MODULE 5 COLOR MOVEMENT

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1 MODULE 5 COLO MOVEMET Topic A. Three Color Dimensions VIDEO: VALUE, HUE, AD CHOMA efer to screen A-3v of your CD-OM for a video on the three color dimensions. Lighter The Color = Higher The Value A-2 The color wheel is a three-dimensional image of color families, with neutral gray as the center. Many people describe color in terms of what they see, such as sky blue, or grass green. These terms often cause confusion because they are not consistent. To minimize confusion, Albert Munsell developed a color theory in the early 1900s based upon three characteristics, or dimensions of color. These are: value. hue. chroma. These three dimensions are used to position colors into a logical sequence on a color tree. The main colors, located on each quarter of the wheel, are red, blue, yellow, and green. The traditional primary colors are red, blue, and yellow. Green has been added as a major hue family. Darker The Color = Lower The Value A-4 The center axis of the color wheel shows degrees of value; the lightest at the top and the darkest at the bottom. Value is one dimension of color. Value: is the degree of lightness or darkness of a color. increases as the color is lightened, and decreases as the color is darkened. is represented by the center axis of the color wheel. is pure white at the top and black at the bottom. There are varying degrees of gray between the extreme ends. is identified first when evaluating a color. The system works well for solid colors. Metallic and mica colors were not yet developed when Munsell created the color tree, so a slight change is required when working with metallics and micas. 44

2 VALUE PAEL A-4 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of different examples of value change in a color. B A-6 Chroma is the intensity of the color, moving outward from neutral to the purest form of the color on the outside rim of the color wheel. G Y Blue The third color dimension of the color wheel is chroma, which is: Green eutral ed the level of intensity of a color within a set value level. also called saturation, richness, intensity, muddiness, dirtiness, or grayness. increases as it moves outward in the color wheel, and decreases at is moves closer to the center axis. Yellow A-5 Hue is the shade of color, when moving around the color wheel. Hue is another dimension of the color wheel. Hue: CHOMA PAEL FO SOLID COLOS A-6 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of chroma change in a color. is normally considered color. As hue changes, the distinctive shade of the color changes. is also called color, cast, tint, and shade. moves around the wheel in a specific sequence, but in either direction. The direction is blue to red to yellow to green. This sequence is easy to remember using BYG. 45

3 Turquoises Purples G B Y efinish Blue Vehicle eutral Green eutral ed Limes Oranges A-7 Between the primary colors of blue, red, green, and yellow are the purples, oranges, and limes. Some colors are located between the four main colors on the color wheel. These are secondary colors. When determining the direction a secondary color must move to obtain a blendable match, the color can only move in the direction of the main color on either side, and not beyond. Therefore: purple can only move toward blue or red. orange can only move toward red or yellow. lime can only move toward green or yellow. turquoise can only move toward green or blue. Secondary colors are not considered major color groups or families because these colors are too subjective. For example, one person s perception Yellow A-8 Adjust the hue of a color by moving around the wheel, one way or the other, but not through the center. When trying to match a color, move around the color wheel. Crossing or passing through any of the four basic colors dirties the color. When referring to a hue adjustment: refer to bluer, redder, yellower, or greener for how the color should be moved. blue can be redder or greener but not bluer when describing the hue characteristics of a color in the blue family. When referring to a blue as being bluer, that is chroma. HUE MOVEMET PAELS A-8 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of colors changing hue. 46

4 Topic B. Color Charts 8/ 7/ 6/ 5/ 4/ B-1 This chart represents a horizontal slice about in the middle of the color tree. The I-CA Color Movement Chart shows colors on a horizontal slice of the color tree. The color chips are to be arranged in order for value, hue, and chroma. Arrange the chips in that order. When arranging the chips for: value, begin with white, plot the grays, and finish with black. For the metallic value scale, begin with the brightest metallic and finish with black. hue, position the four major colors first. These are the anchor chips. Start with blue on top. Arrange the secondary colors in order between the major colors. chroma, begin with the grayest at the center and move outward toward the most chromatic. For example, start with the grayest red and move out toward the reddest red. Value 3/ 2.5/ /2 /4 /6 /8 /10 /12 /14 Chroma B-2 This color chart represents a vertical slice of the color tree, using one shade of hue. The Munsell Color Chart is used as an exercise in positioning colors using a vertical slice of the color tree. Hue is constant. The color chips are arranged in order for value and chroma. MUSELL COLO CHAT Select the Activity Icon on screen B-2 of your CD-OM for an exercise on filling in a color chart that shows value and chroma. I-CA COLO MOVEMET CHAT Select the Activity Icon on screen B-1 of your CD-OM for an exercise on making a chart on color movement. 47

