# Introduction to polynomials

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Worksheet 4.5 Polynomials Section 1 Introduction to polynomials A polynomial is an expression of the form p(x) = p 0 + p 1 x + p 2 x p n x n, (n N) where p 0, p 1,..., p n are constants and x os a variable. Example 1 : f(x) = 3 + 5x + 7x 2 x 4 (p 0 = 3, p 1 = 5, p 2 = 7, p 3 = 0, p 4 = 1) Example 2 : g(x) = 2x 3 + 3x (p 0 = 0, p 1 = 3, p 2 = 0, p 3 = 2) The constants p 0,..., p 1 are called coefficients. In Example 1 the coefficient of x is 5 and the coefficient of x 4 is 1. The term which is independent of x is called the constant term. In Example 1 the constant term of f(x) is 3; in Example 2 the constant term of g(x) is 0. A polynomial p 0 + p 1 x + + p n x n is said to have degree n, denoted deg n, if p n 0 and x n is the highest power of x which appears. In Example 1 the degree of f(x) is 4; in Example 2 the degree of g(x) is 3. A zero polynomial is a polynomial whose coefficients are all 0, i.e. p 0 = p 1 = = p n = 0. Two polynomials are equal if all the coefficients of the corresponding powers of x are equal. Exercises: 1. Find (i) the constant term, (ii) the coefficient of x 4 and (iii) the degree of the following polynomials. (a) x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 (b) 9 3x 2 + 7x 3 (c) x 2 (d) 10x 5 3x 4 + 5x + 6 (e) 3x 6 + 7x 4 + 2x (f) 7 + 5x + x 2 6x 4 2. Suppose f(x) = 2ax 3 3x 2 b 2 x 7 and g(x) = cx x 3 (d + 1)x 2 4x + e. Find values for constants a, b, c, d and e given that f(x) = g(x). 1

2 Section 2 Operations on polynomials Suppose h(x) = 3x 2 + 4x + 5 and k(x) = 7x 2 3x. Addition/Subtraction: To add/subtract polynomials we combine like terms. Example 1 : We have h(x) + k(x) = 10x 2 + x + 5 Multiplication: To multiply polynomials we expand and then simplify their product. Example 2 : We have h(x) k(x) = (3x 2 + 4x + 5)(7x 2 3x) = 21x 4 9x x 3 12x x 2 15x = 21x x x 2 15x Substitution: We can substitute in different values of x to find the value of our polynomial at this point. Example 3 : We have h(1) = 3(1) 2 + 4(1) + 5 = 12 k( 2) = 7( 2) 2 3( 2) = 34 Division: To divide one polynomial by another we use the method of long division. Example 4 : Suppose we wanted to divide 3x 3 2x 2 + 4x + 7 by x 2 + 2x. x 2 + 2x ) 3x 8 3x 3 2x 2 +4x +7 3x 3 +6x 2 8x 2 +4x 8x 2 16x 20x +7 So 3x 3 2x 2 + 4x + 7 = (x 2 + 2x)(3x 8) + (20x + 7). 2

3 More formally, suppose p(x) and f(x) are polynomials where deg p(x) deg f(x). Then dividing p(x) by f(x) gives us the identity p(x) = f(x)q(x) + r(x), where q(x) is the quotient, r(x) is the remainder and deg r(x) < deg f(x). Example 5 : Dividing p(x) = x 3 7x by f(x) = x 1 we obtain the following result: ) x 2 6x 6 x 1 x 3 7x 2 +0x +4 x 3 x 2 6x 2 +0x 6x 2 +6x 6x +4 6x +6 Here the quotient is q(x) = x 2 6x 6 and the remainder is r = 2. Note: As we can see, division doesn t always produce a polynomial answer sometimes there s just a constant remainder. 2 Exercises: 1. Perform the following operations and find the degree of the result. (a) (2x 4x 2 + 7) + (3x 2 12x 7) (b) (x 2 + 3x)(4x 3 3x 1) (c) (x 2 + 2x + 1) 2 (d) (5x 4 7x 3 + 2x + 1) (6x 4 + 8x 3 2x 3) 2. Let p(x) = 3x 4 + 7x 2 10x + 4. Find p(1), p(0) and p( 2). 3. Carry out the following divisions and write your answer in the form p(x) = f(x)q(x) + r(x). (a) (3x 3 x 2 + 4x + 7) (x + 2) (b) (3x 3 x 2 + 4x + 7) (x 2 + 2) (c) (x 4 3x 2 2x + 4) (x 1) (d) (5x x 3 6x 2 + 8x) (x 2 3x + 1) 3

