Child Labour Resource Guide Appendix 6 Developing child labour policies: examples from four major businesses

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1 Appendix 6 policies: examples from UNICEF/HQ /Alejandro Balaguer

2 During the 1990s, many different businesses based in the UK and elsewhere adopted codes which either referred to labour standards in general or incorporated a specific prohibition on child labour. This section cites the examples of four companies which adopted codes excluding the use of under age child workers by their suppliers and which also took other action regarding child labour. The companies: Reebok International Ltd Levi Strauss Pentland Group plc IKEA Reebok International Ltd The company adopted the Reebok Human Rights Production Standards in The standards cover nine areas, including child labour. The specific requirement on child labour states: No Child Labor Reebok will not work with business partners that use child labor. The term child refers to a person who is younger than 15, or younger than the age for completing compulsory education in the country of manufacture, whichever is higher. Auditing and monitoring Initially, monitoring was carried out entirely by two Reebok staff members. In the mid-1990s, the company started independent audits of its human rights standards. Meeting human rights standards The procedures for meeting Reebok s human rights standards are contained in A Guide to the implementation of the Reebok Human Rights Production Standards. 2 This specifies that all Reebok suppliers must keep personnel files which include evidence of the age of each worker younger than 18. The Guide also requires employers to comply with any legal restrictions applying to young workers below 18, and to have systems in place to identify any places or operations which are inappropriate for young workers. Employers are also required to ensure that all workers engaged in operating, or working close to, hazardous equipment, working at dangerous heights or lifting heavy loads, or are exposed to hazardous substances, are above the legal age for such work. In order to ensure that younger children are not working, Reebok stipulates that, children will not have access to production areas, bans children from visiting their parents in factory production areas, and excludes children from the workplace unless they are part of a guided school group tour or other such unusual event. Reebok s high profile on human rights issues means that the company has taken special care to avoid being criticised for allowing violations of 112The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

3 labour rights to occur in its supply chain. In 1996 and 1997, this led to some criticisms of the company s efforts to ensure that under age children were not involved in stitching Reebok footballs in Pakistan, notably when the company began printing labels on the footballs declaring: Guarantee: manufactured without child labor. The use of such labels was criticised by other sporting goods retailers. In order to deliver a cast-iron guarantee that children were not being exploited, Reebok established central stitching factories to replace the practice of stitching footballs in private homes. While one result was to guarantee that under age children could be identified and kept out of the workplace, another was that few women worked in the stitching factories and it was reported that their income and economic independence suffered. 3 Levi Strauss & Co. Employment standards are one of five issues covered by the Levi Strauss and Co. Global Sourcing and Operating Guidelines. The specific requirement on child labour is one of eight employment issues mentioned. The company states: Child Labor: Use of child labor is not permissible. Workers can be no less than 15 years of age and not younger than the compulsory age to be in school. We will not utilize partners who use child labor in any of their facilities. We support the development of legitimate workplace apprenticeship programs for the educational benefit of younger people. Taking corrective action Levi Strauss was one of the businesses sourcing in Bangladesh at the time that suppliers in the country became concerned about child labour in 1992 and Suppliers feared that US-based retailers would stop sourcing their products in Bangladesh. Two local suppliers were found to be employing children under 14, which violated Levi Strauss sourcing guidelines at the time. The suppliers argued that child labour was a normal and acceptable practice in Bangladesh and that to dismiss the children would cause severe hardship to their families. Levi Strauss reportedly explored with the supplier and some local NGOs an arrangement whereby the children under 14 would be removed from the factories and paid their wages and other benefits (paid partly by their former employer and partly by Levi Strauss) whilst receiving an education and other services. This was on the understanding that they would be re-employed on reaching the age of In using this approach, Levi Strauss was evidently working to reconcile its corporate ideals with developing country realities. Pentland Group plc Pentland operates a number of brands and businesses in the footwear, clothing and sports markets. Among its brands are: Speedo, Ellesse, 113The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

