1 CSCI-GA Operating Systems File Systems II Hubertus Franke
3 Abstracted by OS as files
4 A Conventional Hard Disk (Magnetic) Structure
6 Hard Disk (Magnetic) Architecture Surface = group of tracks Track = group of sectors Sector = group of bytes Cylinder: several tracks on corresponding surfaces
7 This Lecture How files and directories are stored? How disk space is managed? How to make everything work efficiently and reliably?
8 File System Layout Stored on disks Disks can have partitions with different file systems Sector 0 of the disk called MBR (Master Boot Record) MBR used to boot the computer The end of MBR contains the partition table
9 MBR and Partition Table Gives the starting and ending addresses of each partition One partition in the table is marked as active. When the computer is booted, BIOS executes MBR. MBR finds the active partition and reads its first block (called boot block) and executes it. Boot block loads the OS contained in that partition.
11 Contains the bootable code (e.g. operating system)
12 Contains all key parameters about the file system (e.g. filesystem type (magic, #-blocks,..) Is read into memory when computer is booted or file system is touched.
13 Bitmap or linked list
14 An array of data structures, one per file, telling about the file
15 Root Directory.. Think / (as in /home/user/franke )
16 Which disk blocks go with which files?
17 Implementing Files: Contiguous Allocation Store each file as a contiguous run of disk blocks After files D and F were deleted
18 Implementing Files: Contiguous Allocation + Simple to implement: Need to remember starting block address of the file and number of blocks + Read performance is excellent The entire file can be read from disk in a single operation. - Disk becomes fragmented - Need to know the final size of a file when the file is created
19 Implementing Files: Linked List Allocation Keep a file as a linked list of disk blocks The first word of each block is used as a pointer to the next one. The rest of the block is for data.
20 Implementing Files: Linked List Allocation + No (external) fragmentation + The directory entry needs just to store the disk address of the first block. - Random access is extremely slow. - The amount of data storage is no longer a power of two, because the pointer takes up a few bytes.
21 Implementing Files: Linked List Allocation Using a Table in Memory Take the pointer word from each block and put it in a table in memory. A: 4,7,2,10,12 B: 6,3,11,14 This table is called: File Allocation Table (FAT) Directory entry needs to keep a single integer: (the start block number) Main drawback: Does not scale to large disks because the table needs to be in memory all the time. FAT12, FAT16, FAT32
22 Limits of FAT Limits:
23 Implementing Files: I-nodes A data structure associated with each file Lists the attributes and disk addresses of the file blocks Need only be in memory when the corresponding file is open Aka FILE META DATA i-node=#
24 Implementing Files: I-nodes Properties: Small file access fast Everything a block Huge files can be presented Blocks
25 Implementing Directories ASCII File name Directory System Information needed to locate the disk blocks Example: Disk address of the file (in contiguous scheme) Number of the first block (in linked-list schemes) Number of the i-node,
26 Implementing Directories Where the attributes should be stored? Directly in the directory entry In the i-nodes Windows UNIX
27 Implementing Directories: Variable-Length Filenames Disadvantages: -Entries are no longer of the same length. -Variable size gaps when files are removed -A big directory may span several pages which may lead to page faults.
28 Implementing Directories: Variable-Length Filenames Keep directory entries fixed length Keep filenames in a heap at the end of the directory. Page faults can still occur while accessing filenames.
29 Implementing Directories For extremely long directories, linear search can be slow. Hashing can be used Caching can be used
30 Speeding up Continuously going to the disk is expensive e.g. /home/frankeh/nyu/best/class/ever Root -> home -> franke -> nyu -> best -> class -> ever multiple dentry (directories need to be read ) DENTRY cache
31 Shared Files Appear simultaneously in different directories
32 Shared Files: Method 1 Disk blocks are not listed in directories but in a data structure associated with the file itself (e.g. i-nodes in UNIX). Directories just point to that data structure. This approach is called: static linking Problematic Scenario
33 Shared Files: Method 2 Have the system create a new file (of type LINK). This new file contains the path name of the file to which it is linked. This approach is called: symbolic linking The main drawback is the extra overhead.