4 (e) (3x 4 + x) (x 2 + 4x) 4. Find the quotient and remainder of the following divisions. (a) (2x 4 2x 2 1) (2x 3 x 1) (b) (x 3 + 2x 2 5x 3) (x + 1)(x 2) (c) (5x 4 3x 2 + 2x + 1) (x 2 2) (d) (x 4 x 2 x) (x + 2) 2 (e) (x 4 + 1) (x + 1) Section 3 Remainder theorem We have seen in Section 2 that if a polynomial p(x) is divided by polynomial f(x), where deg p(x) deg f(x), we obtain the expression p(x) = f(x)q(x) + r(x), where q(x) is the quotient, r(x) is the remainder and deg r(x) < deg f(x), or r = 0. Now suppose f(x) = x a, where a R. Then p(x) = (x a) q(x) + r(x) i.e. p(x) = (x a) q(x) + r, since deg r < deg f. So the remainder when p(x) is divided by x a is p(a). This important result is known as the remainder theorem. Remainder Theorem: If a polynomial p(x) is divided by (x a), then the remainder is p(a). Example 1 : Find the remainder when x 3 7x is divided by x 1. Instead of going through the long division process to find the remainder, we can now use the remainder theorem. The remainder when p(x) = x 3 7x 2 +4 is divided by x 1 is p(1) = (1) 3 7(1) = 2. Note: Checking this using long division will give the same remainder of 2 see Example 5 from Section 2). 4

5 Exercises: 1. Use the remainder theorem to find the remainder of the following divisions and then check your answers by long division. (a) (4x 3 x 2 + 2x + 1) (x 5) (b) (3x x + 1) (x 1) 2. Use the remainder theorem to find the remainder of the following divisions. (a) (x 3 5x + 6) (x 3) (b) (3x 4 5x 2 20x 8) (x + 1) (c) (x 4 7x 3 + x 2 x 1) (x + 2) (d) (2x 3 2x 2 + 3x 2) (x 2) Section 4 The factor theorem and roots of polynomials The remainder theorem told us that if p(x) is divided by (x a) then the remainder is p(a). Notice that if the remainder p(a) = 0 then (x a) fully divides into p(x), i.e. (x a) is a factor of p(x). This is known as the factor theorem. Factor Theorem: Suppose p(x) is a polynomial and p(a) = 0. Then (x a) is a factor of p(x) and we can write p(x) = (x a)q(x) for some polynomial q(x). Note: If p(a) = 0 we call x = a a root of p(x). We can use trial and error to find solutions of a polynomial p(x) by finding a number a where p(a) = 0. If we can find such a number a then we know (x a) is a factor of p(x), and then we can use long division to find the remaining factors of p(x). Example 1 : a) Find all the factors of p(x) = 6x 3 17x x 2. b) Hence find all the solutions to 6x 3 17x x 2 = 0. Solution a). By trial and error notice that p(2) = = 0 5

6 i.e. 2 is a root of p(x). So (x 2) is a factor of p(x). To find all the other factors we ll divide p(x) by (x 2). x 2 ) 6x 2 5x +1 6x 3 17x 2 +11x 2 6x 3 12x 2 5x 2 +11x 5x 2 +10x x x So p(x) = (x 2)(6x 2 5x + 1). Now notice 6x 2 5x + 1 = 6x 2 3x 2x + 1 = 3x(2x 1) (2x 1) = (3x 1)(2x 1) So p(x) = (x 2)(3x 1)(2x 1) and its factors are (x 2), (3x 1) and (2x 1). Solution b). The solutions to p(x) = 0 occur when x 2 = 0, 3x 1 = 0, 2x 1 = 0. That is x = 2, x = 1 3, x = 1 2. Exercises: 1. For each of the following polynomials find (i) its factors; (ii) its roots. (a) x 3 3x 2 + 5x 6 (b) x 3 + 3x 2 9x + 5 (c) 6x 3 x 2 2x (d) 4x 3 7x 2 14x 3 2. Given that x 2 is a factor of the polynomial x 3 kx 2 24x + 28, find k and the roots of this polynomial. 3. Find the quadratic whose roots are 1 and 1 3 nd whose value at x = 2 is 10. 6

7 4. Find the polynomial of degree 3 which has a root at 1, a double root at 3 and whose value at x = 2 is (a) Explain why the polynomial p(x) = 3x x 2 + 8x 4 has at least one root in the interval from x = 0 to x = 1. (b) Find all roots of this polynomial. 7

