Wyoming STATE BOARD OF NURSING

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1 David D. Freudenthal Governor Wyoming STATE BOARD OF NURSING Mary Kay Goetter, PhD, RNC, NEA-BC Executive Director 1810 Pioneer Avenue Cheyenne, Wyoming Phone: FAX: MEMORANDUM TO: IV THERAPY INSTRUCTORS FEBRUARY, 2010 FROM: WSBN PRACTICE AND EDUCATION CONSULTANT SUBJECT: BASIC INTRAVENOUS THERAPY REFRESHER COURSE FOR LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES OVERALL OBJECTIVE: To establish acceptable standards for continuing education for a basic refresher course in IV therapy for Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) who wish to renew IV therapy certification in the state of Wyoming. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDENTS: Participants must have successfully passed a Basic IV Therapy Course for practical nurses and possess a current license to practice practical nursing in the State of Wyoming. GENERAL COURSE OBJECTIVES; At the completion of all course instruction, the student will: 1. List the policies, procedures, rules and regulations that govern the Licensed Practical Nurse in Wyoming when administering and managing IV therapy; 2. List legal implications when administering and managing IV therapy; 3. Demonstrate verbally and/or in writing a basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the adult circulatory system; 4. Identify the role of fluid and electrolytes in maintenance of homeostasis; 5. Identify the principles of pharmacology as they relate to IV therapy; 6. Demonstrate a knowledge of the drugs and solutions commonly used in IV therapy and discuss their action, correct dosage, and adverse effects; 7. Demonstrate safe use of selected IV equipment; 8. Demonstrate the ability to correctly calculate flow rate and regulate selected infusions; 9. Demonstrate the ability to safely perform venipunctures with selected equipment; 10. Demonstrate safe, effective care of patients receiving IV therapy and discuss the signs and symptoms; 11. List the complications that may occur from IV therapy and discuss the signs and symptoms; and 12. Outline the nursing action to be taken if complications occur.

2 Scope of Practice outlined in Advisory Opinion : A. The LPN who has satisfactorily completed a basic course of IV therapy for LPNs may perform the following functions and duties in addition to those identified above, relating to the administration and management of intravenous therapy under the direction of a registered professional nurse, physician or dentist: 1. Initiate the administration of board-approved IV fluids and medications via the peripheral route: The peripheral route does not include midline catheters. 2. Administer IV fluids and medications including electrolyte solutions with vitamins and/or potassium, antibiotics and hydrogen receptor blockers provided such fluids and medications are appropriate for IV administration; 3. Change IV tubing(s) and dressings; 4. IV fluids and medications must be commercially prepared or premixed and labeled by a registered pharmacist. 5. Maintain patency of a peripheral intermittent vascular access device using a saline flush solution or non-therapeutic dose of heparin flush solution; 6. Monitor a patient controlled administration (PCA) pump and collect data from a PCA pump; 7. Perform phlebotomy; and 8. Activate a drug addmixture delivery system that has been prepared and labeled by a pharmacist, registered nurse or other qualified person. The licensed practical nurse certified in basic IV therapy shall not: 1. Initiate, regulate, add, or administer medications to or discontinue a midline, or central venous line; 2. Administer or add the following to a peripheral venous line: i. IV push or bolus medications; or ii. IV medications other than those identified above; 3. Inject medication into an auxiliary fluid chamber; 4. Mix or label IV medications or total parenteral nutrition (TPN); 5. Program or change the re-program a PCA pump; 6. Administer blood, blood components, plasma, plasma expanders; 7. Administer analgesics, antineoplastics, autonomic nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents, central nervous system agents, oxytoxic agents, or radiologic agents; 8. Initiate and/or maintain pediatric IV therapy (aged twelve (12) years and under); nor discontinue pediatric IV therapy (aged birth to four (4)years); 9. Flush or aspirate an central venous line or arterial line; or 10. Perform basic acts of IV therapy as listed in this section in the home setting. GENERAL COURSE REQUIREMENTS; 1. The Basic Intravenous Therapy for Licensed Practical Nurses Refresher Courses is offered and administered by a licensed health care agency, approved provider of continuing education or nursing program in an institution of higher education. 2. The length of the course shall be a minimum of 6 hours classroom, and 2 hours clinical experience. The didactic portion of the course must be completed within three weeks or within the confines of an academic course. 3. Class attendance is mandatory. Any classes missed must be made up at the convenience of the instructor.

