Prime Chemicals-Pakistan

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1 Acid Bright Zinc Bath ZincoBright, PC-475 Introduction This low-acid acid zinc process produces mirror-bright, ductile and corrosion resistant zinc finishes on barrel- and jig articles of iron and steel. The additives of this process are highly concentrated, leading to a very low consumption of brightener and make-up solution. The brightness is uniform over the whole area of current density, without any dull deposit in the area of low current density and without any burning in the area of high current density. Even in the area of low current density the thickness of the zinc layer is hardly affected by the high brightness. Altogether this process combines the positive features of a very low consumption and high brightness over the whole area of current density without compromise. Make-up (for 100 ltrs.) 4 10 kgs Zinc Chloride (best 6 kgs) kgs Potassium /Zinc conducting Salt (best 20 kgs) 2 3,5 kgs Boric acid ltrs. Make-up Solution ZincoBright, PC-475M ltrs. Brightener ZincoBright, PC-475R In case you are working with Ammonium instead of Potassium you need: kgs Ammonium Operating Conditions Bath tempreature C ph-value Cathodic current density A/dm2 Tanks Hard rubber lined tanks of iron or plastic are suitable for this purpose. An article agitation is recommended for still baths. Moreover filtration facilities should be provided for - a continuous filtration is recommended. Anodes Ph: & 46 Fax: Page 1

2 Anodes made of pure rolled zinc, 99,99 % are to be used, preferably in anode bags. The ratio anode surface - article surface should be approx. 1 : 1. Standard values Zinc Chloride Boric acid grms./ltr grms./ltr grms./ltr. For the initial make-up of an acid zinc bath it is recommendable to dissolve the salts in warm water - approx. 60 % of the final volume. Cold water can be used for addition of the rest water quantity. After adjustment of the ph-value the required quantity of make-up solution and brightener must be added. A thorough filtration after make-up avoids the deposition of rough layers. Consumption per Ah: (at temperatures of C) Brightener ZincoBright PC-475R ltrs. Make-up Solution ZincoBright PC-475M ltrs. (depending on the drag-out and degreasing level of the parts) Consumption per Ah: (at temperatures of C) Brightener ZincoBright, PC-475R ltrs. Make-up Solution ZincoBright, PC-475M ltrs. (depending on the drag-out and degreasing level of the parts) Special additives To facilitate the plating at higher temperatures i.e. above 35 C a special wetting agent PC-475S may be used. The use of PC-475S minimizes the effect of Temperature on quality. Operating sequence After a thorough degreasing and acid dipping the parts are zinc plated. Then the bright zinc plated articles are very well rinsed, passivated and possibly immersed and dried. This procedure will improve the corrosion resistance considerably. General remarks PC ZincoBright additives have a high temperature stability and therefore these bright zinc baths can still be operated well at very high temperatures. This is why in most of the cases the cooling of the bath can be reduced to a minimum. The consumption rates can be kept low if the bath is well operated. If, however, oil or dirt is brought into the electrolyte, this will result in an emulgation of part of the wetting Ph: & 46 Fax: Page 2

3 agent so that a higher quantity of make-up solution has to be added. The exact quantity has to be determined during hull cell tests. Furthermore it is necessary to adjust the ph-value of the zinc bath in regular intervals by means of a NaOH- or HCl-solution. Metal parts, especially those of copper or brass, fallen into the bath, are to remove immediately. Safety Measures In order to ensure a safe handling of our product, please study the Safety Instruction in the resp. Material Safety Data Sheet before use. The information herein is given to the best of our knowledge and for your advice. As the correct handling of our products and processes is beyond our control we must disclaim any liability with respect to the use of any material supplied by us. We only guarantee the quality of our products at the time of delivery. In case of problems during the application please contact us immediately. Acid Zinc Troubleshooting Guide Problem Black spots on deposit before and/or after chromating. High-currentdensity darker after chromating. Possible Cause Iron contamination (More than 100 ppm) Corrective Action Check the bottom of the tank for parts that have fallen off racks or out of barrels. Treat with hydrogen peroxide. Add 0.25 to 0.5 pint of 30 to 35 pct hydrogen peroxide per 1,000 gal of solution volume. The hydrogen peroxide should be diluted at least 3:1 with water before addition to the tank. The precipitated ferric hydroxide is removed by filtration. If filtering is insufficient, the precipitated iron will again dissolve back into solution and the spots will reappear. Deposit staining or black after chromating White staining Copper contamination (5 to 10 ppm) and/or Cadmium contamination (10 to 20 ppm) Poor rinsing and/or high brightener Electrolyze solution at A/dm 2 for eight to 12 hr. Zinc dust treat at one lb per 1,000 gal of solution and filter out zinc particles so as to redissolve the materials back into the bath Improve rinsing Add 0.5 fl/oz of hydrochloric acid to the first rinse after the plating tank No deposit in low-currentdensity Chromium contamination (200 ppm) Add one oz/gal sodium hydrosulfite per 100 gal of solution per 100 ppm of chromium to be removed Zinc dust treat at one lb per 1,000 gal of solution and filter out zinc particles so as not to redissolve the metals back into the bath Poor adhesion and/or blisters Chromium contamination (10 to 20 ppm) Poor cleaning and/or rinsing Organic contamination Electrolyze solution at two to five asf for eight to 12 hr add one oz/gal sodium hydrosulfite per 100 gal of solution per 100 ppm of chromium to be removed Improve cleaning, pickling and/or rinsing Filter the solution through a carbon filter pack Ph: & 46 Fax: Page 3