8 Exercises for Worksheet Find the quotient and remainder of the following divisions. (a) (x 3 x 2 + 8x 5) (x 2 7) (b) (x 3 + 5x ) (x + 3) (c) (2x 3 6x 2 x + 6) (x 3) (d) (x 4 + 3x 3 x 2 2x 7) (x 2 + 3x + 1) 2. Find the factors of the following polynomials. (a) 3x 3 8x 2 5x + 6 (b) x 3 4x 2 + 6x 4 (c) 2x 3 + 5x 2 3x (d) x 3 + 6x x Solve the following equations. (a) x 3 3x 2 + x + 2 = 0 (b) 5x x x 8 = 0 (c) x 3 8x x 18 = 0 (d) x 3 2x 2 + 5x 4 = 0 (e) x 3 + 5x 2 4x 20 = 0 4. Consider the polynomial p(x) = x 3 4x 2 + ax 3. (a) Find a if, when p(x) is divided by x + 1, the remainder is 12. (b) Find all the factors of p(x). 5. Consider the polynomial h(x) = 3x 3 kx 2 6x + 8. (a) Given that x 4 is a factor of h(x), find k and find the other factors of h(x). (b) Hence find all the roots of h(x). 6. Find the quadratic whose roots are 3 and 1 5 and whose value at x = 0 is Find the quadratic which has a remainder of 6 when divided by x 1, a remainder of 4 when divided by x 3 and no remainder when divided by x Find the polynomial of degree 3 which has roots at x = 1, x = and x = 1 2, and whose value at x = 2 is 2. 8

9 Answers for Worksheet 4.5 Section 1 1. (a) (i) 1 (ii) 1 (iii) 4 (b) (i) 9 (ii) 0 (iii) 3 (c) (i) 2 (ii) 0 (iii) 1 (d) (i) 6 (ii) 3 (iii) 5 (e) (i) 0 (ii) 7 (iii) 6 (f) (i) 7 (ii) 6 (iii) 4 2. a = 5, b = ±2, c = 0, d = 2, e = 7. Section 2 1. (a) x 2 10x, deg = 2 (b) 4x x 4 3x 3 = 10x 2 3x, deg = 5 (c) x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2 + 4x + 1, deg = 4 (d) x 4 15x 3 + 4x + 4, deg = 4 2. p(1) = 4, p(0) = 4, p( 2) = (a) 3x 3 x 2 + 4x + 7 = (x + 2)(3x 2 7x + 18) 29 (b) 3x 3 x 2 + 4x + 7 = (x 2 + 2)(3x 1) + ( 2x + 9) (c) x 4 3x 2 2x + 4 = (x 1)(x 3 + x 2 2x 4) (d) 5x x 3 6x 2 + 8x = (x 2 3x + 1)(5x x + 124) + (335x 124) (e) 3x 4 + x = (x 2 + 4x)(3x 2 12x + 48) 191x 4. (a) q(x) = x, r(x) = x 2 + x 1 (b) q(x) = x + 3, r(x) = 3 (c) q(x) = 5x 2 + 7, r(x) = 2x + 15 (d) q(x) = x 2 4x + 11, r(x) = 29x 44 (e) q(x) = x 3 x 2 + x 1, r(x) = 2 Section 3 1. (a) 486 (b) 16 9

10 2. (a) 18 (b) 10 (c) 77 (d) 12 Section 4 1. (a) (x 2)(x 2 x + 3) (b) (x 1) 2 (x + 5) (c) x(2x + 1)(3x 2) (d) (4x + 1)(x 3)(x + 1) 2. k = 3, roots are: 2 (double) and (x + 1)(x 1/3) 4. 4x 3 20x x (b) 1, 2 3 Exercises (a) q(x) = x 1, r(x) = 15x 12 (b) q(x) = x 2 + 2x 6, r(x) = 33 (c) q(x) = 2x 2 1, r(x) = 3 (d) q(x) = x 2 2, r(x) = 4x 5 2. (a) (3x 2)(x + 1)(x 3) (b) (x 2)(x 2 2x + 2) (c) x(2x 1)(x + 3) (d) (x + 2) (a) 2, 5 1, (b) 2, 5 1, 4 (c) 3, 2 (d) 1 (e) 2, 2, 5 4. (a) a = 4 (b) Factors are (x 3) and (x 2 x + 1) 5. (a) k = 11, factors are (x 4), (x + 1) and (3x 2) (b) Roots are 4, 1 and x x 3 7. x 2 3x x 3 6x 2 + 2x

### JUST THE MATHS UNIT NUMBER 1.8. ALGEBRA 8 (Polynomials) A.J.Hobson

JUST THE MATHS UNIT NUMBER 1.8 ALGEBRA 8 (Polynomials) by A.J.Hobson 1.8.1 The factor theorem 1.8.2 Application to quadratic and cubic expressions 1.8.3 Cubic equations 1.8.4 Long division of polynomials

### Definition 2.1 The line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the function y = f(x) if y approaches ± as x approaches a from the right or left.

Vertical and Horizontal Asymptotes Definition 2.1 The line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the function y = f(x) if y approaches ± as x approaches a from the right or left. This graph has a vertical asymptote

### SOLVING POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS

C SOLVING POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS We will assume in this appendix that you know how to divide polynomials using long division and synthetic division. If you need to review those techniques, refer to an algebra

### Zero: If P is a polynomial and if c is a number such that P (c) = 0 then c is a zero of P.

MATH 11011 FINDING REAL ZEROS KSU OF A POLYNOMIAL Definitions: Polynomial: is a function of the form P (x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a x + a 1 x + a 0. The numbers a n, a n 1,..., a 1, a 0 are called

### Lagrange Interpolation is a method of fitting an equation to a set of points that functions well when there are few points given.

