalytic, so it is Borel. Proof. Find B n Borel with A n B n and B n A i = for all i n by separation of analytic sets. Let C n = B n \ S i n Bi. Suppose that X = (X, d X) and Y = (Y, d Y ) are Polish spaces. Theorem 3.18 (Lusin-Suslin). If f : X Y is Borel, A X is Borel, and f A is injective, then f[a] is Borel.

15 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 15 Proof. Let us first argue that it is sufficient to prove this for X = ω ω, closed sets A X, and continuous f. We refine the topology on X to a Polish topology with the same Borel sets such that f is continuous and A is closed. Then there is a closed C ω ω and a continuous bijection g : C A. There is a continuous h: ω ω with h C = id. Now consider fgh: ω ω Y and C ω ω instead of A. Now suppose that f : ω ω Y is continuous, A X is closed, and f A is injective. Let A s = f[a N s] for s <ω ω. Then each A s is analytic. Let B = Y. For n > 0 find disjoint Borel sets (B s) s N ω with A s B s A s for s n ω by the version of the separation theorem in the previous lemma. We can assume that B s A s by intersection B s with A s if necessary. Let C t = T s t Bs for all t <ω ω. Then A t C t. We claim that f[a] = T S n ω s n ω Cs. If y f[a], find x A with f(x) = y. Then y f[a N x n C x n for all n ω. If y T S n ω s n ω Cs, then there is x ω ω with y T n ω C x n by the choice of C s. Then y T n ω A x n. So A N x n for all n. Since A is closed, this implies that x A. We claim that f(x) = y. If f(x) y, find an open neighborhood U of f(x) with y U. Find n with f[n x n ] U by the continuity of f. This contradicts the assumption that y C x n A x n. Exercise Read about Lusin schemes in section 7C of Kechris book. We would now like to show that analytic and coanalytic sets have the Baire property and are universally measurable, i.e. measurable with respect to every σ-finite Borel measure on X. A measure µ is σ-finite if there are Borel sets X n X for n ω with X = S n ω Xn and µ(x n) < for all n. Definition Suppose that S is a σ-algebra on a set X and A, Â X with Â S. Then Â is an S-cover of A if (1) A Â and (2) if A B S, then every subset of Â \ B is in S. We say that S admits covers if every A X has an S-cover. Lemma Suppose that X is a Polish space and S is the set of all A X with the Baire property. Then S admits covers. Proof. Suppose that A X and let U = S {V X V is basic open, (X \ A) V is comeager in V }. Let C = X \ U. Then A \ C = A U is meager by the choice of U. Find a meager F σ set D X with A \ C D and let Â = C D.

16 16 PHILIPP SCHLICHT Suppose that B A has the Baire property and that Â \ B is nonmeager. Find a basic open set V such that (Â \ B) V is comeager in V. Then V U. So D V is comeager in V, contradicting the choice of D. Lemma Suppose that X is a Polish space and µ is a σ-finite Borel measure on X. Suppose that S is the set of all µ-measurable A X (i.e. such that the inner and outer measures µ (A) and µ (A) coincide). Then S admits covers. Proof. We can assume that µ(x) <. Let µ (A) = inf{µ(b) B X Bore, A B} denote the outer measure of A X. Then there is a Borel set Â X with A Â and µ(â) = µ (A). Suppose that B A is µ-measurable and µ(â \ B) > 0. Then A Â B and µ(â B) < µ(â), contradicting the choice of Â. Definition (Suslin operation) Suppose that (C s) s <ω ω is a family of subsets of a set X with C s C t for all s t. Let A(C s) = [ x ω ω n ω \ C x n. Lemma Suppose that A X is analyitic. Then there is a family (C s) s <ω ω closed subsets of X such that C s C t for all s t and A = A(C s). of Proof. Suppose that A and that f : ω ω X is continuous with f[ ω ω] = A. C s = f[n s] for s <ω ω. Then A A(C s). To show that A(C s) A, suppose that y T n ω C x n = T n ω f[n x n]. Find x n N x n with d(f(x n), y) < 1 2 n. Then lim n x n = x. So f(x) = y and hence y f[u]. Lemma Suppose that S is a σ-algebra which admits covers. Then S is closed under the Suslin operation. Proof. Suppose that A = A(C s) with C s S for all s <ω ω and C s C t if s t. Let C s = [ s x \ C x n C s for each s <ω ω. Then A = C. Find an S-cover Ĉs for C s with Ĉs C s. Let n ω D s = Ĉs \ [ n ω Ĉ s n. Let Since C s = S n ω Cs n S n ω Ĉs n, every subset of D s is in S and hence every subset of D := S s <ω ω Ds is in S. We claim that Â\A = Ĉ \C D and hence A S. Suppose that y (Â\A)\D. For all s <ω ω, if y Ĉs \ D, then y Ĉs n for some n. Find x ω ω with y Ĉx n C x n for all n ω. Then y T n ω C x n A, contradicting the choice of y.

