Pythagorean Triples, Complex Numbers, Abelian Groups and Prime Numbers


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1 Pythagorean Triples, Complex Numbers, Abelian Groups and Prime Numbers Amnon Yekutieli Department of Mathematics Ben Gurion University Notes available at written 7 June 2015 Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 1 / 28
2 1. Pythagorean Triples 1. Pythagorean Triples A Pythagorean triple is a triple (a, b, c) of positive integers, satisfying (1.1) a 2 + b 2 = c 2. The reason for the name is, of course, because these are the sides of a right angled triangle: Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 2 / 28
3 1. Pythagorean Triples 1. Pythagorean Triples A Pythagorean triple is a triple (a, b, c) of positive integers, satisfying (1.1) a 2 + b 2 = c 2. The reason for the name is, of course, because these are the sides of a right angled triangle: Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 2 / 28
4 1. Pythagorean Triples 1. Pythagorean Triples A Pythagorean triple is a triple (a, b, c) of positive integers, satisfying (1.1) a 2 + b 2 = c 2. The reason for the name is, of course, because these are the sides of a right angled triangle: Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 2 / 28
5 1. Pythagorean Triples 1. Pythagorean Triples A Pythagorean triple is a triple (a, b, c) of positive integers, satisfying (1.1) a 2 + b 2 = c 2. The reason for the name is, of course, because these are the sides of a right angled triangle: c b a Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 2 / 28
6 1. Pythagorean Triples We say that the triples (a, b, c) and (a, b, c ) are equivalent if the corresponding triangles are similar. This means that there is a positive number r, such that or Clearly r is rational. (a, b, c ) = (ra, rb, rc) (a, b, c ) = (rb, ra, rc). We say that the triple (a, b, c) is reduced if the greatest common divisor of these numbers is 1. The triple is called ordered if a b. It is easy to see that any triple (a, b, c) is equivalent to exactly one reduced ordered triple (a, b, c ). Exercise 1.2. Let (a, b, c) be a reduced ordered triple. Then c is odd, and a < b. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 3 / 28
7 1. Pythagorean Triples We say that the triples (a, b, c) and (a, b, c ) are equivalent if the corresponding triangles are similar. This means that there is a positive number r, such that or Clearly r is rational. (a, b, c ) = (ra, rb, rc) (a, b, c ) = (rb, ra, rc). We say that the triple (a, b, c) is reduced if the greatest common divisor of these numbers is 1. The triple is called ordered if a b. It is easy to see that any triple (a, b, c) is equivalent to exactly one reduced ordered triple (a, b, c ). Exercise 1.2. Let (a, b, c) be a reduced ordered triple. Then c is odd, and a < b. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 3 / 28
8 1. Pythagorean Triples We say that the triples (a, b, c) and (a, b, c ) are equivalent if the corresponding triangles are similar. This means that there is a positive number r, such that or Clearly r is rational. (a, b, c ) = (ra, rb, rc) (a, b, c ) = (rb, ra, rc). We say that the triple (a, b, c) is reduced if the greatest common divisor of these numbers is 1. The triple is called ordered if a b. It is easy to see that any triple (a, b, c) is equivalent to exactly one reduced ordered triple (a, b, c ). Exercise 1.2. Let (a, b, c) be a reduced ordered triple. Then c is odd, and a < b. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 3 / 28
9 1. Pythagorean Triples We say that the triples (a, b, c) and (a, b, c ) are equivalent if the corresponding triangles are similar. This means that there is a positive number r, such that or Clearly r is rational. (a, b, c ) = (ra, rb, rc) (a, b, c ) = (rb, ra, rc). We say that the triple (a, b, c) is reduced if the greatest common divisor of these numbers is 1. The triple is called ordered if a b. It is easy to see that any triple (a, b, c) is equivalent to exactly one reduced ordered triple (a, b, c ). Exercise 1.2. Let (a, b, c) be a reduced ordered triple. Then c is odd, and a < b. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 3 / 28
10 1. Pythagorean Triples We say that the triples (a, b, c) and (a, b, c ) are equivalent if the corresponding triangles are similar. This means that there is a positive number r, such that or Clearly r is rational. (a, b, c ) = (ra, rb, rc) (a, b, c ) = (rb, ra, rc). We say that the triple (a, b, c) is reduced if the greatest common divisor of these numbers is 1. The triple is called ordered if a b. It is easy to see that any triple (a, b, c) is equivalent to exactly one reduced ordered triple (a, b, c ). Exercise 1.2. Let (a, b, c) be a reduced ordered triple. Then c is odd, and a < b. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 3 / 28
11 1. Pythagorean Triples Here is an interesting question: Question 1.3. triples? Are there infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean The answer is yes. This was already known to the ancient Greeks. There is a formula attributed to Euclid for presenting all Pythagorean triples, and it proves that there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. This formula is somewhat clumsy, and I will not display it. It can be found on the web, e.g. here: Later we will see a nice geometric argument, essentially based on the Euclid formula, to show there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 4 / 28
12 1. Pythagorean Triples Here is an interesting question: Question 1.3. triples? Are there infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean The answer is yes. This was already known to the ancient Greeks. There is a formula attributed to Euclid for presenting all Pythagorean triples, and it proves that there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. This formula is somewhat clumsy, and I will not display it. It can be found on the web, e.g. here: Later we will see a nice geometric argument, essentially based on the Euclid formula, to show there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 4 / 28