Polynomials (Ch.1) Study Guide by BS, JL, AZ, CC, SH, HL Lagrange Interpolation is a method of fitting an equation to a set of points that functions well when there are few points given. Sasha s method

### Functions and Equations

Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Euclid eworkshop # Functions and Equations c 014 UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Euclid eworkshop # TOOLKIT Parabolas The quadratic f(x) = ax + bx + c (with a,b,c

### 1.7. Partial Fractions. 1.7.1. Rational Functions and Partial Fractions. A rational function is a quotient of two polynomials: R(x) = P (x) Q(x).

.7. PRTIL FRCTIONS 3.7. Partial Fractions.7.. Rational Functions and Partial Fractions. rational function is a quotient of two polynomials: R(x) = P (x) Q(x). Here we discuss how to integrate rational

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Review: Synthetic Division Find (x 2-5x - 5x 3 + x 4 ) (5 + x). Factor Theorem Solve 2x 3-5x 2 + x + 2 =0 given that 2 is a zero of f(x) = 2x 3-5x 2 + x + 2. Zeros of Polynomial Functions Introduction

### College Algebra - MAT 161 Page: 1 Copyright 2009 Killoran

College Algebra - MAT 6 Page: Copyright 2009 Killoran Zeros and Roots of Polynomial Functions Finding a Root (zero or x-intercept) of a polynomial is identical to the process of factoring a polynomial.

### z = i ± 9 2 2 so z = 2i or z = i are the solutions. (c) z 4 + 2z 2 + 4 = 0. By the quadratic formula,

91 Homework 8 solutions Exercises.: 18. Show that Z[i] is an integral domain, describe its field of fractions and find the units. There are two ways to show it is an integral domain. The first is to observe:

### Modern Algebra Lecture Notes: Rings and fields set 4 (Revision 2)

Modern Algebra Lecture Notes: Rings and fields set 4 (Revision 2) Kevin Broughan University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand May 13, 2010 Remainder and Factor Theorem 15 Definition of factor If f (x)

### a 1 x + a 0 =0. (3) ax 2 + bx + c =0. (4)

ROOTS OF POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS In this unit we discuss polynomial equations. A polynomial in x of degree n, where n 0 is an integer, is an expression of the form P n (x) =a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a 1 x

### 3.2 The Factor Theorem and The Remainder Theorem

3. The Factor Theorem and The Remainder Theorem 57 3. The Factor Theorem and The Remainder Theorem Suppose we wish to find the zeros of f(x) = x 3 + 4x 5x 4. Setting f(x) = 0 results in the polynomial

### 8 Polynomials Worksheet

8 Polynomials Worksheet Concepts: Quadratic Functions The Definition of a Quadratic Function Graphs of Quadratic Functions - Parabolas Vertex Absolute Maximum or Absolute Minimum Transforming the Graph

### 1 Shapes of Cubic Functions

MA 1165 - Lecture 05 1 1/26/09 1 Shapes of Cubic Functions A cubic function (a.k.a. a third-degree polynomial function) is one that can be written in the form f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d. (1) Quadratic

### Section 3.2 Polynomial Functions and Their Graphs

Section 3.2 Polynomial Functions and Their Graphs EXAMPLES: P(x) = 3, Q(x) = 4x 7, R(x) = x 2 +x, S(x) = 2x 3 6x 2 10 QUESTION: Which of the following are polynomial functions? (a) f(x) = x 3 +2x+4 (b)

### WARM UP EXERCSE. 2-1 Polynomials and Rational Functions

WARM UP EXERCSE Roots, zeros, and x-intercepts. x 2! 25 x 2 + 25 x 3! 25x polynomial, f (a) = 0! (x - a)g(x) 1 2-1 Polynomials and Rational Functions Students will learn about: Polynomial functions Behavior

### Review for Calculus Rational Functions, Logarithms & Exponentials

Definition and Domain of Rational Functions A rational function is defined as the quotient of two polynomial functions. F(x) = P(x) / Q(x) The domain of F is the set of all real numbers except those for

### PROBLEM SET 6: POLYNOMIALS

PROBLEM SET 6: POLYNOMIALS 1. introduction In this problem set we will consider polynomials with coefficients in K, where K is the real numbers R, the complex numbers C, the rational numbers Q or any other

### MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions

MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions February 24, 2008 1. The following demand equation models the number of units sold, x, of a product as a function of price, p. x = 4p + 200 a. Please write

### Factoring Polynomials

Factoring Polynomials Sue Geller June 19, 2006 Factoring polynomials over the rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers has long been a standard topic of high school algebra. With the advent

### The Method of Partial Fractions Math 121 Calculus II Spring 2015

Rational functions. as The Method of Partial Fractions Math 11 Calculus II Spring 015 Recall that a rational function is a quotient of two polynomials such f(x) g(x) = 3x5 + x 3 + 16x x 60. The method