5 Topic C. Tinting C-1 Tint only after you ve done everything else to make the color match. Although much of the latter half of this Program discusses tinting, tinting is not done with every repair. In fact, tinting is done: only as a last resort. only to achieve a blendable match. It is impossible to completely match the vehicle color, since all the required options used at the assembly plant are not available to the refinisher. Before tinting: C-2 Most paint maker tinting systems consist of a bank of tints and a means of weighing the materials being added. If the decision is to tint, the proper equipment for tinting includes: mixing tints. measuring devices or a paint mixing scale. record keeping worksheets. Computerized systems will automatically keep a record of the tinting procedure, if the system is properly used and the data inputted. tinting guides, which define the tints that are available in the system. ensure that the color formula is correct. check the paint maker s color variance program for alternative formulas. compare the test panel to the newly cleaned vehicle in daylight or under daylight-corrected lighting. A color mismatch does not automatically mean tinting. First make sure every part of the finish matching process was done correctly. 48

6 D742 (100%) C-4 One part of a tinting guide will always be a chip of the actual color of the tint, or the tint at 100%. The available tinting guides may provide important information for a refinisher to make a decision, such as: C-3 This is a simplified drawing of mixing tints showing that there are variations of each major color group. Part of a mixing system is the bank of mixing tints that are available. In a mixing system, there are: tints in each color group. blacks, grays, and whites with different values. metallics and micas with different face and flop effects. enough tints to match all the vehicle colors used today. the appearance of the full-strength tint. the strength and effect of each tint. color movement when tints are added. hue movement. Just knowing that a tint is blue is not enough. It must be known which direction the blue is heading toward on the hue scale. A tinting guide may provide this information. EDUCTIO-EFFECT PAEL C-4 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of a panel that shows the effects of reducing colored tints with white and reducing them with metallics. TIT IDETITY PAEL C-4 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of a panel that shows how to determine the hue of a tinting base. TITIG GUIDES C-4 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of paint maker tinting guides. 49

7 B COLO: CODE TIT EFFECT AMOUT WEIGHT V G V V Y VALUE HUE CHOMA Metallics And Micas Only Flop Value Vehicle is: Lighter Darker Flop Color Vehicle is more: Blue ed Yellow Green 088 Blue Green Yellow C-6 Plotting is analyzing the tints by filling in a plotting chart. Mapping is observing where the tints in the formula are on the color wheel and guessing which one will provide a match V 024 ed C-5 Some paint makers show their tints located on a horizontal slice of the color wheel. In addition to tinting guides, some paint makers also show where the tints in the system are located on the color wheel. Knowing where the tints fall on the color wheel shows: the color family or group that the tint is in. This is not always obvious, especially when the color is very muddy. the color direction of the tint, or what hue direction the tint color is leaning toward. how chromatic the tint is, depending on the distance from the neutral gray center of the wheel. The color wheel does OT show value, since this is only one horizontal slice of the color wheel. It has already been determined that the refinish color is not a blendable match. ow it must be determined what tint must be added to the refinish color to bring it closer to the vehicle color. This Program will show two methods of determining the proper tint.. The plotting method directs the technician to use: a plotting chart to plot the refinish color, and then the vehicle color on the value, hue, and chroma scales. the information on the tints in the formula, including the amounts (weights) required and the effects of each tint, to help plot the refinish color and determine which tint to add to the refinish color to obtain a blendable match with the vehicle color. The mapping method immediately compares the refinish color to the vehicle color. This method then directs the technician to: look at where the tints are mapped on the color wheel to guess at which tint may work to obtain a blendable match with the vehicle color. obtain individual tint information from icons in the tinting guides to help verify the selection. 50

8 Topic D. Color Plotting B G Y VALUE HUE CHOMA COLO: CODE TIT EFFECT AMOUT WEIGHT COLO: Blaze ed CODE TIT ed Warm Yellow White ed Oxide EFFECT Orange Cast ed Direction Brightens H.S. ed/yellow AMOUT WEIGHT D-2 This area of the plotting chart allows recording the full color formula and effects of each. When filling out the formula portion of the color plotting chart, list the: Metallics And Micas Only Flop Value Vehicle is: Lighter Darker Flop Color Vehicle is more: Blue ed Yellow Green D-1 This is the plotting chart used in this Program. The color plotting chart that will be used: has scales for value, hue, and chroma to plot both the refinish color, then the vehicle color. lists the refinish color formula, including the tint code, name, effect, amount (or weight) recommended, and the cumulative weight as the tints are added. has an area at the bottom for indicating what the flop effect is for metallic and mica colors. color name in the Color box. The paint code and color name can also be listed here. tint code in the Code column. tint name in the Tint column. effect of each tint in the Effect column. This information is found in the tinting guide. how much of each tint in the formula, by weight, in the Amount column. total weight of the mixture in the Weight column. This is a running total of the individual tint weights from the Amount column. Some tinting systems use this cumulative weight. Other tinting systems just use the individual weights. 51