17 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 17 The previous lemmas imply Proposition All analytic and coanalytic subsets of Polish spaces have the Baire property and are universally measurable. 4. The G 0 dichotomy We present Ben Miller s proof of the G 0 dichotomy and some consequences. As usual, X and Y denote Polish spaces, unless stated otherwise. is a graph on X. Suppose that G We say that A X is G-discrete if there are no x y in A with (x, y) G. A κ-coloring of G is a map c: X κ such that c 1 [{α}]. A homomorphism from a graph G on X to a graph H on Y is a map f : X Y such that (x, y) G implies (f(x), f(y)) H. Supose that I 2 <ω is dense, i.e. for every s 2 <ω there is some t I with s t. Let G I denote the graph consisting of all pairs (s i x, s (1 i) x), where s I, i < 2, and x ω 2. We fix a sequence (s n) n ω with s n 2 n such that I = {s n n ω} is dense and let G 0 = G I. Lemma 4.1. (Ben Miller) Suppose that A ω 2 is nonmeager and has the Baire property. Then A is not G 0-discrete. Theorem 4.2. (Kechris-Solecki-Todorcevic) Suppose that X is a Hausdorff space and G is an analytic graph on X. Then either (1) there is a Borel ω-coloring of G or (2) there is a continuous homomorphism from G 0 to G. The space ω κ is the product of κ with the discrete topology. Definition 4.3. Suppose that X is a topological space. A set A X is κ-suslin if A = f[ ω ω] for some continuous map f : ω κ X or A =. A set A X is co-κ-suslin if X \ A is κ-suslin. The ω-suslin subsets of Polish spaces are the analytic sets. The G 0 dichotomy and many if its consequences can be generalized to κ-suslin graphs on Hausdorff spaces, which we don t pursue here. Lemma 4.4 (Mycielski). Suppose that E is a meager binary relation on X. Then there is a perfect C X with (x, y) / E for all x y in X. Proof. Suppose that U n X is open dense for eachn ω and E T n ω Un =. We can assume that U 0 U 1... We construct (U s) s 2 <ω that for all s i t j in 2 n+1 with U s X nonempty open such

18 18 PHILIPP SCHLICHT (1) U s i U t j =, (2) diam(u s i) < 2 n, and (3) U s i U t j U n. Let U = X. If U n is defined for all s n 2, first find (U s i) s 2 n, i<2 satisfying (1) and (2). For (3) we successively shrink each pair U s i, U t j with s i t j in 2 n+1. Let f : ω 2 X, f(x) = T n ω U x n. Then f is continuous and injective. Let C = f[2 ω ]. Then C is compact and perfect. We claim that (f(x), f(y)) / E for all x y in 2 ω. Suppose that x(n) y(n). Then (f(x), f(y)) U x m+1 U y m+1 U m for all m n. So (f(x), f(y)) / E. Lemma 4.5. If U X Y is open dense, then S := {x X U x is dense } is comeager. Proof. Suppose that W Y is basic open and nonempty. We claim that S W := {x X U X W } is comeager. Then S = T W SW is comeager. Otherwise let T W := {x X U X W = }. There is a nonempty basic open set U X such that T W U is comeager in U. Then T W W is nonmeager and (T W W ) U =, contradicting the assumption that U is comeager. Lemma 4.6 (Kuratowski-Ulam). A set A X Y with the Baire property is comeager (nonmeager) if and only if {x X A x is comeager (nonmeager)} is comeager (nonmeager). Proof. Suppose that A X Y is comeager, A T n ω Un, Un open dense in X Y. Then {x X A x is comeager} T n ω {x X (Un)x is comeager in Y } is comeager in X by the previous lemma. Suppose that A X Y is nonmeager. Since A has the Baire property, there is a basic open set U V X Y such that A (U V ) is comeager in U V. Then {x X A x V is comeager in V } is comeager in U by the previous argument, so nonmeager. If A is not comeager, then (X Y )\A is nonmeager, so {x X A x is not comeager} = {x X ((X Y ) \ A) x is nonmeager} is nonmeager and hence {x X A x is comeager} is not comeager. If A is meager, then (X Y ) \ A is comeager, so {x X A x is meager} = {x X ((X Y ) \ A) x is comeager} is comeager and hence {x X A x is nonmeager} is meager. Theorem 4.7 (Silver). Suppose that X is a Hausdorff space and E is a coanalytic equivalence relation on X. Then either (1) E has countably many equivalence classes or