13 1. Pythagorean Triples Here is an interesting question: Question 1.3. triples? Are there infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean The answer is yes. This was already known to the ancient Greeks. There is a formula attributed to Euclid for presenting all Pythagorean triples, and it proves that there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. This formula is somewhat clumsy, and I will not display it. It can be found on the web, e.g. here: Later we will see a nice geometric argument, essentially based on the Euclid formula, to show there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 4 / 28
14 1. Pythagorean Triples Here is an interesting question: Question 1.3. triples? Are there infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean The answer is yes. This was already known to the ancient Greeks. There is a formula attributed to Euclid for presenting all Pythagorean triples, and it proves that there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. This formula is somewhat clumsy, and I will not display it. It can be found on the web, e.g. here: Later we will see a nice geometric argument, essentially based on the Euclid formula, to show there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 4 / 28
15 1. Pythagorean Triples Here is an interesting question: Question 1.3. triples? Are there infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean The answer is yes. This was already known to the ancient Greeks. There is a formula attributed to Euclid for presenting all Pythagorean triples, and it proves that there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. This formula is somewhat clumsy, and I will not display it. It can be found on the web, e.g. here: Later we will see a nice geometric argument, essentially based on the Euclid formula, to show there infinitely many reduced ordered triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 4 / 28
16 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
17 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
18 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
19 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
20 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
21 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
22 1. Pythagorean Triples For a given integer c > 1, let us denote by PT(c) the set of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c. A more interesting question is this: Question 1.4. What is the size of the set PT(c)? The answer to this was found in the 19th century. We will see it at the end of the lecture. An even more interesting question is this: Question 1.5. Given c, is there an effective way to find the reduced ordered Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse c? An effective method (possibly new!) will be presented at the end of the talk. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 5 / 28
23 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle It was observed a long time ago that Pythagorean triples can be encoded as complex numbers on the unit circle. Starting from a reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), we pass to the complex number z := a + b i, that has absolute value c. Consider the complex number (2.1) ζ = s + r i := z z = a c + b c i. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 6 / 28
24 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle It was observed a long time ago that Pythagorean triples can be encoded as complex numbers on the unit circle. Starting from a reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), we pass to the complex number z := a + b i, that has absolute value c. Consider the complex number (2.1) ζ = s + r i := z z = a c + b c i. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 6 / 28
25 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle It was observed a long time ago that Pythagorean triples can be encoded as complex numbers on the unit circle. Starting from a reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), we pass to the complex number z := a + b i, that has absolute value c. Consider the complex number (2.1) ζ = s + r i := z z = a c + b c i. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 6 / 28
26 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle It was observed a long time ago that Pythagorean triples can be encoded as complex numbers on the unit circle. Starting from a reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), we pass to the complex number z := a + b i, that has absolute value c. Consider the complex number (2.1) ζ = s + r i := z z = a c + b c i. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 6 / 28
27 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle The number ζ has rational coordinates, it is on the unit circle, in the second octant, and is different from i. We can recover the number z, and thus the reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), by clearing the denominators from the pair of rational numbers (r, s) = ( a b, a c ). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 7 / 28
28 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle The number ζ has rational coordinates, it is on the unit circle, in the second octant, and is different from i. c z b a We can recover the number z, and thus the reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), by clearing the denominators from the pair of rational numbers (r, s) = ( a b, a c ). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 7 / 28
29 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle The number ζ has rational coordinates, it is on the unit circle, in the second octant, and is different from i. c z b a We can recover the number z, and thus the reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c), by clearing the denominators from the pair of rational numbers (r, s) = ( a b, a c ). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 7 / 28