34 Log-Structured File Systems Disk seek time does not improve as fast as relative to CPU speed, disk capacity, and memory capacity. Disk caches can satisfy most requests SO: In the future, most disk accesses will be writes
35 Log-Structured File Systems Structure the entire file as a log Periodically (or when in need): All pending writes buffered in memory are collected into a single segment The segment is written in disk in contiguous space at the end of the log i-nodes now scattered over the disk An i-node map, indexed by i-number, is maintained. The map is kept on disk and is also cached. A cleaner thread scans log to compact it and discard unneeded information. E.g. file created then deleted. Disk is circular buffer, where writer add new segments at front and cleaner thread removing old from the back.
36 Journaling File System Keep a log of what the file system is going to do before it does it. Commit log to disk (now we have a record) If the system crashes before it is done, then after rebooting the log is checked and the job is finished. Example: Microsoft NTFS, Linux ext3 The logged operations must be idempotent (i.e. can be repeated as often as necessary without harm). Consider rm /home/franke/nofreelunch Remove the file from its directory Release the i-node Release all the disk blocks to the free block pool
37 Virtual File Systems Integrating multiple file systems into an orderly structure. mount
38 Disk Space Management All file systems chop files up into fixedsize blocks that need not be adjacent. Block size: Too large -> we waste space Too small -> we waste time
39 Access time for a block is completely dominated by the seek time and rotational delay. So The more data are fetched the better. (dotted) Block Size
40 Disk Space Management: Keeping Track of Free Blocks Method 1: Linked list of disk blocks, with each block holding as many free disk block numbers as possible. Method 2: Using a bitmap
41 Disk Space Management: Keeping Track of Free Blocks Free blocks are holding the free list.
42 Disk Space Management: Disk Quotas When a user opens file The attributes and disk addresses are located They are put into an open file table in memory A second table contains the quota record for every user with a currently open file.
43 Disk Space Management: Disk Quotas
44 File System Backups It is usually desirable to back up only specific directories and everything in them than the entire file system. Since immense amounts of data are typically dumped, it may be desirable to compress them. It is difficult to perform a backup on an active file system. Incremental dump: backup only the files that have been modified from last fullbackup
45 File System Backups: Physical Dump Starts at block 0 of the disk Writes all the disk blocks onto the output tape (or any other type of storage) in order. Stops when it has copied the last one. + Simplicity and great speed - Inability to skip selected directories and restore individual files.
46 File System Backups: Logical Dump Starts at one or more specified directories Recursively dumps all files and directories found there and have changed since some given base date.
47 File System Consistency Two kinds of consistency checks Blocks Files
48 File System Consistency: Blocks Build two tables, each one contains a counter for each block, initially 0 Table 1: How many times each block is present in a file Table 2: How many times a block is present in the free list A consistent file system: each block has 1 either in the first or second table
49 File System Consistency: Blocks
50 File System Consistency: Blocks Add the block to the free list Rebuild the free list Allocate a free block, make a copy of that block and give it to the other file.
51 File System Consistency: Files Table of counters; a counter per file Counts the number of that file s usage count. Compares these numbers in the table with the counts in the i-node of the file itself. Both counts must agree.
52 File System Consistency: Files Two inconsistencies: count of i-node > count in table count of i-node < count in table Fix: set the count in i-node to the correct value
53 File System Performance Caching: Block cache: a collection of blocks kept in memory for performance reasons Block Read Ahead: Get blocks into the cache before they are needed Reducing Disk Arm Motion: Putting blocks that are likely to be accessed in sequence close to each other, preferably in the same cylinder Defragmentation
54 Conclusions Files and file system are major parts of an OS. There are different ways of organizing files, directories, and their attributes. Files and File system are the OS way of abstracting storage.
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