# Sample Space, Events, and PROBABILITY

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1 Sample Space, Events, and PROBABILITY In this chapter, we will study the topic of probability which is used in many different areas including insurance, science, marketing, government and many other areas. Dr.Hayk Melikyan Department of Mathematics and CS nccu.edu

2 Blaise Pascal-father of modern probability gap.dcs.st- and.ac.uk uk/~history/mathematicians/pascal.html Blaise Pascal Born: 19 June 1623 in Clermont (now Clermont- Ferrand), Auvergne, France Died: 19 Aug 1662 in Paris, France In correspondence with Fermat he laid the foundation for the theory of probability. This correspondence consisted of five letters and occurred in the summer of They considered the dice problem, already studied by Cardan, and the problem of points also considered by Cardan and, around the same time, Pacioli and Tartaglia. The dice problem asks how many times one must throw a pair of dice before one expects a double six while the problem of points asks how to divide the stakes if a game of dice is incomplete. They solved the problem of points for a two player game but did not develop powerful enough mathematical methods to solve it for three or more players.

3 Pascal

4 Probability 1. Important in inferential statistics, a branch of statistics that relies on sample information to make decisions about a population. 2. Used to make decisions in the face of uncertainty.

5 Terminology 1. Random experiment: is a process or activity which produces a number of possible outcomes. The outcomes which result cannot be predicted with absolute certainty. Example 1: Flip two coins and observe the possible outcomes of heads and tails

6 Examples 2. Select two marbles without replacement from a bag containing 1 white, 1 red and 2 green marbles. 3. Roll two die and observe the sum of the points on the top faces of each die. All of the above are considered experiments.

7 Terminology Sample space: is a list of all possible outcomes of the experiment. The outcomes must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Mutually exclusive means they are distinct and non-overlapping. Exhaustive means complete. Event: is a subset of the sample space. An event can be classified as a simple event or compound event.

8 Terminology 1. Select two marbles in succession without replacement from a bag containing 1 red, 1 blue and two green marbles. 2. Observe the possible sums of points on the top faces of two dice.

9 3. Select a card from an ordinary deck of playing cards (no jokers) The sample space would consist of the 52 cards, 13 of each suit. We have 13 clubs, 13 spades, 13 hearts and 13 diamonds. A simple event: the selected card is the two of clubs. A compound event is the selected card is red (there are 26 red cards and so there are 26 simple events comprising the compound event) 4. Select a driver randomly from all drivers in the age category of (Identify the sample space, give an example of a simple event and a compound event)

10 More examples Roll two dice. Describe the sample space of this event. You can use a tree diagram to determine the sample space of this experiment. There are six outcomes on the first die {1,2,3,4,5,6} and those outcomes are represented by six branches of the tree starting from the tree trunk. For each of these six outcomes, there are six outcomes, represented by the brown branches. By the fundamental counting principle, there are 6*6=36 outcomes. They are listed on the next slide.

11 Sample space of all possible outcomes when two dice are tossed. (1,1), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4), (1,5) (1,6) (2,1), (2,2), (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), (2,6) (3,1), (3,2), (3,3), (3,4), (3,5), (3,6) (4,1), (4,2), (4,3), (4,4), (4,5), (4,6) (5,1), (5,2), (5,3), (5,4), (5,5), (5,6) (6,1), (6,2), (6,3), (6,4), (6,5), (6,6) Quite a tedious project!!

12 Probability of an event Definition: sum of the probabilities of the simple events that constitute the event. The theoretical probability of an event is defined as the number of ways the event can occur divided by the number of events of the sample space. Using mathematical notation, we have P(E) = ne ( ) ns ( ) n(e) is the number of ways the event can occur and n(s) represents the total number of events in the sample space.