4 Kickers, Berghaus, Mitre and Red or Dead. It also operates certain brands under licence from third party brand owners such as Lacoste Footwear Worldwide and Skechers in the UK. It has a major sourcing operation headquartered in Hong Kong. 5 Codes of conduct Pentland has adopted codes at several different levels to determine its behaviour and that of its suppliers. A Group Code of Business Conduct was adopted by the Board in 2001 to spell out standards of behaviour in the management of the Group s companies. This mentions the Group s responsibilities to its stakeholders and also lists the Group s explicit undertakings to its employees, customers, suppliers and the wider community. A Group Employment Standards Policy spells out the rights and responsibilities of Pentland employees while a Group Code of Employment Standards for Suppliers spells out the minimum standards required of suppliers. The Group Employment Standards Policy notes that Pentland s policy is only to do business with suppliers that adopt and implement our standards or have their own policies that reflect the same standards. Recognising the complexity of its supply chain, this policy tries to set out the limits of the Group s responsibility for determining the labour standards respected by its suppliers: Our suppliers all have suppliers of their own and they in turn are supplied by others. It would be impossible for us to control the working conditions of the vast number of people who contribute in some way to what finally becomes one of our products. We therefore address our policy primarily to our direct suppliers and encourage them, in turn, to apply it to their own supply chains. 6 The Group Code of Employment Standards for Suppliers is said by Pentland to reflect the Base Code of the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) and to be consistent with the relevant ILO conventions and recommendations. The requirement that child labour is not used is one of nine requirements for suppliers to respect regarding employment standards. The Group Code of Employment Standards for Suppliers stipulates that: 4.1 There is no recruitment of child labour. 4.2 If any incidence of child labour is identified in the supplier s industry and region, the supplier shall initiate, or participate in, a programme to transfer any children involved in child labour into quality education until they are no longer children. 4.3 No one under 18 years old is employed at night or in hazardous work or conditions. 114The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

5 4.4 In this Code, child means anyone under 15 years of age, unless national or local law stipulates a higher mandatory school leaving or minimum working age, in which case the higher age shall apply; and child labour means any work by a child or young person, unless it is considered acceptable under the ILO Minimum Age Convention 1973 (C138). In addition to the monitoring and independent auditing of these standards, the Pentland Group is reported to have worked closely with others in Pakistan and India to eliminate the use of child labour from the manufacture of footballs and other sporting goods. Those involved with Pentland have included local manufacturers, the World Federation of the Sporting Goods Industry, other sporting goods retailers, UNICEF, the ILO and Save the Children (UK). IKEA The IKEA furniture retailing group is owned by the Ingka Foundation. It was initially headquartered in Sweden, but relocated to the Netherlands in At the beginning of 2004, IKEA s website indicated that it was sourcing its products in over 55 countries, with more than 2,000 suppliers. IKEA was alerted to the issue of child labour in 1995, following the murder of a Pakistani boy who had worked closely with a Swedish NGO opposing bonded child labour. The boy, Iqbal Masih, had worked making hand knotted carpets. IKEA became concerned that some of the workers involved in manufacturing carpets for the company in South Asian countries might be working in similarly abusive circumstances. In 1998, IKEA signed a framework agreement with the International Federation of Building and Wood Workers (IFBWW) on the employment rights of its employees and those of its suppliers, containing a prohibition on child labour. In 2000, it adopted new standards, focusing on working conditions and the environment.. 7 Since December 2002, IKEA s code of conduct governing working conditions and environmental awareness among its suppliers has been known as the IWAY Standard Minimum Requirements for Environment, Social and Working Conditions and Wooden Merchandise. This is backed up by a number of more detailed codes, such as The IKEA Way on Preventing Child Labour, along with standards on hazardous waste and other environmental issues and the IKEA Trading Audit Procedure. 8 The IWAY Standard refers to 19 different issues, more than the other individual company codes mentioned here. The specific provision on child labour (point 11) is notable because it makes explicit reference to taking into account the best interests of any child found at work inappropriately. It states: The IKEA supplier shall not make use of child labour. All measures to avoid child labour shall be implemented taking into account the best interests of the child. The supplier shall sign a 115The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