30 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Actually, there are 8 different numbers on the unit circle that encode the same Pythagorean triple: (2.2) ± ζ, ±i ζ, ± ζ, ±i ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 8 / 28
31 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Actually, there are 8 different numbers on the unit circle that encode the same Pythagorean triple: (2.2) ± ζ, ±i ζ, ± ζ, ±i ζ. Figure 2.3. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 8 / 28
32 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Given a complex number ζ with rational coordinates on the unit circle, other than the four special points ±1, ±i, let us denote by pt(ζ) the unique reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) that ζ encodes. In this fashion we obtain a function pt from the set of complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates (not including the four special points), to the set of reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. This function is surjective, and it is 8 to 1. Therefore, to show that there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove: Proposition 2.4. There are infinitely many complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 9 / 28
33 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Given a complex number ζ with rational coordinates on the unit circle, other than the four special points ±1, ±i, let us denote by pt(ζ) the unique reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) that ζ encodes. In this fashion we obtain a function pt from the set of complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates (not including the four special points), to the set of reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. This function is surjective, and it is 8 to 1. Therefore, to show that there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove: Proposition 2.4. There are infinitely many complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 9 / 28
34 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Given a complex number ζ with rational coordinates on the unit circle, other than the four special points ±1, ±i, let us denote by pt(ζ) the unique reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) that ζ encodes. In this fashion we obtain a function pt from the set of complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates (not including the four special points), to the set of reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. This function is surjective, and it is 8 to 1. Therefore, to show that there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove: Proposition 2.4. There are infinitely many complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 9 / 28
35 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Given a complex number ζ with rational coordinates on the unit circle, other than the four special points ±1, ±i, let us denote by pt(ζ) the unique reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) that ζ encodes. In this fashion we obtain a function pt from the set of complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates (not including the four special points), to the set of reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. This function is surjective, and it is 8 to 1. Therefore, to show that there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove: Proposition 2.4. There are infinitely many complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 9 / 28
36 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Given a complex number ζ with rational coordinates on the unit circle, other than the four special points ±1, ±i, let us denote by pt(ζ) the unique reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) that ζ encodes. In this fashion we obtain a function pt from the set of complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates (not including the four special points), to the set of reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. This function is surjective, and it is 8 to 1. Therefore, to show that there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove: Proposition 2.4. There are infinitely many complex numbers on the unit circle with rational coordinates. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 9 / 28
37 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Here is a geometric proof of the proposition. Let us denote the unit circle by S 1. The stereographic projection with focus at i is the bijective function f : S 1 {i} R, that sends the complex number ζ to the unique real number f (ζ) that lies on the straight line connecting i and ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 10 / 28
38 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Here is a geometric proof of the proposition. Let us denote the unit circle by S 1. The stereographic projection with focus at i is the bijective function f : S 1 {i} R, that sends the complex number ζ to the unique real number f (ζ) that lies on the straight line connecting i and ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 10 / 28
39 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Here is a geometric proof of the proposition. Let us denote the unit circle by S 1. The stereographic projection with focus at i is the bijective function f : S 1 {i} R, that sends the complex number ζ to the unique real number f (ζ) that lies on the straight line connecting i and ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 10 / 28
40 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Here is a geometric proof of the proposition. Let us denote the unit circle by S 1. The stereographic projection with focus at i is the bijective function f : S 1 {i} R, that sends the complex number ζ to the unique real number f (ζ) that lies on the straight line connecting i and ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 10 / 28