### Solutions to Self-Test for Chapter 4 c4sts - p1

Solutions to Self-Test for Chapter 4 c4sts - p1 1. Graph a polynomial function. Label all intercepts and describe the end behavior. a. P(x) = x 4 2x 3 15x 2. (1) Domain = R, of course (since this is a

### Vieta s Formulas and the Identity Theorem

Vieta s Formulas and the Identity Theorem This worksheet will work through the material from our class on 3/21/2013 with some examples that should help you with the homework The topic of our discussion

### Partial Fractions. p(x) q(x)

Partial Fractions Introduction to Partial Fractions Given a rational function of the form p(x) q(x) where the degree of p(x) is less than the degree of q(x), the method of partial fractions seeks to break

### PUTNAM TRAINING POLYNOMIALS. Exercises 1. Find a polynomial with integral coefficients whose zeros include 2 + 5.

PUTNAM TRAINING POLYNOMIALS (Last updated: November 17, 2015) Remark. This is a list of exercises on polynomials. Miguel A. Lerma Exercises 1. Find a polynomial with integral coefficients whose zeros include

### The Division Algorithm for Polynomials Handout Monday March 5, 2012

The Division Algorithm for Polynomials Handout Monday March 5, 0 Let F be a field (such as R, Q, C, or F p for some prime p. This will allow us to divide by any nonzero scalar. (For some of the following,

### Integrals of Rational Functions

Integrals of Rational Functions Scott R. Fulton Overview A rational function has the form where p and q are polynomials. For example, r(x) = p(x) q(x) f(x) = x2 3 x 4 + 3, g(t) = t6 + 4t 2 3, 7t 5 + 3t

### UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS

number and and algebra TopIC 17 Polynomials 17.1 Overview Why learn this? Just as number is learned in stages, so too are graphs. You have been building your knowledge of graphs and functions over time.

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Zeros of Polynomial Functions Objectives: 1.Use the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra to determine the number of zeros of polynomial functions 2.Find rational zeros of polynomial functions 3.Find conjugate

### Basic Properties of Rational Expressions

Basic Properties of Rational Expressions A fraction is not defined when the denominator is zero! Examples: Simplify and use Mathematics Writing Style. a) x + 8 b) x 9 x 3 Solution: a) x + 8 (x + 4) x +

### Zeros of a Polynomial Function

Zeros of a Polynomial Function An important consequence of the Factor Theorem is that finding the zeros of a polynomial is really the same thing as factoring it into linear factors. In this section we

### Chapter 4, Arithmetic in F [x] Polynomial arithmetic and the division algorithm.

Chapter 4, Arithmetic in F [x] Polynomial arithmetic and the division algorithm. We begin by defining the ring of polynomials with coefficients in a ring R. After some preliminary results, we specialize

### 1 Lecture: Integration of rational functions by decomposition

Lecture: Integration of rational functions by decomposition into partial fractions Recognize and integrate basic rational functions, except when the denominator is a power of an irreducible quadratic.

### 6 EXTENDING ALGEBRA. 6.0 Introduction. 6.1 The cubic equation. Objectives

6 EXTENDING ALGEBRA Chapter 6 Extending Algebra Objectives After studying this chapter you should understand techniques whereby equations of cubic degree and higher can be solved; be able to factorise

### H/wk 13, Solutions to selected problems

H/wk 13, Solutions to selected problems Ch. 4.1, Problem 5 (a) Find the number of roots of x x in Z 4, Z Z, any integral domain, Z 6. (b) Find a commutative ring in which x x has infinitely many roots.

### x 2 x 2 cos 1 x x2, lim 1. If x > 0, multiply all three parts by x > 0, we get: x x cos 1 x x, lim lim x cos 1 lim = 5 lim sin 5x

Homework 4 3.4,. Show that x x cos x x holds for x 0. Solution: Since cos x, multiply all three parts by x > 0, we get: x x cos x x, and since x 0 x x 0 ( x ) = 0, then by Sandwich theorem, we get: x 0

### CHAPTER SIX IRREDUCIBILITY AND FACTORIZATION 1. BASIC DIVISIBILITY THEORY

January 10, 2010 CHAPTER SIX IRREDUCIBILITY AND FACTORIZATION 1. BASIC DIVISIBILITY THEORY The set of polynomials over a field F is a ring, whose structure shares with the ring of integers many characteristics.