19 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 19 (2) there is a perfect set C X of pairwise E-inequivalent points. Proof. The condition are mutually exclusive. Let G = X 2 \ E. Suppose that c: X ω is a coloring of G. Then c 1 [{n}] is contained in some E-class for every n ω. So E has countably many equivalence classes. Otherwise there is a continuous homomorphism f : ω 2 X from G 0 to G by the G 0 dichotomy. Then F = (f f) 1 [E] is an equivalence relation on ω 2 with G 0 F =. We claim that F is meager. By Kuratowski-Ulam, it is sufficient to show that every equivalence with the Baire property class is meager. Suppose that x ω 2 and [x] F is nonmeager and has the Baire property. Then [x] F is not G 0-discrete by a previous lemma. Find y, z [x] F with (y, z) G 0 F. There is a continuous g : ω 2 ω 2 with (g(x), g(y)) F for all x y in ω 2 by Mycielski s theorem. Let h = fg. Then (h(x), h(y)) / E for all x y in ω 2. So C = h[ ω 2] satisfies (2). Theorem 4.8 (Lusin-Novikov). Suppose that X, Y are Polish spaces, R X Y is analytic and R x is countable for all x X. then there are partial functions f n : X Y with relatively Borel graphs R n R (i.e. R n = R B n for some Borel set B n) such that R = S n ω Rn. Proof. Let G ω 2 ω 2 where ((x 0, y 0), (x 1, y 1)) G if x 0 = x 1, y 0 y 1, and (y 0, y 1) R x0. Suppose that f : ω 2 X Y is a homomorphism from G 0 to G. If x, y ω 2 and (x, y) G, then f(x) 0 = f(y) 0. Since the connected G 0-component of 0 is dense in ω 2, f(x) 0 = f(y) 0 for all x, y ω 2. Let z = f(x) 0. Let f 1 : ω 2 Y, f 1(x) = f(x) 1. Let H = {(x, y) Y Y x y and (x R z or y R z)}. Then f 1 is a homomorphism from G 0 to H. Let I = (f 1 f 1) 1 [H]. Then G 0 I. Now each I x is analytic and hence it has the Baire property. It is easy to check that the complement of H is an equivalence relation, so the complement of I is an equivalence relation as well. Using this and the fact the nonmeager sets with the Baire property are not G 0-discrete, if some I x was not comeager, then there have to be y, z I x with (y, z) G 0, contradicting the assumption that f 1 is a homomorphism from G 0 to H. So every I x is is comeager, and hence I is comeager by the Kuratowski-Ulam theorem. Then there is a continuous map g : ω 2 ω 2 with (g(x), g(y)) I for all x y in ω 2 by Mycielski s theorem. Let h = f 1g. Then h(x), h(y) R z and h(x) h(y) for all x y in ω 2, by the definition of I as I = (f 1 f 1) 1 [H] and by the definition of G and H. This contradicts the assumption that R z is countable.

20 20 PHILIPP SCHLICHT By the G 0 dichotomy, there is a Borel ω-coloring c: ω 2 ω 2 ω of G. Let R n = c 1 [{n}] R. Then y = z for all (x, y), (x, z) R n. If R is Borel, then R n is Borel and hence also dom(r n) is Borel for all n, since injective images of Borel sets under continuous (and even Borel measurable) maps are Borel by a previous lemma. The Lusin-Novikov theorem can also be shown for Hausdorff spaces X, Y with a very similar proof. Definition 4.9 (Topological group). A topological group G = (G,, 1) is a group with a topology such that and 1 are continuous. We will equip every countable group with the discrete topology, making it into a topological group. Definition 4.10 (Group actions). Suppose that G = (G,, 1) is a group. (1) A Borel (continuous) action of G on X is a Borel (continuous) map G X X, (g, x) g x with (gh) x = g (h x) for all g, h G and x X. (2) If G acts on X, let E G = {(x, y) g G g x = y}. Definition Let Aut(X) denote the group of Borel automorphisms of X. Definition An equivalence relation E is countable if all its equivalence classes are countable. Lemma There is a partition X 2 \ id X A n B n =. = F n ω An Bn with An, Bn Borel and Proof. It is sufficient to prove this for X = ω 2, since all uncountable Polish spaces are Borel isomorphic. Let (s n) n ω enumerate <ω 2 without repetitions. Let A n = N and sn 0 B n = N. sn 1 Theorem 4.14 (Feldman-Moore). Suppose that E is a countable Borel equivalence relation on X. Then there is a countable group G and a Borel action of G on X with E = E G. Proof. Let E = S n ω Rn where each Rn is Borel and (Rn)x is countable for all x X and n ω by Lusin-Novikov. We can assume that the sets R n are pairwise disjoint. Let X 2 \ id X lemma. Let = F k ω A k B k with A k B k = and A k, B k Borel by the previous E m,n,k = {(x, y) E (x, y) R m, (y, x) R n, x y, (x, y) A k B k }.

21 LECTURE NOTES ON DESCRIPTIVE SET THEORY 21 Then E \ id X = F m,n,k E m,n,k. Each E m,n,k is the graph of some Borel isomorphism f m,n,k : A m,n,k B m,n,k. In fact f m,n,k = f n A m,n,k and f 1 m,n,k = fm B m,n,k. We extend each f m,n,k to a Borel automorphism of X as follows. Let 8 f m,n,k (x) >< if x A m,n,k, h m,n,k (x) = f 1 m,n,k (x) if x B m,n,k, >: x otherwise. Let G Aut(X) denote the (countable) group generated by all h m,n,k. Then E G by the definition of G, and E G E since E is an equivalence relation.

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