41 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Exercise 2.5. Show that ζ has rational coordinates iff the number f (ζ) is rational. (Hint: use similar triangles.) Since there are infinitely many rational numbers, we are done. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 11 / 28
42 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Exercise 2.5. Show that ζ has rational coordinates iff the number f (ζ) is rational. (Hint: use similar triangles.) Since there are infinitely many rational numbers, we are done. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 11 / 28
43 2. Complex Numbers on the Unit Circle Exercise 2.5. Show that ζ has rational coordinates iff the number f (ζ) is rational. (Hint: use similar triangles.) Since there are infinitely many rational numbers, we are done. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 11 / 28
44 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Previously we used the notation S 1 for the unit circle. I will now switch to another notation, that comes from algebraic geometry, and is better suited for our purposes. From now on we shall write G(R) := S 1 = {ζ C ζ = 1}. The set G(R) is a group under complex multiplication, because ζ 1 ζ 2 = ζ 1 ζ 2 and ζ 1 = ζ 1. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 12 / 28
45 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Previously we used the notation S 1 for the unit circle. I will now switch to another notation, that comes from algebraic geometry, and is better suited for our purposes. From now on we shall write G(R) := S 1 = {ζ C ζ = 1}. The set G(R) is a group under complex multiplication, because ζ 1 ζ 2 = ζ 1 ζ 2 and ζ 1 = ζ 1. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 12 / 28
46 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Previously we used the notation S 1 for the unit circle. I will now switch to another notation, that comes from algebraic geometry, and is better suited for our purposes. From now on we shall write G(R) := S 1 = {ζ C ζ = 1}. The set G(R) is a group under complex multiplication, because ζ 1 ζ 2 = ζ 1 ζ 2 and ζ 1 = ζ 1. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 12 / 28
47 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Previously we used the notation S 1 for the unit circle. I will now switch to another notation, that comes from algebraic geometry, and is better suited for our purposes. From now on we shall write G(R) := S 1 = {ζ C ζ = 1}. The set G(R) is a group under complex multiplication, because ζ 1 ζ 2 = ζ 1 ζ 2 and ζ 1 = ζ 1. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 12 / 28
48 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Previously we used the notation S 1 for the unit circle. I will now switch to another notation, that comes from algebraic geometry, and is better suited for our purposes. From now on we shall write G(R) := S 1 = {ζ C ζ = 1}. The set G(R) is a group under complex multiplication, because ζ 1 ζ 2 = ζ 1 ζ 2 and ζ 1 = ζ 1. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 12 / 28
49 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let G(Q) be the subset of G(R) consisting of points with rational coordinates; namely (3.1) G(Q) = {ζ = s + r i s, r Q, s 2 + r 2 = 1}. Exercise 3.2. Prove that G(Q) is a subgroup of G(R). Recall that to answer Question 1, namely to show there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove that the abelian group G(Q) is infinite. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 13 / 28
50 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let G(Q) be the subset of G(R) consisting of points with rational coordinates; namely (3.1) G(Q) = {ζ = s + r i s, r Q, s 2 + r 2 = 1}. Exercise 3.2. Prove that G(Q) is a subgroup of G(R). Recall that to answer Question 1, namely to show there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove that the abelian group G(Q) is infinite. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 13 / 28
51 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let G(Q) be the subset of G(R) consisting of points with rational coordinates; namely (3.1) G(Q) = {ζ = s + r i s, r Q, s 2 + r 2 = 1}. Exercise 3.2. Prove that G(Q) is a subgroup of G(R). Recall that to answer Question 1, namely to show there are infinitely many reduced ordered Pythagorean triples, it suffices to prove that the abelian group G(Q) is infinite. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 13 / 28
52 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group We first locate all the elements of finite order in the group G(Q). These are the roots of 1, namely the elements ζ satisfying ζ n = 1 for some positive integer n. Algebraic number theory tells us that there are just four of them: (3.3) 1, i, 1, i. Thus, if we take any element ζ G(Q) other than those four numbers, the cyclic subgroup that it generates will be infinite! {ζ n n Z} G(Q) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 14 / 28
53 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group We first locate all the elements of finite order in the group G(Q). These are the roots of 1, namely the elements ζ satisfying ζ n = 1 for some positive integer n. Algebraic number theory tells us that there are just four of them: (3.3) 1, i, 1, i. Thus, if we take any element ζ G(Q) other than those four numbers, the cyclic subgroup that it generates will be infinite! {ζ n n Z} G(Q) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 14 / 28
54 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group We first locate all the elements of finite order in the group G(Q). These are the roots of 1, namely the elements ζ satisfying ζ n = 1 for some positive integer n. Algebraic number theory tells us that there are just four of them: (3.3) 1, i, 1, i. Thus, if we take any element ζ G(Q) other than those four numbers, the cyclic subgroup that it generates will be infinite! {ζ n n Z} G(Q) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 14 / 28