### In this lesson you will learn to find zeros of polynomial functions that are not factorable.

2.6. Rational zeros of polynomial functions. In this lesson you will learn to find zeros of polynomial functions that are not factorable. REVIEW OF PREREQUISITE CONCEPTS: A polynomial of n th degree has

### 4.3 Lagrange Approximation

206 CHAP. 4 INTERPOLATION AND POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION Lagrange Polynomial Approximation 4.3 Lagrange Approximation Interpolation means to estimate a missing function value by taking a weighted average

### Problem Set 7 - Fall 2008 Due Tuesday, Oct. 28 at 1:00

18.781 Problem Set 7 - Fall 2008 Due Tuesday, Oct. 28 at 1:00 Throughout this assignment, f(x) always denotes a polynomial with integer coefficients. 1. (a) Show that e 32 (3) = 8, and write down a list

### 2.5 Zeros of a Polynomial Functions

.5 Zeros of a Polynomial Functions Section.5 Notes Page 1 The first rule we will talk about is Descartes Rule of Signs, which can be used to determine the possible times a graph crosses the x-axis and

### Application. Outline. 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of. Polynomial. 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of.

Polynomial and Rational Functions Outline 3-1 Polynomial Functions 3-2 Finding Rational Zeros of Polynomials 3-3 Approximating Real Zeros of Polynomials 3-4 Rational Functions Chapter 3 Group Activity:

### 9. POLYNOMIALS. Example 1: The expression a(x) = x 3 4x 2 + 7x 11 is a polynomial in x. The coefficients of a(x) are the numbers 1, 4, 7, 11.

9. POLYNOMIALS 9.1. Definition of a Polynomial A polynomial is an expression of the form: a(x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 +... + a 1 x + a 0. The symbol x is called an indeterminate and simply plays the role

### minimal polyonomial Example

Minimal Polynomials Definition Let α be an element in GF(p e ). We call the monic polynomial of smallest degree which has coefficients in GF(p) and α as a root, the minimal polyonomial of α. Example: We

### 3-17 15-25 5 15-10 25 3-2 5 0. 1b) since the remainder is 0 I need to factor the numerator. Synthetic division tells me this is true

Section 5.2 solutions #1-10: a) Perform the division using synthetic division. b) if the remainder is 0 use the result to completely factor the dividend (this is the numerator or the polynomial to the

### 2.3. Finding polynomial functions. An Introduction:

2.3. Finding polynomial functions. An Introduction: As is usually the case when learning a new concept in mathematics, the new concept is the reverse of the previous one. Remember how you first learned

Section 5.4 The Quadratic Formula 481 5.4 The Quadratic Formula Consider the general quadratic function f(x) = ax + bx + c. In the previous section, we learned that we can find the zeros of this function

### Algebra Practice Problems for Precalculus and Calculus

Algebra Practice Problems for Precalculus and Calculus Solve the following equations for the unknown x: 1. 5 = 7x 16 2. 2x 3 = 5 x 3. 4. 1 2 (x 3) + x = 17 + 3(4 x) 5 x = 2 x 3 Multiply the indicated polynomials

### Equations, Inequalities & Partial Fractions

Contents Equations, Inequalities & Partial Fractions.1 Solving Linear Equations 2.2 Solving Quadratic Equations 1. Solving Polynomial Equations 1.4 Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations 42.5 Solving Inequalities

### Rolle s Theorem. q( x) = 1

Lecture 1 :The Mean Value Theorem We know that constant functions have derivative zero. Is it possible for a more complicated function to have derivative zero? In this section we will answer this question

### Real Roots of Univariate Polynomials with Real Coefficients

Real Roots of Univariate Polynomials with Real Coefficients mostly written by Christina Hewitt March 22, 2012 1 Introduction Polynomial equations are used throughout mathematics. When solving polynomials

### 3.6 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function

SECTION 3.6 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function 219 3.6 The Real Zeros of a Polynomial Function PREPARING FOR THIS SECTION Before getting started, review the following: Classification of Numbers (Appendix,

### calculating the result modulo 3, as follows: p(0) = 0 3 + 0 + 1 = 1 0,

Homework #02, due 1/27/10 = 9.4.1, 9.4.2, 9.4.5, 9.4.6, 9.4.7. Additional problems recommended for study: (9.4.3), 9.4.4, 9.4.9, 9.4.11, 9.4.13, (9.4.14), 9.4.17 9.4.1 Determine whether the following polynomials

### 5.1 The Remainder and Factor Theorems; Synthetic Division

5.1 The Remainder and Factor Theorems; Synthetic Division In this section you will learn to: understand the definition of a zero of a polynomial function use long and synthetic division to divide polynomials

### i is a root of the quadratic equation.

13 14 SEMESTER EXAMS 1. This question assesses the student s understanding of a quadratic function written in vertex form. y a x h k where the vertex has the coordinates V h, k a) The leading coefficient

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Zeros of Polynomial Functions The Rational Zero Theorem If f (x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + + a 1 x + a 0 has integer coefficients and p/q (where p/q is reduced) is a rational zero, then p is a factor of

### Reducibility of Second Order Differential Operators with Rational Coefficients

Reducibility of Second Order Differential Operators with Rational Coefficients Joseph Geisbauer University of Arkansas-Fort Smith Advisor: Dr. Jill Guerra May 10, 2007 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper we