4 Dull deposit in lowcurrent-density (one to 20 asf) Dark band in medium current density range(20 to 30 asf) Dull or poor coverage medium-current-density to low-current-density Dull deposit across the entire current density range Bright, brittle deposit over 40 asf Pitted deposit in mediumcurrent-density to lowcurrent-density Low Low temperature Low brightener High temperature Iron contamination Low brightener High temperature Low brightener Poor surface preparation Excessive addition of hydrogen peroxide Lower wetter High ammonia and/or Trivalent chromium ( ppm) Analyze and adjust Check and adjust to recommended range Add in 0.5 pct by volume increments until optimum deposit is Add in 0.5 pct by volume increments until optimum deposit is Lower to recommended range. Treat with hydrogen peroxide. Add 0.25 to 0.5 pint of 30 to 35 pct hydrogen peroxide per 1,000 gal of solution volume. The hydrogen peroxide should be diluted at least 3:1 with water before addition to the tank. The precipitated ferric hydroxide is removed by filtration. Add in brightener 0.05 pct by volume increments until optimum deposit is Lower to recommended range Add in brightener 0.05 pct by volume increments until optimum deposit is Improve cleaning, pickling and/or rinsing Leave air agitation on during shutdowns to help dissipate excess peroxide. Add up to 100 ml of brightener per 100 gal of plating solution. Add in wetter 0.5 pct by volume increments until optimum desposit is Remove with filtration Ph: & 46 Fax: Page 4

5 Streaky deposit Soft, spongy or burnt deposit in high-currentdensity Rough deposit Poor cleaning and/or rinsing Low zinc Iron contamination Anode particles in solution Poor cleaning and/or rinsing Trivalent chromium Improve cleaning, pickling and/or rinsing achieved. Treat with hydrogen peroxide. Add 0.25 to 0.5 pint of 30 to 35 pct hydrogen peroxide per 1,000 gal of solution volume. The hydrogen peroxide should be diluted at least 3:1 with water before addition to the tank. The precipitated ferric hydroxide is removed by filtration. Filter the solution Check anode bags for tears and/or holes Improve cleaning, pickling, and/or rinsing achieved. Remove with filtration Analysis Sample Preparation Take the sample at a homogeneously mixed position and let it cool down to room temperature. If dull, allow to settle and decant or filter. Zinc Reagents: 0.1 N EDTA (Titriplex III), buffer solution (100 g NaOH and 240 ml 98 % acetic acid per 1000 ml), indicator xylenol orange tetrasodium salt 1 % in KNO3 Process: Pipette 5 ml bath solution into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer beaker, dilute with 100 ml demineralised water, add 20 ml buffer solution and a spatula tip of indicator. Titrate with 0.1 N EDTA from red to yellow. Calculation: consumption in ml = g/l zinc Correction: Increase by 1 g/l = Addition of 2 g/l zinc Chloride Reagents: 0.1 N silver nitrate solution, indicator (5 g K2Cr2O NaHCO3) or 5 % potassium chromate solution Process: Pipette 1 ml bath solution into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer beaker, dilute with 100 ml demineralised water, add indicator and titrate with 0.1 N silver nitrate from yellow to brown. Calculation: consumption in ml = g/l Correction: Increase by 1 g/l = Addition of 2 g/l potassium Boric Acid Reagents: 0.1 N NaOH, mannitol, EDTA sodium salt, 15 % NaOH Process: Pipette 10 ml bath solution into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer beaker. After addition of 50 ml demineralised water and 2-4 g EDTA, adjust a ph of 7.9 with 15 % NaOH solution. Add 2 g mannitol to the clear solution and titrate with 0.1 N NaOH to a ph of 7.9. Calculation: consumption in ml = g/l boric acid Ph: & 46 Fax: Page 5

6 Guarantee Our guarantee extends to the continuous quality of our products as they leave our factory and not to their usage in the field. Our technical service will be pleased to answer any question you may have concerning operation and use of our products: Fax: +92(42) , Tel.: +92(42) , Prime Chemicals Pakistan Ph: & 46 Fax: Page 6

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