9 Dominant Tint 024 ed Orange Cast Small-Quantity Tint 001 White Brightens COLO: Blaze ed CODE TIT EFFECT AMOUT WEIGHT B G Y VALUE HUE CHOMA 051 Warm Yellow ed Direction COLO: CODE TIT EFFECT AMOUT WEIGHT High-Strength Tint 038 ed Oxide H.S. ed/yellow Metallics And Micas Only Flop Value Vehicle is: Lighter Darker Flop Color Vehicle is more: Blue ed Yellow Green D-3 Dominant tints are those that have the most amounts. Using the tinting guide and color formula to determine the strength of each tint can be helpful. For example, the: dominant tint has the most quantity. Adding the dominant tint will result in little color change, because that is what the color is closest to. small-quantity tints may change the hue quickly if they are added in large amounts. high-strength tints will change a color even when added in small amounts. D-4 The top of the plotting chart allows the color formula to be plotted along the three dimensions of the color wheel. When filling out the top portion of the color plotting chart, plot in order of value, hue, and chroma. Show the direction of the color change that is required, not the amount of change. When plotting the refinish color value, compare the amount of white and colored tints used in the formula. If: more white is used, plot the value of the refinish color above the center of the scale. more colored tints are used, plot the value of the refinish color below the center of the scale. the amount of white and colored tints are about equal, plot the value of the refinish color at the center of the scale. When plotting hue for the refinish color: use the refinish color test panel or tint names and effects. determine the color family. For example, if the color contains mostly blue, start in the blue color family. The color name may also help determine the color family. determine which direction from the major hue family the refinish color will be positioned on the color wheel. 52

10 Plot chroma for the refinish color in the middle of the axis to allow room in either direction for the vehicle color to be plotted. G B Y VALUE HUE CHOMA COLO: CODE TIT EFFECT AMOUT WEIGHT Metallics And Micas Only Flop Value Vehicle is: Lighter Darker Flop Color Vehicle is more: Blue ed Yellow Green Metallics And Micas Only Flop Value Vehicle is: Lighter Darker Flop Color Vehicle is more: Blue ed Yellow Green D-6 The bottom portion of the plotting chart allows recording of the flop appearance. When plotting metallic colors, look at both the head-on and flop views. Use the bottom portion of the plotting chart to compare flop. Determine: if the vehicle is lighter or darker than the refinish color. which hue direction the refinish color must be moved to match the vehicle color flop. METALLIC VALUE PAEL D-6 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of how the choice of metallic tint that is added to a formula that contains more than one metallic can affect the appearance of the color. D-7 Metallics can be charted on a value scale similar to the solid color value scale. Most problems with value in metallic colors are caused by too many or too few metallics. To increase value in metallics, add metallic tints that are in the formula. To decrease value in metallics, increase the darker, dominant tints relative to the metallic tints. If the colored tinting base has a higher value than the final refinish color, it may also raise the value. If the vehicle is lighter on the head-on view and has: acceptable flop, add all metallic tinting bases in roughly the same ratio as used in the formula. lighter flop, add the finest metallic in the formula. darker flop, add the coarsest metallic in the formula. Some paint makers produce metallic tinting bases designed to correct a specific problem, usually having to do with flop changes. Only use these flop modifiers following the paint maker s recommendations. METALLIC/MICA VALUE PAEL D-7 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of the effect of metallics and micas when adjusting the value of a refinish material. 53