### Step 1: Set the equation equal to zero if the function lacks. Step 2: Subtract the constant term from both sides:

In most situations the quadratic equations such as: x 2 + 8x + 5, can be solved (factored) through the quadratic formula if factoring it out seems too hard. However, some of these problems may be solved

9.3 Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula 9.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Solve a quadratic equation by using the quadratic formula 2. Determine the nature of the solutions of a quadratic equation

### 3.4 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

86 Polynomial Functions.4 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra In Section., we were focused on finding the real zeros of a polynomial function. In this section, we expand our horizons and

### 1.5. Factorisation. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes. Learning Style

Factorisation 1.5 Introduction In Block 4 we showed the way in which brackets were removed from algebraic expressions. Factorisation, which can be considered as the reverse of this process, is dealt with

### 3.3. The Factor Theorem. Investigate Determining the Factors of a Polynomial. Reflect and Respond

3.3 The Factor Theorem Focus on... factoring polynomials explaining the relationship between the linear factors of a polynomial expression and the zeros of the corresponding function modelling and solving

### Guide to SRW Section 1.7: Solving inequalities

Guide to SRW Section 1.7: Solving inequalities When you solve the equation x 2 = 9, the answer is written as two very simple equations: x = 3 (or) x = 3 The diagram of the solution is -6-5 -4-3 -2-1 0

### UNIT 3: POLYNOMIALS AND ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS. A polynomial is an algebraic expression that consists of a sum of several monomials. x n 1...

UNIT 3: POLYNOMIALS AND ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS. Polynomials: A polynomial is an algebraic expression that consists of a sum of several monomials. Remember that a monomial is an algebraic expression as ax

### Situation: Dividing Linear Expressions

Situation: Dividing Linear Expressions Date last revised: June 4, 203 Michael Ferra, Nicolina Scarpelli, Mary Ellen Graves, and Sydney Roberts Prompt: An Algebra II class has been examining the product

### it is easy to see that α = a

21. Polynomial rings Let us now turn out attention to determining the prime elements of a polynomial ring, where the coefficient ring is a field. We already know that such a polynomial ring is a UF. Therefore

### The Mean Value Theorem

The Mean Value Theorem THEOREM (The Extreme Value Theorem): If f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], then f attains an absolute maximum value f(c) and an absolute minimum value f(d) at some numbers

### 6.1 Add & Subtract Polynomial Expression & Functions

6.1 Add & Subtract Polynomial Expression & Functions Objectives 1. Know the meaning of the words term, monomial, binomial, trinomial, polynomial, degree, coefficient, like terms, polynomial funciton, quardrtic

### The Factor Theorem and a corollary of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

Math 421 Fall 2010 The Factor Theorem and a corollary of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 27 August 2010 Copyright 2006 2010 by Murray Eisenberg. All rights reserved. Prerequisites Mathematica Aside

### is identically equal to x 2 +3x +2

Partial fractions 3.6 Introduction It is often helpful to break down a complicated algebraic fraction into a sum of simpler fractions. 4x+7 For example it can be shown that has the same value as 1 + 3

### Homework # 3 Solutions

Homework # 3 Solutions February, 200 Solution (2.3.5). Noting that and ( + 3 x) x 8 = + 3 x) by Equation (2.3.) x 8 x 8 = + 3 8 by Equations (2.3.7) and (2.3.0) =3 x 8 6x2 + x 3 ) = 2 + 6x 2 + x 3 x 8

### March 29, 2011. 171S4.4 Theorems about Zeros of Polynomial Functions

MAT 171 Precalculus Algebra Dr. Claude Moore Cape Fear Community College CHAPTER 4: Polynomial and Rational Functions 4.1 Polynomial Functions and Models 4.2 Graphing Polynomial Functions 4.3 Polynomial

### 3.1. Solving linear equations. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes. Learning Style

Solving linear equations 3.1 Introduction Many problems in engineering reduce to the solution of an equation or a set of equations. An equation is a type of mathematical expression which contains one or

### Separable First Order Differential Equations

Separable First Order Differential Equations Form of Separable Equations which take the form = gx hy or These are differential equations = gxĥy, where gx is a continuous function of x and hy is a continuously

### Factoring Polynomials

Factoring Polynomials Any Any Any natural number that that that greater greater than than than 1 1can can 1 be can be be factored into into into a a a product of of of prime prime numbers. For For For

### 3.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials

3.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials 69 3.3 Real Zeros of Polynomials In Section 3., we found that we can use synthetic division to determine if a given real number is a zero of a polynomial function. This section

### 19.6. Finding a Particular Integral. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes. Learning Style

Finding a Particular Integral 19.6 Introduction We stated in Block 19.5 that the general solution of an inhomogeneous equation is the sum of the complementary function and a particular integral. We have