6 document where it is stated that they recognise and abide by IKEA child labour requirements The IKEA supplier shall take the appropriate measures to ensure that no child labour occurs at their own place of production or at sub-suppliers place(s) of production. The supplier shall maintain a labour force register including date of birth for all the workers. The IKEA supplier shall effectively communicate to all its suppliers, as well as to its employees, the content of the IKEA Way on Preventing Child Labour. IKEA also makes it clear that its suppliers must respect the minimum ages set out in ILO Convention No 138. Therefore the employment of 14-year-olds is acceptable in some countries. Children aged 12 to 14 may, in some restricted circumstances, also be employed in light work. The same Point 11 also sets a minimum standard for young workers aged under 18 who can be appropriately employed, stating: The IKEA supplier shall protect young workers of legal working age, up until the age of 18, from any type of employment or work which, by its nature or circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to jeopardise their health, safety or morale. The IKEA Way on Preventing Child Labour details the process to be followed for upholding the best interests of children including a requirement that suppliers implement corrective action plans if child labour is found at production plants. IKEA also state that:...a corrective action plan shall take the child s best interests into consideration, i.e., family and social situation and level of education. Care shall be taken not merely to move child labour from one supplier s workplace to another, but to enable more viable and sustainable alternatives for the children. Monitoring and auditing IKEA has its own International Compliance Organisation Support and Monitoring Group and its own Children s Ombudsman, whose responsibility it is to ensure that IKEA maintains a clear focus on the best interests of the child and complies with the provisions of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. IKEA s staff at its trading service offices are reported to work with suppliers to implement the IWAY standards and to decide on appropriate corrective action when violations are detected. Some 80 trained auditors are reported to carry out audits of suppliers and are responsible for preparing action plans whenever cases of noncompliance are noted. Cases of non-compliance and action plans are reported to be followed up by a new audit. In September 2003, IKEA reported that more than 20,000 corrective actions had taken place at 1,600 suppliers in 55 countries. More than 50,000 corrective actions were said to be in progress. IKEA is reported 116The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

7 to have developed a guidebook for auditors and a compliance database to store relevant data on its suppliers and the results of monitoring, including follow up of action plans when contraventions of its standards are detected. The Compliance and Monitoring Group within IKEA is responsible for auditing the work done by IKEA trading service offices to comply with IWAY standards. In addition, IKEA uses independent third party auditing companies to carry out audits of its suppliers. IKEA has made the interviewing of workers at suppliers an important part of the third party audits. Independent auditors employed by IKEA are reported to include KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Intertek Testing Services. Independent research In September 2003, a research organisation based in the Netherlands published a report on employment standards among IKEA s suppliers in Bulgaria, India and Vietnam. 9 While not identifying any cases of child labour, researchers did visit a supplier whose factory bore a sign saying that workers under the age of 18 need not apply for jobs. 10 A blanket provision along these lines might be justified if all the jobs involved hazardous work. As this seems extremely unlikely, however, it appears that the factory was discriminating against all children under 18 in order to avoid accusations of employing child labour. Denying eligible children and young people the opportunity to work is a clear violation of children s rights. Go to Appendix 2 for an examination of the different types of standards and codes of conduct on corporate social responsibility, with specific reference to child labour. 1 Reebok s website summarises the history of its attempts to enforce this and other standards in the past decade. 2 Reebok, A guide to the implementation of the Reebok Human Rights Production Standards, Version 3, Reported by Eliot J Schrage in Promoting International Worker Rights Through Private Voluntary Initiatives. Public Relations or Private Policy? January From Anti-Slavery International, Helping Business to Help Stop Child Labour, London, Information taken from the International Business Leaders Forum website, October See the Pentland website: 7 See IKEA s website: 8 Available from the IKEA website 9 Esther de Haan & Joris Oldenziel, Labour Conditions in IKEA s supply chain case studies in India, Bulgaria and Vietnam. SOMO (Stichting, Onderzoek Multinationale Ondermingen), September SOMO investigators expressed concern that child labour might be present in the supply chain in India but did not identify any specific cases. 117The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

8 The IKEA Vision The Business Idea & The HR Idea The IKEA Way on Purchasing Home Furnishing Products (The IKEA Way on Preventing Child Labour) Standards and Checklists (Monitoring methodology) IKEA Trading Normal Business Operation Internal control IKEA Compliance & Monitoring Group External verification Suppliers Action Plans Development/Correction Report to IWAY Council An illustration showing how IKEA s standards on child labour are subject to scrutiny. 118The United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF

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