11 VALUE CHAGE OF A METALLIC COLO D-7 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of metallic color value changes that are caused by adding color or metallic tints. ED METALLIC VALUE CHAGE PAEL D-7 of your CD-OM for a demonstration of how a refinish material s value can be changed by adding any of the tints in the formula. Chroma in metallic colors is: normally correct after proper value is achieved because it is closely related to the metallic concentration. affected by the concentration of flakes. Metallics are a gray color, so the more that are added the lower the chroma. determined by the amount of white, black, and metallic tints compared to color tints. Topic E. Mapping Method Hue Movement Flop Color Flop Value Chroma Movement Chroma Movement Color Direction Hiding Characteristic Purity Color Group E-1 Icons can show the color, direction, and flop of a tint not using any words. Hue Movement D-8 Plotting hue and chroma with metallic colors is slightly different compared to solid colors. The mapping method uses icons to help identify the tints used in a tinting system. The icons may be located on the tinting guides and the containers that hold the different tints in a mixing system. When tinting metallic colors, the ratio of colored pigments to metallic tints is important. When adjusting hue, if given the choice of two tints which would move the color in the right direction, choose the tint which will move hue the furthest while adding the least amount of tint. 54

12 The I-CA icon, which will be used in this Program, uses the: CA in the I-CA name for the major color group, either red, yellow, green, or blue. I in the I-CA name for the color direction. underlining bar to show if the tint has good or low hiding characteristics. If the underlining bar is colored with the major color group, it is a good hiding tint. If the underlining bar is blank, the tint has poor hiding. lowest bar for the purity of the tint or color. If the lowest bar is white, the color is pure. If the lowest bar is gray, the color is not so pure. arrows for flop brightness and color. If the arrow is colored, that is the flop color. If there is no colored arrow, there is no flop color change. If the arrow has a dark shadow, the flop is dark. If the arrow has a white shadow, the flop is light. If there is no arrow shadow, there is no brightness flop change. ed Group Yellower edder, Slightly Yellow edder edder, Slightly Blue Bluer E-3 Look at the color direction second when mapping solid colors. The next decision is to determine what direction the refinish color must move to become closer to the vehicle color. The direction of the tint is indicated by the color of the I in I-CA. There are always five possibilities, toward either the adjacent primary color group or toward more of the same color group. For example, for a refinish color in the red color group, the decision is should the refinish color move: redder? bluer, slightly red? bluer? bluer, slightly green? greener? E-2 Look at the color group first when mapping solid colors. The first step when using the mapping method for solid colors is to look at the vehicle and refinish colors and determine what major color group or family the color is in. This would be the nearest major color in the color wheel. Determine if the color is closest to: The icons will only show the major color direction. The location of the tints on the color wheel will show hue intensity of the tint. blue. red. yellow. green. White and black are in their own color group. 55

13 The purity of the tint is indicated by the lowest bar. A gray-colored lowest bar indicates a muddy tint. A white lowest bar indicates the tint is pure. This is similar to looking at the value of a color. Also ask if the vehicle color is muddier or dirtier than the refinish color. This is similar to looking at chroma. Hiding Characteristic E-4 A strong color that hides well will have a colored bar underneath the color group. If the tint has a good hiding characteristic, it is indicated by the colored bar under CA. The colored bar is the same color as the major color group. If the underlining bar is blank, the tint has a poor hiding characteristic. Flop Value Flop Color E-6 If the color is a metallic or mica, look at the brightness of the flop first. E-5 Determining the purity of the color is the third step when mapping a solid color. The third step when looking at solid colors with this method is to compare the purity of the vehicle color to the refinish color. Ask if the vehicle is: more white? more gray? more black? Cleaner Muddier When using the mapping method for metallics and micas, look at flop first. Start by looking at the brightness or value flop. Then look at the color flop. Flop is indicated on the icon by the arrows. The black-shaded arrow indicates a dark flop. A white shadow indicates a light flop. If there is no arrow shadow, there is no brightness flop change. A colored arrow indicates the flop color. If there is no colored arrow, there is no flop color change. From these determinations, the tints in the formula are located on the color wheel and a tint is selected. With this method, the three-step system narrows the selection of tints, but the eye is the final determining judge. 56

14 PLOTTIG BLAZE ED Select the Activity Icon on screen E-6 of your CD-OM for an exercise on plotting Blaze ed. MAPPIG BLAZE ED Select the Activity Icon on screen E-6 of your CD-OM for an exercise on mapping Blaze ed. PLOTTIG CADIAL ED Select the Activity Icon on screen E-6 of your CD-OM for an exercise on plotting Cardinal ed. MAPPIG WHITE Select the Activity Icon on screen E-6 of your CD-OM for an exercise on mapping White. PLOTTIG SATI BLUE Select the Activity Icon on screen E-6 of your CD-OM for an exercise on plotting Satin Blue MAPPIG MAOO PEAL Select the Activity Icon on screen E-6 of your CD-OM for an exercise on mapping Maroon Pearl. 57

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