55 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let us consider the familiar reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (3, 4, 5). The corresponding number in G(Q) is ζ := i, and it is not one of the four special numbers in (3.3). So this element has infinite order in the group G(Q). Here are the first positive powers of ζ, and the corresponding triples. n ζ n pt(ζ n ) = (a n, b n, c n ) i (3, 4, 5) i (7, 24, 25) i (44, 117, 125) i (336, 527, 625) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 15 / 28
56 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let us consider the familiar reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (3, 4, 5). The corresponding number in G(Q) is ζ := i, and it is not one of the four special numbers in (3.3). So this element has infinite order in the group G(Q). Here are the first positive powers of ζ, and the corresponding triples. n ζ n pt(ζ n ) = (a n, b n, c n ) i (3, 4, 5) i (7, 24, 25) i (44, 117, 125) i (336, 527, 625) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 15 / 28
57 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let us consider the familiar reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (3, 4, 5). The corresponding number in G(Q) is ζ := i, and it is not one of the four special numbers in (3.3). So this element has infinite order in the group G(Q). Here are the first positive powers of ζ, and the corresponding triples. n ζ n pt(ζ n ) = (a n, b n, c n ) i (3, 4, 5) i (7, 24, 25) i (44, 117, 125) i (336, 527, 625) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 15 / 28
58 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Let us consider the familiar reduced ordered Pythagorean triple (3, 4, 5). The corresponding number in G(Q) is ζ := i, and it is not one of the four special numbers in (3.3). So this element has infinite order in the group G(Q). Here are the first positive powers of ζ, and the corresponding triples. n ζ n pt(ζ n ) = (a n, b n, c n ) i (3, 4, 5) i (7, 24, 25) i (44, 117, 125) i (336, 527, 625) Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 15 / 28
59 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Exercise 3.4. Find a reduced Pythagorean triple with hypotenuse c = (Later we will see that there is only one!) Remark: the algebraic number theory used above, and all that is needed to complete the proofs in this lecture, can be found in the book Algebra, by M. Artin, PrenticeHall. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 16 / 28
60 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Exercise 3.4. Find a reduced Pythagorean triple with hypotenuse c = (Later we will see that there is only one!) Remark: the algebraic number theory used above, and all that is needed to complete the proofs in this lecture, can be found in the book Algebra, by M. Artin, PrenticeHall. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 16 / 28
61 3. The Circle as an Abelian Group Exercise 3.4. Find a reduced Pythagorean triple with hypotenuse c = (Later we will see that there is only one!) Remark: the algebraic number theory used above, and all that is needed to complete the proofs in this lecture, can be found in the book Algebra, by M. Artin, PrenticeHall. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 16 / 28
62 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Consider the ring of Gauss integers A := Z[i] = {m + n i m, n Z}. Let us denote its field of fractions by K := Q[i] = {s + r i s, r Q}. The reason we want to look at K is this: equation (3.1) shows that (4.1) G(Q) = {ζ K ζ = 1}. It is known that the ring A is a unique factorization domain. There are countably many primes in A. Let us enumerate them as q 1, q 2, q 3,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 17 / 28
63 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Consider the ring of Gauss integers A := Z[i] = {m + n i m, n Z}. Let us denote its field of fractions by K := Q[i] = {s + r i s, r Q}. The reason we want to look at K is this: equation (3.1) shows that (4.1) G(Q) = {ζ K ζ = 1}. It is known that the ring A is a unique factorization domain. There are countably many primes in A. Let us enumerate them as q 1, q 2, q 3,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 17 / 28
64 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Consider the ring of Gauss integers A := Z[i] = {m + n i m, n Z}. Let us denote its field of fractions by K := Q[i] = {s + r i s, r Q}. The reason we want to look at K is this: equation (3.1) shows that (4.1) G(Q) = {ζ K ζ = 1}. It is known that the ring A is a unique factorization domain. There are countably many primes in A. Let us enumerate them as q 1, q 2, q 3,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 17 / 28
65 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Consider the ring of Gauss integers A := Z[i] = {m + n i m, n Z}. Let us denote its field of fractions by K := Q[i] = {s + r i s, r Q}. The reason we want to look at K is this: equation (3.1) shows that (4.1) G(Q) = {ζ K ζ = 1}. It is known that the ring A is a unique factorization domain. There are countably many primes in A. Let us enumerate them as q 1, q 2, q 3,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 17 / 28
66 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Consider the ring of Gauss integers A := Z[i] = {m + n i m, n Z}. Let us denote its field of fractions by K := Q[i] = {s + r i s, r Q}. The reason we want to look at K is this: equation (3.1) shows that (4.1) G(Q) = {ζ K ζ = 1}. It is known that the ring A is a unique factorization domain. There are countably many primes in A. Let us enumerate them as q 1, q 2, q 3,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 17 / 28