### Factoring Cubic Polynomials

Factoring Cubic Polynomials Robert G. Underwood 1. Introduction There are at least two ways in which using the famous Cardano formulas (1545) to factor cubic polynomials present more difficulties than

### Sect 6.7 - Solving Equations Using the Zero Product Rule

Sect 6.7 - Solving Equations Using the Zero Product Rule 116 Concept #1: Definition of a Quadratic Equation A quadratic equation is an equation that can be written in the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (referred

### LEAST SQUARES APPROXIMATION

LEAST SQUARES APPROXIMATION Another approach to approximating a function f(x) on an interval a x b is to seek an approximation p(x) with a small average error over the interval of approximation. A convenient

### 63. Graph y 1 2 x and y 2 THE FACTOR THEOREM. The Factor Theorem. Consider the polynomial function. P(x) x 2 2x 15.

9.4 (9-27) 517 Gear ratio d) For a fixed wheel size and chain ring, does the gear ratio increase or decrease as the number of teeth on the cog increases? decreases 100 80 60 40 20 27-in. wheel, 44 teeth

### Graphing Rational Functions

Graphing Rational Functions A rational function is defined here as a function that is equal to a ratio of two polynomials p(x)/q(x) such that the degree of q(x) is at least 1. Examples: is a rational function

### Introduction to Finite Fields (cont.)

Chapter 6 Introduction to Finite Fields (cont.) 6.1 Recall Theorem. Z m is a field m is a prime number. Theorem (Subfield Isomorphic to Z p ). Every finite field has the order of a power of a prime number

### Polynomials. Key Terms. quadratic equation parabola conjugates trinomial. polynomial coefficient degree monomial binomial GCF

Polynomials 5 5.1 Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials and Polynomial Functions 5.2 Multiplication of Polynomials 5.3 Division of Polynomials Problem Recognition Exercises Operations on Polynomials

### Polynomials and Vieta s Formulas

Polynomials and Vieta s Formulas Misha Lavrov ARML Practice 2/9/2014 Review problems 1 If a 0 = 0 and a n = 3a n 1 + 2, find a 100. 2 If b 0 = 0 and b n = n 2 b n 1, find b 100. Review problems 1 If a

### 7.1 Graphs of Quadratic Functions in Vertex Form

7.1 Graphs of Quadratic Functions in Vertex Form Quadratic Function in Vertex Form A quadratic function in vertex form is a function that can be written in the form f (x) = a(x! h) 2 + k where a is called

### Tim Kerins. Leaving Certificate Honours Maths - Algebra. Tim Kerins. the date

Leaving Certificate Honours Maths - Algebra the date Chapter 1 Algebra This is an important portion of the course. As well as generally accounting for 2 3 questions in examination it is the basis for many

### 2.4 Real Zeros of Polynomial Functions

SECTION 2.4 Real Zeros of Polynomial Functions 197 What you ll learn about Long Division and the Division Algorithm Remainder and Factor Theorems Synthetic Division Rational Zeros Theorem Upper and Lower

### Multiplicity. Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Multiplicity The fundamental theorem of algebra says that any polynomial of degree n 0 has exactly n roots in the complex numbers if we count with multiplicity. The zeros of a polynomial are

### 3.6. The factor theorem

3.6. The factor theorem Example 1. At the right we have drawn the graph of the polynomial y = x 4 9x 3 + 8x 36x + 16. Your problem is to write the polynomial in factored form. Does the geometry of the

### Polynomials and Factoring

Lesson 2 Polynomials and Factoring A polynomial function is a power function or the sum of two or more power functions, each of which has a nonnegative integer power. Because polynomial functions are built

### Polynomials. Dr. philippe B. laval Kennesaw State University. April 3, 2005

Polynomials Dr. philippe B. laval Kennesaw State University April 3, 2005 Abstract Handout on polynomials. The following topics are covered: Polynomial Functions End behavior Extrema Polynomial Division

### Polynomial Expressions and Equations

Polynomial Expressions and Equations This is a really close-up picture of rain. Really. The picture represents falling water broken down into molecules, each with two hydrogen atoms connected to one oxygen

### 5-3 Polynomial Functions. not in one variable because there are two variables, x. and y

y. 5-3 Polynomial Functions State the degree and leading coefficient of each polynomial in one variable. If it is not a polynomial in one variable, explain why. 1. 11x 6 5x 5 + 4x 2 coefficient of the

### Partial Fractions Examples

Partial Fractions Examples Partial fractions is the name given to a technique of integration that may be used to integrate any ratio of polynomials. A ratio of polynomials is called a rational function.

### Name: where Nx ( ) and Dx ( ) are the numerator and

Oblique and Non-linear Asymptote Activity Name: Prior Learning Reminder: Rational Functions In the past we discussed vertical and horizontal asymptotes of the graph of a rational function of the form m

### Differentiation and Integration

This material is a supplement to Appendix G of Stewart. You should read the appendix, except the last section on complex exponentials, before this material. Differentiation and Integration Suppose we have