13 Examples Probability of a sum of 7 when two dice are rolled. First we must calculate the number of events of the sample space. From our previous example, we know that there are 36 possible sums that can occur when two dice are rolled. Of these 36 possibilities, how many ways can a sum of seven occur? Looking back at the slide that gives the sample space we find that we can obtain a sum of seven by the outcomes { (1,6), (6,1), (2,5), (5,2), (4,3), (3,4)} There are six ways two obtain a sum of seven. The outcome (1,6) is different from (6,1) in that (1,6) means a one on the first die and a six on the second die, while a (6,1) outcome represents a six on the first die and one on the second die. ( ) The answer is P(E)= = ns ( ) ne 6 =

14 PROBABILITIES FOR SIMPLE EVENTS Given a sample space S = {e 1, e 2,..., e n }. To each simple event e i assign a real number denoted by P(e i ), called the PROBABILITY OF THE EVENT e i. These numbers can be assigned in an arbitrary manner provided the Following two conditions are satisfied: (a) The probability of a simple event is a number between 0 and 1, inclusive. That is, 0 p(e i ) 1 (b) The sum of the probabilities of all simple events in the sample space is 1. That is, P(e 1 ) + P(e 2 ) P(e n ) = 1 Any probability assignment that meets these two conditions is

15 PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT E Given an acceptable probability assignment for the simple events in a sample space S, th probability of an arbitrary event E, denoted P(E), is defined as follows: (a) P(E) = 0 if E is the empty set. (b) If E is a simple event, then P(E) has already been assigned. (c) If E is a compound event, then P(E) is the sum of the probabilities of all the simple events in E. (d) If E = S, then P(E) = P(S) = 1.

16 STEPS FOR FINDING THE PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT E (a) Set up an appropriate sample space S for the experiment. (b) Assign acceptable probabilities to the simple events in S. (c) To obtain the probability of an arbitrary event E, add the probabilities of the simple events in E.

17 Meaning of probability How do we interpret this result? What does it mean to say that the probability that a sum of seven occurs upon rolling two dice is 1/6? This is what we call the long-range probability or theoretical probability. If you rolled two dice a great number of times, in the long run the proportion of times a sum of seven came up would be approximately one-sixth. The theoretical probability uses mathematical principles to calculate this probability without doing an experiment. The theoretical probability of an event should be close to the experimental probability is the experiment is repeated a great number of times.

18 Some properties of probability 1 0 pe ( ) 1 The first property states that the probability of any event will always be a decimal or fraction that is between 0 and 1 (inclusive). If P(E) is 0, we say that event E is an impossible event. If p(e) = 1, we call event E a certain event. Some have said that there are two certainties in life: death and taxes. 2. PE ( ) + PE ( ) + PE ( ) +... = The second property states that the sum of all the individual probabilities of each event of the sample space must equal one.

19 Examples A quiz contains a multiple-choice question with five possible answers, only one of which is correct. A student plans to guess the answer. a) What is sample space? b) Assign probabilities to the simple events c) Probability student guesses the wrong answer d) Probability student guesses the correct answer.

20 Three approaches to assigning probabilities 1. Classical approach. This type of probability relies upon mathematical laws. Assumes all simple events are equally likely. Probability of an event E = p(e) = (number of favorable outcomes of E)/(number of total outcomes in the sample space) This approach is also called theoretical probability. The example of finding the probability of a sum of seven when two dice are tossed is an example of the classical approach.

21 Example of classical probability Example: Toss two coins. Find the probability of at least one head appearing. Solution: At least one head is interpreted as one head or two heads. Step 1: Find the sample space:{ HH, HT, TH, TT} There are four possible outcomes. Step 2: How many outcomes of the event at least one head Answer: 3 : { HH, HT, TH} ne ( ) ns ( ) Step 3: Use PE)= = ¾ = 0.75 = 75%

22 Relative Frequency Also called Empirical probability. Relies upon the long run relative frequency of an event. For example, out of the last 1000 statistics students, 15 % of the students received an A. Thus, the empirical probability that a student receives an A is Example 2: Batting average of a major league ball player can be interpreted as the probability that he gets a hit on a given at bat.

23 Subjective Approach 1. Classical approach not reasonable 2. No history of outcomes. Subjective approach: The degree of belief we hold in the occurrence of an event. Example in sports: Probability that San Antonio Spurs will win the NBA title. Example 2: Probability of a nuclear meltdown in a certain reactor.

24 Example The manager of a records store has kept track of the number of CD s sold of a particular type per day. On the basis of this information, the manager produced the following list of the number of daily sales: Number of CDs Probability

25 Example continued 1. define the experiment as the number of CD s sold tomorrow. Define the sample space 2. Prob( number of CD s sold > 3) 3. Prob of selling five CD s 4. Prob that number of CD s sold is between 1 and 5? 5. probability of selling 6 CD s

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