67 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Consider the ring of Gauss integers A := Z[i] = {m + n i m, n Z}. Let us denote its field of fractions by K := Q[i] = {s + r i s, r Q}. The reason we want to look at K is this: equation (3.1) shows that (4.1) G(Q) = {ζ K ζ = 1}. It is known that the ring A is a unique factorization domain. There are countably many primes in A. Let us enumerate them as q 1, q 2, q 3,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 17 / 28
68 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers The group A of invertible elements of A turns out to be the group of roots of unity (4.2) T := {±1, ±i}. Unique factorization tells us that any element a K can be written uniquely a product (4.3) a = u i=1 q ni i, with u T, n i Z, and all but finitely many n i are 0 (so the product is actually finite). We see that as an abelian group, (4.4) K = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {q i } i=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 18 / 28
69 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers The group A of invertible elements of A turns out to be the group of roots of unity (4.2) T := {±1, ±i}. Unique factorization tells us that any element a K can be written uniquely a product (4.3) a = u i=1 q ni i, with u T, n i Z, and all but finitely many n i are 0 (so the product is actually finite). We see that as an abelian group, (4.4) K = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {q i } i=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 18 / 28
70 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers The group A of invertible elements of A turns out to be the group of roots of unity (4.2) T := {±1, ±i}. Unique factorization tells us that any element a K can be written uniquely a product (4.3) a = u i=1 q ni i, with u T, n i Z, and all but finitely many n i are 0 (so the product is actually finite). We see that as an abelian group, (4.4) K = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {q i } i=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 18 / 28
71 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is known that the primes of the ring A = Z[i] are of three kinds. The first kind is the prime q := 1 + i. It is the only prime divisor of 2 in A, with multiplicity 2 : q 2 = (1 + i) 2 = 1 + i i = i 2. Next let p be a prime in Z satisfying p 3 mod 4. For example p = 3 or p = 7. Then p is also prime in A. This is the second kind of primes. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 19 / 28
72 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is known that the primes of the ring A = Z[i] are of three kinds. The first kind is the prime q := 1 + i. It is the only prime divisor of 2 in A, with multiplicity 2 : q 2 = (1 + i) 2 = 1 + i i = i 2. Next let p be a prime in Z satisfying p 3 mod 4. For example p = 3 or p = 7. Then p is also prime in A. This is the second kind of primes. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 19 / 28
73 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is known that the primes of the ring A = Z[i] are of three kinds. The first kind is the prime q := 1 + i. It is the only prime divisor of 2 in A, with multiplicity 2 : q 2 = (1 + i) 2 = 1 + i i = i 2. Next let p be a prime in Z satisfying p 3 mod 4. For example p = 3 or p = 7. Then p is also prime in A. This is the second kind of primes. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 19 / 28
74 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is known that the primes of the ring A = Z[i] are of three kinds. The first kind is the prime q := 1 + i. It is the only prime divisor of 2 in A, with multiplicity 2 : q 2 = (1 + i) 2 = 1 + i i = i 2. Next let p be a prime in Z satisfying p 3 mod 4. For example p = 3 or p = 7. Then p is also prime in A. This is the second kind of primes. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 19 / 28
75 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is known that the primes of the ring A = Z[i] are of three kinds. The first kind is the prime q := 1 + i. It is the only prime divisor of 2 in A, with multiplicity 2 : q 2 = (1 + i) 2 = 1 + i i = i 2. Next let p be a prime in Z satisfying p 3 mod 4. For example p = 3 or p = 7. Then p is also prime in A. This is the second kind of primes. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 19 / 28
76 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is known that the primes of the ring A = Z[i] are of three kinds. The first kind is the prime q := 1 + i. It is the only prime divisor of 2 in A, with multiplicity 2 : q 2 = (1 + i) 2 = 1 + i i = i 2. Next let p be a prime in Z satisfying p 3 mod 4. For example p = 3 or p = 7. Then p is also prime in A. This is the second kind of primes. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 19 / 28
77 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Finally, let p be a prime of Z satisfying (4.5) p 1 mod 4. For example p = 5 or p = 13. Then there are two primes q and q in A, conjugate to each other but not equivalent (i.e. q / T q), such that (4.6) p = u q q for some u T. The numbers q, q are the third kind of primes of A. These will be the interesting primes for us. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 20 / 28
78 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Finally, let p be a prime of Z satisfying (4.5) p 1 mod 4. For example p = 5 or p = 13. Then there are two primes q and q in A, conjugate to each other but not equivalent (i.e. q / T q), such that (4.6) p = u q q for some u T. The numbers q, q are the third kind of primes of A. These will be the interesting primes for us. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 20 / 28
79 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Finally, let p be a prime of Z satisfying (4.5) p 1 mod 4. For example p = 5 or p = 13. Then there are two primes q and q in A, conjugate to each other but not equivalent (i.e. q / T q), such that (4.6) p = u q q for some u T. The numbers q, q are the third kind of primes of A. These will be the interesting primes for us. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 20 / 28
