# Lecture 19. Link. Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London

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1 Lecture 19 Link Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: Lecture 17 Slide 1 Linking between analogue and digital domains Much of the physical world is analogue in nature. Linking digital electronics as used in microprocessors and the physical world is three digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital converters. (It is common that DACs and ADCs use the American spelling of analog.) Lecture 17 Slide 2

2 Sampling and Quantization Sampling Process: convert a continuous time domain signal at discrete and uniform time intervals. Determines maximum bandwidth of sampled (ADC) or reconstructed (DAC) signal (Nyquist Sampling Theorem: sampling frequency must be at least twice that of maximum signal frequency) Frequency Domain- Aliasing for an ADC and Images for a DAC Quantization Process: convert an analogue signal with infinite resolution with a digital word having finite resolution and an analogue output which only exists in discrete levels Determines Maximum Achievable Dynamic Range Results in Quantization Error/Noise Lecture 17 Slide 3 A simplified view of a DAC V REF REFERENCE INPUT X IN [N 1: 0] DIGITAL INPUT DAC RESOLUTION = N BITS ANALOG OUTPUT V OUT = X IN[N 1: 0] 2 N V REF 1 A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) produces a quantized (discrete step) analogue output (voltage or current) in response to binary digital input. A reference quantity (either voltage or current) is accurately divided into binary and/or linear segments. The digital input drives transistor switches that connect an appropriate number of segments to the output. 2 N discrete values resulting in quantization errors. Sampling and quantization impose fundamental but predictable limitations in the system. The microcontroller on the Pyboard has 2 x 12 bit DAC converters. Lecture 17 Slide 4

3 Resolution in various forms Resolution of a ADC or DAC is dependent on the number of input data bits. This defines the quantization step, which is expressed as LSB voltage (least significant bit). Resolution can also be expressed as %, parts per million (ppm), or db relative to full scale (FS). Lecture 17 Slide 5 Common DAC architectures Simple voltage divider DAC: dividing reference voltage into equal steps. Output is guaranteed to go up if input goes up i.e. monotonic. Number of taps increases exponentially (2 n ) with number of bits. Voltage segment DAC: use two sets of voltage dividers, one for coarse steps and another for fine steps. Number of resistors reduced from 2 n to 2x2 n/2 for two segments. Could use three or more segments. R-2R Ladder DAC: same network as used in Lab 2, Task 3. Each stage has a voltage (or current) half that of the previous stage. Complexity is Order(n) or O(n), where n is the number of input bits. Lecture 17 Slide 6

4 A simplified view of a ADC Reference Input V REF Analogue Input V IN ADC RESOLUTION N BITS DIGITAL OUTPUT Y[N 1: 0] = V IN V REF (2 N 1) An ADC produces a digital output corresponding to the value of the signal applied to its input relative to a reference voltage. There are 2 N discrete values, therefore introducing error known as quantization noise. Similar effect in sampling and quantization as found in DAC. The microcontroller on the Pyboard has 3 x 12-bit ADC, capable of taking 2.4 Msamples per second. Lecture 17 Slide 7 Parallel Data Links The transmission of binary data across a link can be accomplished either in parallel mode or serial mode. In parallel mode, multiple bits are sent with each clock period. In serial mode, one bit is sent with each clock period. There are 2 subclasses of serial transmission: synchronous and asynchronous. Binary data may be organized into groups of n bits each. By grouping, we can send data n bits at a time instead of one. This is called parallel transmission. The advantage of parallel transmission is speed but its disadvantage is cost in interconnect resources. Lecture 17 Slide 8

5 Serial Data Links In serial transmission, one bit follows another, so we need only one communicating channel (or wire) to transmit data between 2 communicating modules. The advantage of serial transmission is the reduction of interconnect resources, but it takes N times longer to send the information, where N is the number of bits of data. Serial transmission occurs in one of 2 ways: asynchronous or synchronous. Serial link Asynchronous link Lecture 17 Slide 9 UART and flow control UART is a module found in many microcontroller that uses an asynchronous serial method for transferring data. The microcontroller on the Pyboard has four UART integrated on the chip. The UART signal waveform is shown below. (You have also seen this in Lab 1 and Lab 4). Physical connections between two UARTs consist of four signals: RX data receive signal (input) TX data transmit signal (output) CTS clear to send signal (input) RTS ready to send signal (output) Both devices can simultaneously send and receive data. This is known as a full duplex link. RTS and CTS are active-low signals to indicate when a device is ready to transfer data. By connecting, say, the UART on the Pyboard to the UART on the Bluetooth module in the Lab, we can control the flow of data between the two. This is called flow control mechanism. UART1 TX RX RTS CTS TX RX RTS CTS UART2 Lecture 17 Slide 10

7 Comparison of the three serial links The Pyboard has 4 UARTs, 2 each of SPI and I2C links. Micropython provides library functions to drive these interfaces. We will only use UART on this course. Lecture 17 Slide 13 Bluetooth wireless links Bluetooth is a cable replacement technology. 1Mb/s, range ~10m, much lower power than wifi and cheaper We use Bluetooth Low Energy, a version of Bluetooth that uses much less power, but also has much lower data rate (realistically less than 100kbit/s) Bluetooth standard defines a protocol stack to enable heterogeneous devices to communicate. The Bluetooth stack includes protocols for the radio layer all the way up to device discovery, service discovery, etc. Lecture 17 Slide 14

8 A video on Bluetooth Low Energy Lecture 17 Slide 15 What is RFID? Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that employs a microchip with an antenna that broadcasts its unique identifier and location to receivers. It employs a microchip called a smart tag, broadcasts unique 96-bit identifier to receiver. The receiver relays the data to a computer. A RFID Tag contains two main parts: Silicon chips Antennas These components enable tags to receive and respond to radio frequencies queries from RFID transceivers. Two types of RFIDs: Passive Active Lecture 17 Slide 16

9 RFID Tags types Passive Have no internal power supply Electrical current inducted in antenna by the incoming signal proves power for integrated circuit in tag to power up and transmit response Very Small, Limited Range, Unlimited Life Active Have their own internal power source Many operate at fixed intervals Also called beacons (broadcast own signal) Large ( coin), Much larger memories, Longer range Lecture 17 Slide 17 A video about RFID Lecture 17 Slide 18

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