3 4. A final practicum examination will include demonstration of a minimum of one supervised successful venipuncture and infusion set up. 5. Graduates of this course will receive a "Certificate of Completion." FACULTY QUALIFICATIONS: 1. Hold a current license to practice as a registered professional nurse in Wyoming (Registered in at least one state if employed in a federal institution.). 2. A currently licensed registered professional nurse who has had recent experience in performing IV therapy may be utilized to provide clinical supervision and assist in classroom teaching. COURSE DESCRIPTION: This Basic Intravenous Therapy for Licensed Practical Nurses Refresher Course is directed toward establishing acceptable standards so the student is able to demonstrate the skills and knowledge needed to administer and manage IV therapy. Basic Guidelines include: background information; legal aspects of IV system; fluid and electrolyte balance; procedure for venipuncture; prevention and assessment of complications; principles of pharmacology as related to IV therapy; and demonstration of required skills. GENERAL COURSE REQUIREMENTS: A. Teaching methods include classroom lectures, demonstration, return demonstration, supervised clinical practice, and classroom and clinical performance evaluations. B. A final practicum examination will include demonstration of a minimum of one supervised successful venipuncture and infusion set-up. C. Students ARE NOT TO perform a venipuncture on a fellow student.

4 CRITICAL CRITERIA FOR CLINICAL PRACTICUM Student s Name: Faculty Name: A. Aseptic Technique Maintain aseptic technique at all times throughout preparation, insertion procedure, device securement, & accessing the line Perform hand hygiene before procedure Wear gloves during insertion & securement, as well as at any time exposure to bloodborne pathogens is possible B. Gather Equipment Gloves Sterile disposable I.V. infusion set Safety IV catheter of appropriate gauge size for required therapy Arm board (PRN per facility protocol depending on age & mental status of patient) Disposable tourniquet Agency approved skin preparation solution Agency approved catheter stabilization dressing Tape (IV start kit may be substituted for individual components) Prescribed solution All equipment for IV insertion & medication administration is SINGLE PATIENT USE ONLY C. Preparation of solution Verify doctor s orders Check solution for particulate matter and discoloration Check containers for leaks and cracks Check expiration date on solution Check for vacuum at time seal is broken Use equipment appropriate to solution container D. Assemble I.V. Equipment Unwrap and inspect I.V. tubing Clamp tubing, uncap spike & insert into solution container Squeeze drip chamber Release drip chamber and invert IV tubing Open clamp and fill tubing Check for and remove any air bubbles Load infusion pump, if used, appropriately E. Venipuncture Wash hands before procedure, don gloves Verify client using 2 patient identifiers Verify any allergies

5 Prepare client for procedure, obtain verbal consent to proceed Assure all necessary equipment is available at bedside Place tourniquet 6-12 above intended insertion site Select most appropriate distal venous site Use appropriate technique to dilate or distend vein Prepare area with facility approved antiseptic agent, maintain aseptic technique at all times Provide a minimum 15 second aseptic scrub to insertion site Insert device using correct method, advance catheter to hub, occlude vessel above catheter (to control blood flow), & activate safety mechanism to remove needle from working area Dress insertion site appropriately Remove the tourniquet, apply extension set PRN per facility protocol Attach catheter to end of tubing or extension set using aseptic technique Stabilize extremity as needed using arm board or other supportive devices Calculate infusion rate correctly Adjust flow rate to specified infusion rate or enter correct pump settings for infusion Use appropriate comfort measures F. Skills checklist. Important Steps in Care of Client Flush with appropriate flush solution before AND after medication infusion to prevent catheter occlusion. Clamp line after infusion if indicated in facility protocol Drip chamber should be 1/2-2/3 full Observe that I.V. is dripping (patency of line) Observe & maintain correct rate of flow Check for kinks in tubing Maintain optimal infusion position for client s extremity Check for leakage around area of catheter insertion Check for signs of infiltration around catheter site at facility-specified intervals (redness, swelling, pain, hematoma formation) Document condition of site correctly at established intervals Don gloves. Remove any device if extremity demonstrates redness, edema, pain, or bruising. Dress per facility protocol Remove any device more than hours old, or at interval ordered by physician Correctly calculate & document Intake and Output Discontinue catheter and infusion equipment in appropriate & safe manner per facility protocol Check tip integrity of catheter upon removal from client, respond appropriately if catheter is compromised Document as required in facility protocol, with a minimum entry of gauge device placed, date/time, how client tolerated procedure & instructions given (on insertion and discontinuation of line)

6 G. Infusion Pumps Demonstrate knowledge as to when pumps should be used Set up pump using aseptic technique according to manufacturers instructions and physician s order for therapy Label IV tubings per facility protocol Check all alarms and turn them on Instruct client re: pump, alarms & when to call nursing staff Check pump settings, infusion, & insertion site at intervals established in facility protocol

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