80 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Finally, let p be a prime of Z satisfying (4.5) p 1 mod 4. For example p = 5 or p = 13. Then there are two primes q and q in A, conjugate to each other but not equivalent (i.e. q / T q), such that (4.6) p = u q q for some u T. The numbers q, q are the third kind of primes of A. These will be the interesting primes for us. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 20 / 28
81 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers Finally, let p be a prime of Z satisfying (4.5) p 1 mod 4. For example p = 5 or p = 13. Then there are two primes q and q in A, conjugate to each other but not equivalent (i.e. q / T q), such that (4.6) p = u q q for some u T. The numbers q, q are the third kind of primes of A. These will be the interesting primes for us. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 20 / 28
82 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is not hard to find the decomposition (4.6). The number p is a sum of two squares in Z : p = m 2 + n 2. We then take q := m + n i and q := m n i. Consider the number (4.7) ζ := q/ q K. It has absolute value 1, and hence, by (4.1), it belongs to the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 21 / 28
83 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is not hard to find the decomposition (4.6). The number p is a sum of two squares in Z : p = m 2 + n 2. We then take q := m + n i and q := m n i. Consider the number (4.7) ζ := q/ q K. It has absolute value 1, and hence, by (4.1), it belongs to the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 21 / 28
84 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is not hard to find the decomposition (4.6). The number p is a sum of two squares in Z : p = m 2 + n 2. We then take q := m + n i and q := m n i. Consider the number (4.7) ζ := q/ q K. It has absolute value 1, and hence, by (4.1), it belongs to the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 21 / 28
85 4. The Ring of Gauss Integers It is not hard to find the decomposition (4.6). The number p is a sum of two squares in Z : p = m 2 + n 2. We then take q := m + n i and q := m n i. Consider the number (4.7) ζ := q/ q K. It has absolute value 1, and hence, by (4.1), it belongs to the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 21 / 28
86 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle There are countably many primes of Z that are 1 mod 4. Let us enumerate them in ascending order: p 1 := 5, p 2 := 13, p 3 := 17,.... Each such prime p j of Z has a prime decomposition in the ring A = Z[i] : p j = u j q j q j. We use it to define the element (5.1) ζ j := q j / q j G(Q). Thus we get a sequence of elements {ζ j } j=1,2,... in the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 22 / 28
87 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle There are countably many primes of Z that are 1 mod 4. Let us enumerate them in ascending order: p 1 := 5, p 2 := 13, p 3 := 17,.... Each such prime p j of Z has a prime decomposition in the ring A = Z[i] : p j = u j q j q j. We use it to define the element (5.1) ζ j := q j / q j G(Q). Thus we get a sequence of elements {ζ j } j=1,2,... in the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 22 / 28
88 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle There are countably many primes of Z that are 1 mod 4. Let us enumerate them in ascending order: p 1 := 5, p 2 := 13, p 3 := 17,.... Each such prime p j of Z has a prime decomposition in the ring A = Z[i] : p j = u j q j q j. We use it to define the element (5.1) ζ j := q j / q j G(Q). Thus we get a sequence of elements {ζ j } j=1,2,... in the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 22 / 28
89 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle There are countably many primes of Z that are 1 mod 4. Let us enumerate them in ascending order: p 1 := 5, p 2 := 13, p 3 := 17,.... Each such prime p j of Z has a prime decomposition in the ring A = Z[i] : p j = u j q j q j. We use it to define the element (5.1) ζ j := q j / q j G(Q). Thus we get a sequence of elements {ζ j } j=1,2,... in the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 22 / 28
90 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle There are countably many primes of Z that are 1 mod 4. Let us enumerate them in ascending order: p 1 := 5, p 2 := 13, p 3 := 17,.... Each such prime p j of Z has a prime decomposition in the ring A = Z[i] : p j = u j q j q j. We use it to define the element (5.1) ζ j := q j / q j G(Q). Thus we get a sequence of elements {ζ j } j=1,2,... in the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 22 / 28
91 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle There are countably many primes of Z that are 1 mod 4. Let us enumerate them in ascending order: p 1 := 5, p 2 := 13, p 3 := 17,.... Each such prime p j of Z has a prime decomposition in the ring A = Z[i] : p j = u j q j q j. We use it to define the element (5.1) ζ j := q j / q j G(Q). Thus we get a sequence of elements {ζ j } j=1,2,... in the group G(Q). Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 22 / 28
92 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Here is our main result. Theorem 5.2. Any element ζ G(Q) is uniquely a product ζ = u ζ j nj, j=1 with u T, n j Z, and all but finitely many of the n j are 0. In other words, the abelian group G(Q) is a product G(Q) = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {ζ j } j=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 23 / 28
93 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Here is our main result. Theorem 5.2. Any element ζ G(Q) is uniquely a product ζ = u ζ j nj, j=1 with u T, n j Z, and all but finitely many of the n j are 0. In other words, the abelian group G(Q) is a product G(Q) = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {ζ j } j=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 23 / 28
94 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Here is our main result. Theorem 5.2. Any element ζ G(Q) is uniquely a product ζ = u ζ j nj, j=1 with u T, n j Z, and all but finitely many of the n j are 0. In other words, the abelian group G(Q) is a product G(Q) = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {ζ j } j=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 23 / 28
95 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Here is our main result. Theorem 5.2. Any element ζ G(Q) is uniquely a product ζ = u ζ j nj, j=1 with u T, n j Z, and all but finitely many of the n j are 0. In other words, the abelian group G(Q) is a product G(Q) = T F, where F is the free abelian group with basis {ζ j } j=1,2,.... Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 23 / 28
96 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Sketch of Proof. Consider the prime decomposition of ζ as an element of K, as in (4.3). For each prime q i of A we calculate its absolute value q i R. The equality 1 = q i ni i=1 implies that the primes q i that do not come in pairs must have multiplicity n i = 0. The primes that do come in pairs, namely the primes of the third kind, must have opposite multiplicities. Thus they appears as powers of the corresponding number ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 24 / 28
97 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Sketch of Proof. Consider the prime decomposition of ζ as an element of K, as in (4.3). For each prime q i of A we calculate its absolute value q i R. The equality 1 = q i ni i=1 implies that the primes q i that do not come in pairs must have multiplicity n i = 0. The primes that do come in pairs, namely the primes of the third kind, must have opposite multiplicities. Thus they appears as powers of the corresponding number ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 24 / 28
98 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Sketch of Proof. Consider the prime decomposition of ζ as an element of K, as in (4.3). For each prime q i of A we calculate its absolute value q i R. The equality 1 = q i ni i=1 implies that the primes q i that do not come in pairs must have multiplicity n i = 0. The primes that do come in pairs, namely the primes of the third kind, must have opposite multiplicities. Thus they appears as powers of the corresponding number ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 24 / 28
99 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Sketch of Proof. Consider the prime decomposition of ζ as an element of K, as in (4.3). For each prime q i of A we calculate its absolute value q i R. The equality 1 = q i ni i=1 implies that the primes q i that do not come in pairs must have multiplicity n i = 0. The primes that do come in pairs, namely the primes of the third kind, must have opposite multiplicities. Thus they appears as powers of the corresponding number ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 24 / 28
100 5. The Group Structure of the Rational Circle Sketch of Proof. Consider the prime decomposition of ζ as an element of K, as in (4.3). For each prime q i of A we calculate its absolute value q i R. The equality 1 = q i ni i=1 implies that the primes q i that do not come in pairs must have multiplicity n i = 0. The primes that do come in pairs, namely the primes of the third kind, must have opposite multiplicities. Thus they appears as powers of the corresponding number ζ. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 24 / 28
101 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples Recall that for a number ζ G(Q) T, we write pt(ζ) for the corresponding reduced ordered Pythagorean triple. Here is our explicit presentation of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 25 / 28
102 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples Recall that for a number ζ G(Q) T, we write pt(ζ) for the corresponding reduced ordered Pythagorean triple. Here is our explicit presentation of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 25 / 28
103 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples Recall that for a number ζ G(Q) T, we write pt(ζ) for the corresponding reduced ordered Pythagorean triple. Here is our explicit presentation of all reduced ordered Pythagorean triples. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 25 / 28
104 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples Theorem 6.1. Let c be an integer greater than 1, with prime decomposition c = p n1 1 pn k k in Z. Here p 1 < < p k are positive primes; n 1,..., n k are positive integers; and k is a positive integer. 1. If p j 1 mod 4 for every index j, then the function {±1} k 1 PT(c), (ɛ 2,..., ɛ k ) pt(ζ n1 1 ζɛ2 n2 2 ζ ɛ k n k k ) is bijective. Here ζ j is the number defined in formula (4.7) for the prime p j. 2. Otherwise, the set PT(c) is empty. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 26 / 28
105 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples Theorem 6.1. Let c be an integer greater than 1, with prime decomposition c = p n1 1 pn k k in Z. Here p 1 < < p k are positive primes; n 1,..., n k are positive integers; and k is a positive integer. 1. If p j 1 mod 4 for every index j, then the function {±1} k 1 PT(c), (ɛ 2,..., ɛ k ) pt(ζ n1 1 ζɛ2 n2 2 ζ ɛ k n k k ) is bijective. Here ζ j is the number defined in formula (4.7) for the prime p j. 2. Otherwise, the set PT(c) is empty. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 26 / 28
106 6. Back to Pythagorean Triples Theorem 6.1. Let c be an integer greater than 1, with prime decomposition c = p n1 1 pn k k in Z. Here p 1 < < p k are positive primes; n 1,..., n k are positive integers; and k is a positive integer. 1. If p j 1 mod 4 for every index j, then the function {±1} k 1 PT(c), (ɛ 2,..., ɛ k ) pt(ζ n1 1 ζɛ2 n2 2 ζ ɛ k n k k ) is bijective. Here ζ j is the number defined in formula (4.7) for the prime p j. 2. Otherwise, the set PT(c) is empty. Amnon Yekutieli (BGU) Pythagorean Triples 26 / 28
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